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Philippine American Literature


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Historical Development on Philippine American Literature

21st century Literature Philippine & the World

K to 12 Program

Published in: Education

Philippine American Literature

  1. 1. Philippine American Literature Josefino T. Larena ,CPS,CPE,MPA
  2. 2. Learning OBJECTIVE • To know the influence of the American in literature • To know Famous Filipino writes in this period • The form of Literature • The History of Philippine American Literature
  3. 3. Historical Background • Philippine Independence • Philippine – American conflicts • 1900s – peace movements
  4. 4. Literature • Desire for freedom • Love of country • Fight against colonialism and imperialism
  5. 5. Literature • characterized by: • Nationalism • freedom of speech • experience • search for and use of a new medium
  6. 6. American Influences • schools • new education system • cleanliness and hygiene • English language • politics • freedom of speech
  7. 7. Academic Influences
  8. 8. Newspaper • El Grito del Pueblo – Pascual Poblete - 1900 • El Nuevo Dia – Sergio Osmena - 1900 • El Renacimiento – Rafael Palma - 1900 • Manila Daily Bulletin - 1900
  9. 9. Three Groups of Writers • Spanish • English • Filipino
  10. 10. Three Group of Writers • The writers in Spanish were accustomed to write on nationalism like honoring Rizal and other heroes. • Cecilio Apostol, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Jesus Balmori, Manuel Bernabe and Claro M. Recto
  11. 11. Cecelio Apostol • masterpiece - A Rizal his poems were used to teach the Spanish language (RA 1881) pen name - Catulo
  12. 12. Fernando Maria Guerrero • >masterpiece - Crisalidas • Prince of Filipino lyric poets in Spanish favourite theme – eternal sadness of things
  13. 13. Claro M. Recto • Bajos Los Cocoteros • Father of Philippine Constitution • Author of the Rizal Law R.A. 1425
  14. 14. Jesus Balmori • Mi Casa de Nipa, Mi Choza de Nipa • pen name - Batikuling • Premio Zobel award for his contributions to Philippine Literature • Poet Laureate in Spanish
  15. 15. Manuel Bernabe • translated Omar Khayyam’s Rubaiyat in Spanish • King of Balagtasan in Spanish
  16. 16. Three Groups of Writers • The writers in Tagalog continued in their lamentations on the conditions of the country and their attempts to arouse love for one’s native tongue
  17. 17. Three Groups of Writers • Poets of the Heart (Makata ng Puso) • Lope K. Santos, Iñigo Ed. Regalado, Carlos Gatmaitan, Pedro Deogracias del Rosario, Ildefonso Santos, Amado V. Hernandez, Nemecio Carabana, and Mar Antonio
  18. 18. Vicente C. Aquino • VICENTE C. Aquino of San Narciso in Zambales, father of iconic Philippine poet: SAWI Aquino. The father's oration " IN BEHALF of CHINA" won first place in 1927 College Oratorical Contest in Silliman University.
  19. 19. Three Groups of Writes Poets of the Stage • Poets of Life (Makata ng Buhay) • Lope K Santos, Jose Corazon de Jesus, Florentino Collantes, Patricio Mariano, Carlos Gatmaitan, and Amado V. Hernandez. • Poets of the Stage (Makata ng Tanghalan) Aurelio Tolentino, Patricio Mariano, Severino Reyes, and Tomas Remigio
  20. 20. Lope K .Santos • a novelist, poet, labor leader, governor, senator, and the Father of the Philippine National Language and Grammar was born in Pasig. He finished his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1912 at the Escuela Derecho de Manila (now the Manila Law College Foundation). He wrote "Balarila ng Wikang Pambansa" which became the basis for the grammar of the Filipino language while his "Banaag at Sikat", the first Tagalog sociological novel, earned him the title “Pillar of Philippine Literature.”
  21. 21. Amado V. Hernandez • masterpiece - Luha ng Buwaya, Ang Panday Isang Dipang Langit • First King of Balagtasan • A Pillar in Tagalog Literature • National Artist in Literature
  22. 22. Jose Corazon de Jesus • Masterpiece – Ang Isang Punongkahoy (a Tree) • Bayan Ko • Huseng Batute • The Legendary Lyric Poet • King of Balagtasan
  23. 23. Aurelino Tolentino • Kapampangan Writer • Aurelio Tolentino (October 13, 1867 – July 5, 1915) is considered one of the greatest writers in the annals of Tagalog literature. • A member of the revolutionary organization Katipunan who worked alongside Andres Bonifacio, Aurelio Tolentino was imprisoned by the Spaniards for his activities. He was one of the signatories of the Declaration of Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite, on June 12, 1898. It was after the Philippine revolution that Tolentino concentrated on writing. He wrote plays and novels not only in Spanish and Tagalog, but also in Kapampangan, as he was a native speaker born in Guagua, Pampanga.
  24. 24. Severino Reyes • Severino Reyes was a Filipino writer, playwright, and director of plays. He used the pen name Lola Basyang. He was nicknamed "Don Binoy". Reyes is known as the "Father of Tagalog Plays" and as the "Father of the Tagalog Zarzuela"
  25. 25. Three Groups of Writes • The writers in English imitated the themes and methods of the Americans. • The Period of Re-orientation: 1898-1910 • The Period of Imitation: 1910-1925 • The Period of Self-Discovery: 1925-1941
  26. 26. The Period of Reorientation • 1900 – English – medium of instruction in the public schools • El Renacimiento – Rafael Palma – 1901 • Philippines Free Press – 1905 • Sursum Corda – Justo Juliano – 1907 – first work published in English • My Mother and Air Castles – Juan F. Salazar 1909
  27. 27. The Period of Imitation • 1919 – UP College Folio • 1920 – Bulletin, Philippine Herald • 1924 – The Philippine Review, the Independent, Rising Philippines and Citizens, and the Philippine Education Magazine.
  28. 28. The Period of Self -Discovery • Writers had acquired the mastery of English writing; confident and competent
  29. 29. Essays • scholarly and characterized by sobriety, substance and structure • serious essay, especially the editorial type Carlos P. Romulo, Jorge C. Bocobo, Mauro Mendez, and Vicente Hilario
  30. 30. Essays • Political, social reflective essays (through newspaper columns) • Critical essays • Personal or Familiar essays
  31. 31. Informal Essays • works are spiced with humor, wit, and satire Ignacio Manlapaz, Godefredo Rivera, Federico Mangahas, Francisco B. Icasiano, Salvador P. Lopez, Jose Lansang and Amando G. Dayrit
  32. 32. Short Stories • Short Stories • Imitation of foreign models • Ignacio Manlapaz, Godefredo Rivera, Federico Mangahas, Francisco B. Icasiano, Salvador P. Lopez, Jose Lansang and Amando G. Dayrit
  33. 33. Francisco Benitez • Francisco F. Benitez (June 4, 1887-June 30, 1951) was an outstanding educator, author, editor, and the first dean of the School of Education of the University of the Philippines (UP). He studied at thePhilippine Normal College in 1904 and became one of the first pensionados sent to the United States in 1905. He attended the Western Illinois State Normal College in 1908. Benitez obtained a Bachelor of Science in Education (1910) and a Master of Arts (1914) from Columbia University. He received a Doctor of Laws (honoris causa) from the University of Manila in 1929 and a Doctor of Education (honoris causa) from the National University in 1951. • became the director of the Office of Private Education and Secretary of Public Instructions in 1946. Some of his published works include the Educatinal Progress in the Philippines and Studies of Great Filipinos. Benitez was the recipient of the "Teacher of Teachers Award" from President Elpidio Quirino in 1948 and the Teacher of the Year Award from the UP College of Education Alumni in 1950.
  34. 34. Zoilo Galang • Zoilo Galang is the Filipino author of the first Philippine novel written in the English language, A Child of Sorrow, published in 1921
  35. 35. Carlos P. Romulo • Carlos Peña Romulo, QSC PLH (14 January 1899 – 15 December 1985) was a Filipino diplomat, statesman, soldier, journalist and author. He was a reporter at 16, a newspaper editor by the age of 20, and a publisher at 32. He was a co-founder of the Boy Scouts of the Philippines, a general in the US Army and the Philippine Army, university president, President of the UN General Assembly, was eventually named one of the Philippines' National Artists in Literature
  36. 36. Jose Garcia Villa • Filipino poet, literary critic, short story writer, and painter. He was awarded the National Artist of the Philippines title for literature in 1973
  37. 37. Rafael Zulueta de Costa • he Filipino writing in English was somewhat formal and imitative from the Spanish literature brought in during the Spanish rule in the country. Grammatical expressions and terms used were awkward and unpolished. Filipino writers found difficulties in the use of prepositions and pronouns, thus the quality of their works were quite poor. • However, after several years of painful endeavor of the Filipino writes and the establishment of publication, newspapers and magazines, brought about distinguishing improvement in their works. Filipinos received much encouragement and more influential group of writers were found
  38. 38. Salvador P. Lopez Filipino writer, journalist, educator, diplomat and statesman. He studied at the University of the Philippines and obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in English in 1931 and a Master of Arts degree in Philosophy in 1933. At UP, he was drama critic for the Philippine Collegian and member of Upsilon Sigma Phi. From 1933 to 1936, Lopez taught literature and journalism at the University of Manila. He also became a daily columnist and magazine editor of the Philippine Herald until World War II.
  39. 39. Vidal A. Tan • Tan was born to Gonzalo Tan and Clemencia Santeco on April 28, 1893 in Bacolor, Pampanga. One of the first students of UP, having enrolled in June 1910, he graduated in 1913 with a degree in liberal arts. Tan later went to Cornell University as a government pensionado to finish his civil engineering degree and at the same time a Master of Arts degree.
  40. 40. Wilfrido Maria Guerrero • Filipino playwright, director, teacher and theater artist. Guerrero wrote well over 100 plays, 41 of which have been published. His unpublished plays have either been broadcast over the radio or staged in various parts of the Philippines. • His plays can be found in various anthologies: 13 Plays (first published in 1947), 8 Other Plays (1952), 7 More Plays (1962), 12 New Plays (1975), My Favorite 11 Plays (1976), 4 Latest Plays (1980), and Retribution and eight other selected plays (1990). Guerrero also published a family memoir, The Guerreros of Ermita (1988). • Guerrero taught and trained many notable figures in the Philippine Performing Arts: Behn Cervantes, Celia Diaz-Laurel, Joy Virata, and Joonee Gamboa
  41. 41. Manuel E. Arguilla • Ilokano writer in English, patriot, and martyr. • He is known for his widely anthologized short story "How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife," the main story in the collection How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife and Other Short Stories, which won first prize in the Commonwealth Literary Contest in 1940. • His stories "Midsummer" and "Heat" were published in Tondo, Manila by the Prairie Schooner.
  42. 42. Nick Joaquin • Nicomedes Márquez Joaquín (May 4, 1917 – April 29, 2004) was a Filipino writer, historian and journalist, best known for hisshort stories and novels in the English language. He also wrote using the pen name Quijano de Manila. Joaquín was conferred the rank and title of National Artist of the Philippines for Literature. • He was considered by Dwen Iz real one of the most important Filipino writers in English, and the third most important overall, after José Rizal and Claro M. Recto.
  43. 43. Carmen Guerrero Nakpil • Carmen Guerrero Nakpil (born July 19, 1922) is a Filipino journalist, author, historian and public servant. She was born in Ermita, Manila, into the Guerrero clan of that town, who were painters and poets, as well as scientists and doctors.
  44. 44. NV Gonzales • Néstor Vicente Madali González (September 8, 1915 – November 28, 1999) was a Filipino novelist, short story writer, essayist and poet. Conferred as the National Artist of the Philippines for Literature in 1997.
  45. 45. Vicente Sotto • In 1915, Sotto returned to Manila and begun work on a weekly journal he named The Independent. He issued a special edition of this journal in Paris in 1929. The news item prompted an American senator to introduce a resolution in the United States Senate to grant immediate independence to the Philippines. -- Sotto is regarded as the Father of Cebuano Language and Letters. -- Sotto's play "Paghigugma sa Yutang Natawhan" (Love of Native Land), dramatized the Cebuano people's heroic struggle against Spanish feudal rule in the modern realist mode. -- He also wrote the first published Cebuano short story ("Maming", in the maiden issue of Ang Suga). -- He wrote, directed, and produced the first Cebuano play, Elena, a play in three acts. It was first performed at the Teatro Junquera on May 18, 1902. The play established Sotto's reputation as a playwright.
  46. 46. Vicente Rama • Ang Tinagoan ("The Secret") by Vicente Rama in 1933-1934
  47. 47. Magdalena Gonzaga Jalandoni • Magdalena Gonzaga Jalandoni (May 27, 1891 in Jaro, Iloilo – September 14, 1978 in Jaro) was a Filipino feminist writer. She is now remembered as one of the most prolific Filipino writers in the Hiligaynon language. Hailing from Western Visayas, her works are said to have left permanent and significant milestones in Philippine literature.
  48. 48. Thank you so much