Ruf - Recovery Strategies


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Recovery strategies for athletes.

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  • Homeostasis is the ability to maintain internal stability despite changes in the environment Stress can be all forms of training – Strength, Movement, Power, Conditioning, Skill, Mental, etc.
  • PNS fatigue – reduced activity of ions such as calcium and neurotransmitters
  • Training must serve the purpose of supporting the end goal: Better Sport Results OL weightlifter – bigger total is their sport end goal Training must be set up so the athlete can recover-this has an effect on recovery Athlete must recover at a high level to continually train at a high level
  • Takes the body longer to regenerate sufficient neurotransmitters to perform a task than it does to regenerate ATP Low intensive skill work ex: stationary receivers catching balls, walk through type activities
  • Extreme loads of CNS stress may take more than 72 hours to recover from Elite athletes hitting world records may need 1 to 2 weeks to recover Point 2 – You may use a jump test as a readiness test-This will not be fatiguing b/c volume is low – Conditioning will be b/c volume is so high
  • Due to coaching, or other restraints, a high/low set up may not be possible. Prior to training camp, may be advantageous to get away from high/low to prepare athletes for demands they will face in camp practices
  • Highest volume of work should be directed at the quality that is the aim of training Organize training means in a way that several different qualities are not competing for the same resources
  • General qualities must still be trained, however their training must not interfere with skill development – “As much as necessary but as little as possible” Many general qualities will be addressed via sport practice
  • Be smart in how you introduce your training means – throw too much at an athlete at once, very stressful, poor adaptation High/Low – provide low intensive days in between to help promote recovery
  • Easy thing to do is spend 5 minutes performing a team stretch after practice
  • Also are more targeted therapies such as ART – Dan Pfaff having ART therapist work on sprinter between reps
  • Add some notes here on the benefits of hydrotherapy
  • Ruf - Recovery Strategies

    1. 1. Recovery Strategies Chris Ruf Associate Strength & Conditioning Coach
    2. 2. Thanks to our Clinic Sponsors <ul><li>Young Champions </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Power Lift </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Xtreme Formulations/Black Star Labs </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>IronMind </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    3. 3. What this presentation isn’t: <ul><li>Examples of all the recovery tools available </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols for all the recovery tools available </li></ul><ul><li>A carbon copy of what we do to enhance recovery </li></ul>
    4. 4. What this presentation is: <ul><li>A look at the factors that influence recovery from training </li></ul><ul><li>A look at ways to manage training stress </li></ul><ul><li>A brief look at some of the recovery tools that are available </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is training? <ul><li>Systematic stress imposed on the body </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption of homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>This comes in many forms </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is fatigue? <ul><li>Resulting decrease in body’s functional state after imposed stress </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical capabilities will be suppressed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Fatigue </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CNS fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced motivation and recruitment of motor neurons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Fatigue </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue of the neuromuscular system and PNS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular, metabolic, and nervous system </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. What is recovery? <ul><li>The body’s compensation for the disruption of homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>A return back to pre-fatigue state </li></ul><ul><li>Supercompensation – Realizing a new, higher level of ability </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>What are the two most important goals of a training program? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Reduce the chance of injuries </li></ul><ul><li>2. Improve athletic performance </li></ul>
    9. 9. What is the most important and often overlooked aspect of recovering from training?
    10. 10. Setting up your program in a manner that will allow your athletes to recover from the training.
    11. 11. Common Misperceptions <ul><li>More is better </li></ul><ul><li>Rest is for the weak </li></ul><ul><li>If you’re not training, your opponent is getting an advantage </li></ul>
    12. 12. Ask yourself: <ul><li>Will the athlete see better results performing a high volume of low to medium quality work? </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Will the athlete see better results performing an optimal volume of high quality work? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Different way of thinking <ul><li>Less is more </li></ul><ul><li>Better to undertrain rather than overtrain </li></ul><ul><li>Do as much as necessary but as little as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Train efficiently </li></ul>
    14. 14. End Goal <ul><li>Sport Results </li></ul><ul><li>Athlete must train at a high level to achieve great results </li></ul><ul><li>Athlete must recover at a high level to train at a high level </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>All stress on the body is cumulative </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bad stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Body does not know the difference </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>During training, all the different stressors in athlete’s life come into play </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These will all affect athlete’s ability to recover </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>If training volume, intensity, density and/or frequency are too high to allow for the athlete to recover from all stressors, training results will be compromised </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Do our best to account for the different stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce training load when necessary and we will get better results in the long run </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusted training load = higher quality training sessions </li></ul>
    19. 19. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Context is important </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preparedness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Readiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goal of training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other stressors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place in daily training, microcycle, mesocycle, and macrocycle/annual plan </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Preparedness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Athlete’s physical and mental capabilities of performing a task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to training maturity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow changing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the prescribed training reflect the preparedness of the athlete? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Readiness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability at a certain point in time to perform a task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast Changing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This becomes increasingly important as the level of preparedness rises </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to perform after a taper vs. after a difficult training session </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Readiness Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VJ or other measurable power tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bert Sorin – Tendo Unit evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grip strength on hand dynamometer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resting heart rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does the athlete look/feel? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Athlete self-assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omegawave (Heart Rate Variability) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Goal of Training </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What quality are you trying to develop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of speed and power work is more dependent on readiness than strength and conditioning work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too much energy spent on training one quality will diminish results of other qualities being trained </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep volume and intensity at reasonable levels </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Other Stressors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What else needs to be accounted for? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training camp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-Season/Spring Ball </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finals & other periods of high academic load </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Place in Training Cycle - Daily </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In general it is best to perform high-neural demand activities first-these are most easily affected by fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Skill  Speed/Agility  Power  Strength  Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Placement of some elements can be changed provided: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Enough recovery is provided between sessions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Volume and/or Intensity of earlier elements does not interfere with subsequent training </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Recovery within the training session </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep lifting sessions brief – 45 to 60 min </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neural fatigue is longer lasting than metabolic fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate recovery between sets and exercises </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use complete recoveries during Skill/Speed/Agility/Power work to ensure highest quality work is attained </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skill work can be low intensity or high intensity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Place in Training Cycle – Daily </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The quality of each training session will be determined by what was done in the previous session and what was done to recover from that session </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stiffness/soreness is not good for athletes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced force output, speed of movement, and ROM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced quality of training and movement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased chance of injury </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be mindful of the tissue stress certain movements/loads/speeds place on the athlete </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Place in Training Cycle – Microcycle </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of training week will look much like an individual day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Recovered Least Recovered </li></ul><ul><li>Skill/Speed/Agility  Power  Strength  Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look at it as a continuum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis early in the week will be more on speed/power work and on strength/conditioning at the end of the week </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Place in Training Cycle – Microcycle </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many different ways to organize the week </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High CNS stress activities require at least 48 hours between bouts for recovery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volume of work can be determinant of intensiveness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High/Low Sequencing – alternate hard days & easy days </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More thoughtful planning needed as 4 and 5 days/week of high intensity work are introduced </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Place in Training Cycle – Microcycle </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elements of each quality may be present on each day, but in appropriate volumes and sequences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High/Low sequencing may not always be possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange training elements in the best way possible under your circumstances </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Place in Training Cycle – Mesocycle </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deload every 3 rd or 4 th week after intense loading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As intensity of training means rises during mesocycle, overall volume of work should decrease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High level athlete – focused blocks of training </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Organizing the Training <ul><li>Place in Training Cycle – Macrocycle </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We would consider this our annual plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different targets of training depending on time of year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Off-season – Improve general qualities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-Season/Spring Ball – Improve sport skill/SPP </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Organizing the Training <ul><li>In Summary: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look at how your high intensity stressors are arranged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide your athletes with a quantity of work that they can recover from </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High stressors on same days – Low days in between </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide periodic deloads </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Recovery Tools
    35. 35. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Recovery starts with a proper warm-up </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce acute & chronic soft-tissue injuries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve and maintain mobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase quality and efficiency of movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase elasticity of tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a physical and psychological bridge between no intensity and high intensity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Recovery Tools <ul><li>General Warm-up </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low intensity/speed total body movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase temperature, blood flow & metabolic rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease viscosity of muscle tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gradually progress ROM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begin to assess athlete’s readiness and needs for the day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get Hot! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Specific Warm-up </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begin progressing to higher speed movements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare for movements/ROM/speeds to be performed in training session </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate nervous system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continue to assess athlete’s readiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most under-rated recovery tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7-9 hrs. for adults, 8-10 for children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brief naps are beneficial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large HGH release-growth and repair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dreaming is beneficial for stress reduction </li></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Improving Sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Try to establish a routine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow yourself to wind down prior to bed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cool, comfortable room </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White noise if necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Try to avoid caffeine altogether </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc & Magnesium Aspartate (ZMA) may help some fall asleep </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Hydration </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beat hydration into their heads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#1 Factor for increasing muscle mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use water bottles as their ticket to train </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor body weight/urine color </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage athletes to eat 5-6 servings of fruit and vegetables each day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin and mineral benefits are numerous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aid in hydration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best case scenario: All whole foods come directly from animal, fruit, vegetable, or grain sources </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient Timing is critical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-training “45 minute window of opportunity” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After strenuous sessions, consume carbohydrate+protein recovery mix containing ~ .4 g/lb of CHO and .2 g/lb of PRO as soon as possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replenish glycogen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease catabolism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote anabolism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-hydrate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watch for fat in recovery mixes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid outlandish claims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chocolate Milk is an option </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gatorade is better than nothing, but inferior to CHO + PRO product </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Supplementation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stick with the basics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Benefits: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creatine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branch Chain Amino Acids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beta Alanine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fish Oils </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Soft Tissue Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Want optimal tonus of tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper warm-up and training over time should prevent build-up of knots/adhesions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle is most susceptible to pulls directly above and below knots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can apply soft tissue recovery by applying tension (stretching) or pressure (massage) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Soft Tissue Recovery - Stretching </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-workout provides large benefit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better blood flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be relaxing for the whole body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t rely on this alone for flexibility development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Program should include dynamic mobility drills as well at varying speeds </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Soft Tissue Recovery – Stretching </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many different types of stretching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PNF, AIS, Static, Microstretching, Ballistic, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For most purposes, a light static stretch held for 20-30 seconds will work well – Also easiest to coach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of body positioning-don’t cheat the stretch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can use jump-stretch bands, stretch straps, football belts, pieces of inner-tubes, homemade straps </li></ul></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Soft Tissue Recovery – Massage/SMFR </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good massage therapy is a great tool if you can afford it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self Myofascial Release (Foam Rolling) is not as effective as a massage, but much cheaper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foam Rolling can help to reduce muscle tension and release knots/adhesions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foam Rolling needs to be coached and taught </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficial prior to static stretching </li></ul></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Soft Tissue Recovery – Massage/SMFR </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Stick is a good portable tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can perform on yourself, but usually is more effective to have someone else do it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much better at targeting the hamstrings and calves than a foam roller </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Hydrotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water is a great recovery tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low intensity pool workouts between intense sessions can help speed recovery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold tub immersion post training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immerse for 10-15 minutes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot/Cold Contrast Baths/Showers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended 3:1 ratio of hot:cold ranging from 1:30 – 3 minutes hot and 30 – 60 seconds cold </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Recovery Tools <ul><li>Educate your athletes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep it simple </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep it short </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educate them frequently </li></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Sources <ul><li>Francis, C. The Charlie Francis Training System , 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Issurin, V. Block Periodization – Breakthrough in Sport Training , 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Ivy, J. & Portman, R. Nutrient Timing , 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Kellman, M. (Ed.) Enhancing Recovery , 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Radcliffe, J.C. University of Oregon Football Power Development Conditioning Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Siff, M.C. Supertraining , 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, J. High/Low Sequences of Programming and Organizing Training , 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Valle, C. Devil’s Advocate – Building Speed Demons Pt. 1 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Selye, H. The Stress of Life , 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Zatsiorsky, V.M. Science and Practice of Strength Training , 1995 </li></ul>
    53. 53. Questions? <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Info: </li></ul><ul><li>254-710-8113 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>