Davis - Teaching and Correcting Flaws in the Squat

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Teaching and correcting flaws in the squat.

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Davis - Teaching and Correcting Flaws in the Squat

  1. 1. Teaching and Correcting Flaws in the Squat Adam Davis Assistant Strength & Conditioning Coach
  2. 2. Plan of Attack <ul><li>Why Squat? </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Squatting </li></ul><ul><li>How to Squat for Athletics </li></ul><ul><li>Bands/Chains/Boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Common Errors & How to Fix Them </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why We Squat <ul><li>To get better at our sport!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bigger squat does not mean improved performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A bigger squat performed in the right way means specific attributes have been improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will these attributes contribute to increased sporting ability? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why We Squat <ul><li>Risk vs. Reward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will not be powerful if you are not strong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most efficient way to train lower body strength for most people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notice I did not say best </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large number of musculature worked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous system development </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Why We Squat <ul><li>Risk vs. Reward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Bad for your back” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Bad for your knees” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>–Klein 1959 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Too hard to teach” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Risk vs. Reward <ul><li>How do we maximize the reward while minimizing risks? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DO IT CORRECTLY!!!! </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Correct Way to Squat? <ul><li>What is the correct way to squat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olympic style squat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerlifting squat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Athletic” Squat </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Olympic Style Squat <ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively narrow stance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High bar position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More vertical torso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More of a straight descent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knees travel forward during descent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knee angle well below 90 ° at bottom </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Olympic Style Squat
  10. 10. Powerlifting Squat <ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically wide stance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low bar position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward lean with torso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descend by pushing hips back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shins remain vertical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knee angle approximately 90 ° at bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive gear typically worn </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Powerlifting Squat
  12. 12. “Athletic” Squat <ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stance around shoulder width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfortable bar position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate forward lean with torso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descend by pushing hips back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shins remain near vertical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knee angle at bottom at or slightly below 90 ° </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. “Athletic” Squat
  14. 14. Basic Points for Efficient Squatting <ul><li>Hips back—Keep weight balanced and stay off toes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizes posterior chain and saves wear and tear on knees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep chest up & back arched </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take air in to increase pressure—increased pressure = decrease in wasted energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knees pushed out—Do not let them cave in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take care of knees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizes the adductors (3 rd most powerful hip extensors) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stay tight—Pressure in the thoracic & abdominal cavity keep spine safe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squeeze the bar!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatly increases the ability to lift heavy weights and greatly decreases risk of injury </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Other Keys to Efficient Squatting <ul><li>Keep head level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing on the ceiling to look at </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Go all the way down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stand tall at top </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t leave the hips out of the movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foot position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find what is comfortable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep feet in line with thigh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understand that everyone is different </li></ul>
  16. 16. Squatting for Athletes <ul><li>Risk vs. Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Powerlifting squat increases work done by the hips, also places large stresses on the back and probably overuses the adductors </li></ul><ul><li>Olympic squat increases work done by the legs, also places large stresses on the knees </li></ul><ul><li>Squatting for athletics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically a blend of these two styles </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Common Errors <ul><li>Foot Placement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everyone is the same-don’t force everyone to use the same stance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somewhere around shoulder width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure feet are close to even </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Foot Placement - Sport Specific???
  19. 19. Common Errors <ul><li>Bar Placement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find what works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some are good with high bar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some are good with low bar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar should be centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds obvious… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Common Errors <ul><li>Not Tight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take air in and hold it in for entire rep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep chest big! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squeeze the bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take 1 rep at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take time going into the bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive traps through the bar coming up </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Common Errors <ul><li>Feet Turn Out On Way Down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly diagnosed as tight hip flexors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likely means that they are tight somewhere in the anterior/lateral hip(s) and/or ankle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Find the tight area and correct it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure knees are pushed out hard </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Common Errors <ul><li>Knees In </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some say weak Abductors…some say weak Adductors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom line keep them pushed out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on correctly performing the movement will strengthen whatever weakness is causing the problem </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Common Errors <ul><li>Knees Forward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coach to push back right from the start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should be done fluidly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep pushing back the whole way down…stay on the heels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be flexibility problem, may be a misunderstanding of the movement </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Common Errors <ul><li>Knees Fall Forward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by a guy who pushes hips back at the start only to have the knees and hips roll forward at the bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work on mobility in the hamstrings and external hip rotators/glutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically one or both of these areas are the problem </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Tools of the Trade <ul><li>Chains: Used decrease the weight as it is lowered and increase the weight as it is raised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a useful tool, but very often misused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probably will have very little carry over to on field performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bands: Same concept as chains, although significantly more advanced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a useful too, but almost always misused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not be used unless technique is near perfect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not be used without a very specific training goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WILL NOT DIRECTLY MAKE YOU A MORE EXPLOSIVE ATHLETE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Boxes: Box Squats-Many potential uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a very useful tool, if misused will greatly increase risk of injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back must stay locked in during the entire rep-do not relax the torso on the box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control the impact on the box-do not hit hard or bounce </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. References <ul><li>Klein, Karl. 1961. The deep squat exercise as utilized in weight training for athletics and its effect on the ligaments of the knee. Journal of the Association of Physical and Mental Retardation. Vol. 15, No. 1. Jan.-Feb, p.10. </li></ul><ul><li>Rippetoe & Kilgore: Starting Strength </li></ul>
  27. 27. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Thank you to all of our guests and sponsors </li></ul>
  28. 28. Questions & Contact <ul><li>Adam Davis </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>(254) 710-8114 </li></ul>

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