Althoff and Tamporello - Long Term Athlete Development


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Considerations for long term athletic development.

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Althoff and Tamporello - Long Term Athlete Development

  1. 1. Long Term Athlete Development Andrew Althoff Anne Tamporello
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Important Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Myths </li></ul><ul><li>Phases of Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ages/Grades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Means of Training </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Importance <ul><li>School aged youth need 60 minutes of moderate-vigorous exercise each day </li></ul><ul><li>5 components of fitness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiorespiratory (CR) endurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular endurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body composition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The type of activity appropriate for performance enhancement is based off of age </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Importance <ul><li>Learn about bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Feel good while doing it </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging </li></ul><ul><li>Fun </li></ul><ul><li>Improve self efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce feelings of anxiety and depression </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Influence aerobic fitness, body comp, blood lipids, bone mineral density, motor performance skills. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Importance <ul><li>Sports related injuries in young athletes is on the rise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unprepared for the demands of practice and competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15-50% of injuries in youth sports could have been prevented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If more emphasis was placed on fundamental fitness abilities risk of injury would decrease </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Myths <ul><li>Myth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength training causes most overuse injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myth Busted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blame can be placed on the following </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improper footwear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard playing surfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Coaching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of emphasis on technique </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of supervision </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roll ball coaching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improper application of science and theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Myths <ul><li>Myth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children should not train with resistance before puberty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myth Busted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance training is universally accepted by medical and fitness organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular strength and endurance are two fitness components that should be addressed for physically well rounded kids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different combinations of sets and reps have been proven to be safe and effective. 2-3 days a week, non consecutive days, major muscles. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Myths <ul><li>Myth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children cannot achieve gains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myth Busted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When gains are based of % they are similar to adults and adolescents </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Myths <ul><li>Myth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance training will stunt growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myth Busted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It will actually have a favorable influence on bone growth and density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No evidence of a decrease in stature because of resistance training. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Myths <ul><li>Myth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance Training is Unsafe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myth Busted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is effective and safe means of exercises when adhering to guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight training in pre-pubescent children found that weight training is, in fact, safer than many other sports and activities </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Take home message #1 <ul><li>Resistance training can be used to improve overall physical fitness in children before puberty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This does not mean it should </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have appropriate supervision to develop proper motor patterns in young children </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Take home message #2 <ul><li>The intensity (% of weight on the bar) is typically what increases the injury potential </li></ul><ul><li>Different combinations of sets and reps have been proven to be safe and effective </li></ul>
  13. 13. Take home message #3 <ul><li>Resistance training is essential for growth and development of bones and muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance training can be found in everyday activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking up steps, push ups and carrying a sport bag are all `resistance` that you wouldn`t stop children from doing. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Phases of Development <ul><li>6 Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Istvan Balyi / Ann Hamilton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8-12 years of training for a talented player/athlete to reach elite levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ten-year or 10,000 hour rule </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three hours of practice daily for ten years </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most parents and coaches approach training with an attitude best characterized as &quot;peaking by Friday” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term approach is taken to training and performance with an over-emphasis on immediate results </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be patient! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Phase 1 <ul><li>AGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males = 6–9 years, Grades 1-4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females = 6-8 years, Grades 1-3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GOAL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn fundamental motor patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skip, jump, run, kick, throw </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Phase 1 <ul><li>AGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males = 6–9 years, Grades 1-4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females = 6-8 years, Grades 1-3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MEANS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm up for reps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games / Recess </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tag – COD, acceleration/deceleration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leap frog - Low level jumping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kickball – Throwing, running, kicking, jumping, catching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dodgeball – Spacial awareness, catching, depth perception, throwing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Phase 1 – Take home message <ul><li>Keep it fun </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple </li></ul><ul><li>This is your base </li></ul><ul><li>Get your money worth </li></ul>
  18. 18. Phase 2 <ul><li>AGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males = 9–12 years, Grades 4-7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females = 8–11 years, Grades 3-6 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GOAL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build on base of motor patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn fundamental sports skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coach Weeks and Coach Bradd </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Phase 2 <ul><li>AGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males = 9–12 years, Grades 4-7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females = 8–11 years, Grades 3-6 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MEANS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MB Circuits (Video) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plate Circuits (Video) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility + Stability + Flexibility </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Phase 2 – Take home message <ul><li>Teach them how to train </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Light” resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain body control despite changes in center of gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crucial point in an athlete’s development </li></ul><ul><li>Make workouts challenging, but fun is still a major objective </li></ul>
  21. 21. Phase 3 <ul><li>AGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males = 12–16 years, Grades 7-11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females = 11-15 years, Grades 6-10 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GOALS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic base </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strength towards the end of the phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continue to develop sport-specific skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Phase 3 <ul><li>AGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males = 12–16 years, Grades 7-11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females = 11-15 years, Grades 6-10 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MEANS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiate front squat progression (Video) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin teaching Olympic lifts (Coach Lansky) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-Medium level plyometrics </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Phase 3 – Take home message <ul><li>Lift progressions set stage for increased intensities in subsequent phases </li></ul><ul><li>Do not be tempted to load-up the bar, motor patterns are still priority </li></ul>
  24. 24. Phase 4 <ul><li>AGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males 16–18 years, Grades 11-Fr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females 15-17 years, Grades 10-12 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GOALS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness and sport preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop specific performance and skills </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Phase 4 <ul><li>AGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males 16–18 years, Grades 11-Fr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females 15-17 years, Grades 10-12 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MEANS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bench </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olympics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium+ level plyometrics </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Phase 4 – Take home message <ul><li>Training to Compete </li></ul><ul><li>If you have laid the base and done your homework this is the fun part </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find out how good your earlier phases are working </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Begin a more intensive manipulation of sets/reps/intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coach Melton’s Presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep the workout fun by being organized, intense and time conscious. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Phase 5 <ul><li>AGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males = 18+, Grades Fr+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females = 17+, Grades 12+ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GOALS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximize fitness and sport preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual and position specific </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Phase 5 <ul><li>AGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males = 18+, Grades Fr+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females = 17+, Grades 12+ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MEANS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Train appropriate energy systems for the sport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coach Davis, Ruf, Melton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases in intensity and complexity as appropriate </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Phase 5 – Take home message <ul><li>Train for success not competition </li></ul><ul><li>Stick to your principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never compromise technique for weight moved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure weights, sets and reps are appropriate for objective of workout </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Conclusion <ul><li>Kids begin playing sports because they are fun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They will stop playing when they are not </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Know your goals for each phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose activities accordingly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure exercise selection is age appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase dialogue with other coaches/teachers at your school/college/university </li></ul>
  31. 31. References <ul><li>American Academy of Pediatrics. Strength training by children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 107: 1470-1472. 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Balyi, Istvan & Hamilton, Ann. LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT: TRAINABILITY IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE, Windows of Opportunity, Optimal Trainability </li></ul><ul><li>Blimkie, C. Resistance training during preadolescence. Issues and Controversies. Sports Med. 15: 389-407. 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>British Association of Exercise and Sport Sciences. BASES position statement on guidelines for resistance exercise in young people. J Sports Sci. 22:383-390, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Chan K, Micheli L, Smith A, Rolf C, Bachl N, Frontera W, Alenabi T, eds. F.I.M.S. Team Physician Manual, 2nd ed. Hong Kong: CD Concept; 555-572, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Chu D, A. Faigenbaum, J. Falkel. Progressive Plyometrics for Kids. Monterey, CA: Healthy Learning, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Falk, B., and G. Tenenbaum. The effectiveness of resistance training in children. A metaanalysis. Sports Med. 22: 176-186, 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Falk, B, and A. Eliakim. Resistance training, skeletal muscle and growth. Pediatr EndocrinolRev. 1:120-127, 2003. </li></ul>
  32. 32. References <ul><li>Faigenbaum, A. Youth Resistance Training. President’s Council on Physical Fitness And Sports Research Digest, 4(3): 1-8, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Faigenbaum, A., Kraemer, W. Cahill, B. Chandler, J., Dziados, J., Elfrink, L., Forman, </li></ul><ul><li>Faigenbaum, A. Resistance training for children and adolescents: Are there health outcomes? American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 1, 190-200, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Faigenbaum, A., Kraemer, W. Cahill, B. Chandler, J., Dziados, J., Elfrink, L., Forman, E.,Gaudiose, M., Micheli, L., Nitka, M., and Roberts, S. Youth resistance training: Position statement paper and literature review. Strength Conditioning, 18, 62-75, 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Faigenbaum, A., L. Milliken, L. Moulton, and W. Westcott. Early muscular fitness adaptations in children in response to two different resistance training regimens. Ped ExercSci. 17: 237-248, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Faigenbaum A, W. Westcott, R. Loud, and C. Long. The effects of different resistancetraining protocols on muscular strength and endurance development in children. Pediatrics.104: e5, 1999.Youth Resistance Training </li></ul><ul><li>Faigenbaum, A and W. Westcott. Strength and Power Training for Young Athletes.Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Guy, J., and L. Micheli. Strength training for children and adolescents. J Am Acad Ortho Surg. 9, 29-36, 2001. </li></ul>
  33. 33. References <ul><li>Hamill, B.P. (1994) Relative safety of weightlifting. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 8(1), 53-57. </li></ul><ul><li>Kraemer W., and S. Fleck . Strength training for Young Athletes, 2nd ed. Champaign, IL:Human Kinetics; 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Mediate, P., and A. Faigenbaum. Medicine Ball for All Training Handbook. Healthy Learning, Monterey, CA, 2004. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micheli, L. Overuse injuries in children’s sports: The growth factor. Ortho Clinics N Am.114, 337-360, 1983. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micheli L, Glassman R, Klein M. The prevention of sports injuries in youth. Clin Sports Med. 19:821-834, 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Micheli L. Preventing injuries in sports: What the team physician needs to know. In: Chan K,Micheli L, Smith A, Rolf C, Bachl N, Frontera W, Alenabi T, eds. F.I.M.S. Team Physician Manual, 2nd ed. Hong Kong: CD Concept; 555-572, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Moving Into the Future: NationalStandards for Physical Education. (2nd ed.). Reston, VA: Author, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Outerbridge, A ., and L. Micheli. Overuse injuries in the young athlete. Clin. Sports Med. 14: 503-516, 1995. </li></ul>
  34. 34. References <ul><ul><li>Pfeiffer, R., and R. Francis. Effects of strength training on muscle development in prepubescent, pubescent and postpubescent males. Phys Sports Med.14: 134-143, 1986. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong, W.B, Malina, R.M, Blimkie, C.J., Daniels, S.R., Dishman, R.K., Gutin B., Hergenroeder, A., Must, A., Nixon, P.A., Pivarnik, J., Rowland, T., Trost, S., Trudeau, F. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatrics, 146, 732-737, 2005. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sale, D. Strength training in children. In Gisolfi, G, Lamb, D, (eds): Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine. Indianapolis: Benchmark Press, 12: 1453-1462, 1989. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vicente-Rodriguez, G. How does exercise affect bone development during growth? Sports Med. 2006;36:561-569, 2006. Youth Resistance Training </li></ul>