Good morning My name is Geoffrey Williams and I work as a Programme Manager for BSI, the British Standards Institution. I manage a group of committees responsible for standards on applied statistics. The subject of my presentation today is Standards for statistical methods, tools and techniques. This presentation will provide an introduction and overview of formal standards for use by all who have a need to analyze measurements of various parameters. During this presentation I hope to help you all understand why formal standards should be used. I explain the differences between formal standards and other publications such as text books and academic papers. I explain the roles of standards organizations, like BSI and ISO, and the process used to develop standards. However, I can only give you a brief outline in the time available and urge you to seek further information from the BSI and ISO websites. An annex to the paper lists the standards currently available and gives the scope of each of the BSI committees responsible for the standards. You also have a flyer in your delegates pack, which gives details of a special website, which BSI has setup for workshop delegates, where you can buy copies of the standards in Adobe pdf format. I hope that my talk will encourage you to use our standards and possibly to join one or more of our committees.
Why we need standards Why do we take measurements? - Mainly, to get information about whatever we are measuring. Many management systems, for example ISO 14001 and BS 25999-2, Six Sigma or ISO 9001, are based on methodologies such as PDCA or DMAIC or are processed based. These methodologies require data to be measured and analysed before and after decisions are made. It has been shown that decisions based on reliable analysis of the data can significantly improve the profitability of organizations that use them. However, making the wrong decisions can have serious commercial consequences. When we measure some process variable or attribute, we obtain data. The data are then analysed to obtain information about the underlying process. Managers need comparable and consistent information on which to base their decisions. Use of standard methods, tools and techniques for data analysis helps ensure that decisions are based on comparable and consistent information .
What are formal standards? Formal standards are consensus standards. They are prepared according to a well defined and transparent process, which includes reaching consensus of all interested parties followed by a period of public review and comment. All comments must be resolved and the draft amended before publication. Once published, they are subject to regular review and may be amended if necessary or withdrawn once they are no longer relevant. Committees are formed from representatives of a very broad cross-section of interested parties including: trade associations, learned bodies, academic and professional institutions Government departments and User groups The standards are recognized as containing the accepted best practice. They are authoritative documents and their authority is widely recognized by government, by the courts of law and by regulatory agencies In contrast, text books and academic papers are written for the dissemination of knowledge. They are not intended to serve the same purpose. They are not subject to the same degree of broadly-based consultation and should not be used as a substitute for formal standards.
The slide shows the main organizations that are responsible for producing official standards. ISO and IEC are the two main international standards organizations and they are mirrored by their European counterparts: CEN and CENELEC. BSI’s role is to prepare national standards for use in the UK. As an EU Member state, BSI is obliged to adopt European standards, EN, as the national standard. Where no European standard exists, BSI can propose a new project to CEN or CENELEC, prepare a purely national British Standard or implement an International Standard prepared by either ISO or IEC. BSI is one of many similar national organizations world wide, such as AFNOR in France, DIN in Germany or ANSI in the US, that contribute to the international and European standardization work through membership of the respective standards organizations. BSI participates in European or international work through the committees of the respective standards organizations. Draft standards are reviewed by members of the national committees, where national consensus is established. National committees nominate and brief delegates to the meetings of the European and international committees, where they participate in the discussions and represent the views of the national committee. Anyone wishing to influence the content of European or international standards needs to work through the national committees of their NSB and should seek nomination to the relevant committees. More detail about the committee process is given in my written paper.
Although this slide focuses on international standards developed by ISO, a broadly similar structure and relationship exists with IEC, CEN and CENELEC. Work is carried out in Technical Committees or Sub-committees. Sometimes Working Groups (WG) are formed from a small group of experts to undertake a specific task. This I normally more efficient than working in a large committee and the work proceeds more quickly. Drafts prepared by the WG are subsequently reviewed and discussed in full committee. BSI is the UK Member Body of ISO and is the member of a significant number of technical committees and subcommittees. UK national delegations to international committees are appointed and briefed by BSI “mirror” committees. Note that individuals cannot be members of ISO committees they are only delegates appointed to represent their NSB.
This slide shows the key milestones in development, which are given in table 1 of my written paper. The time taken to prepare and publish an International Standard is normally 36 months but this can either be accelerated or extended by 12 months. During development of a standard, drafts are periodically circulated to experts through the National Standards Bodies. Each development stage concludes with a comment period and a ballot of NSBs in order progress to the next stage. The national committees review the draft text, provide comments and agree the national vote on whether the draft is sufficiently mature to progress to the next stage. The international committees meet periodically, to resolve any issues and reach consensus before preparing a revised draft and progressing to the next stage. The public enquiry stage gives the process its transparency because it allows anyone to submit comments on the draft standard. It gives confidence that the resulting standard has not been biased in favour of a vested interest.
Some standards organizations have received complaints in the past about the length of time it takes to publish a standard, so procedures have been established to ensure the efficiency of the process. The figure shows the timeline and important milestones during the development of an international standard. A copy is reproduced in my paper. When a project is approved the milestones are set as target dates and failure to meet the target dates can result in the project being cancelled. The light blue shows the committee stages, the darker blue shows the period when the draft has been issued for NSB review, comment and vote. The draft standard must receive sufficient approval votes to progress to the next stage. The standard should be published within 1 month of the close of the FDIS ballot.
The ISO Technical Committee responsible for International Standards for the Application of statistical methods is ISO/TC 69. The scope of ISO/TC 69 is given on the slide and in the paper accompanying this presentation. The Secretariat is held by AFNOR in France; the Secretary is: Mdm. Catherine Fihey-Renard and the Chairman is: M. Christophe Perruchet. The committee has 24 “Participating” members and 30 “Observing” members and has prepared 79 International Standards providing guidance on the use of statistical methods. ISO/TC 69 has a special responsibility within ISO and IEC to advise all their technical committees in matters concerning the application of statistical methods in standardization. The paper accompanying this presentation lists the various Sub-committees and working groups of ISO/TC 69.
There are many applications for statistical analysis and ISO/TC 69 has a very wide field to cover. The work has been divided into a number of categories and the different areas of work are covered by each of the sub-committees. The different categories of standards are listed on the slide and in more detail in my written paper. A full listing of the BSI portfolio of standards for statistical methods, tools and techniques together with the information on the BSI Technical committees responsible for the portfolio is given in the annex to the paper.
I hope that my presentation and paper has helped you understand: the process for creating standards The roles of the NSBs, the national standards bodies, and their relationship with the European and international standards organizations. The importance of using standard methods to obtain consistent and comparable information upon which to base decisions. All interested parties have the opportunity to influence the content of the standards. I will be pleased to hear from any of you who would like to join one of our committees. Apart from publishing standards, BSI is a provider of information. I have provided a few of our Quality standards brochures that list standards, other publications and courses for anybody working in quality management. I have also provided a few brochures that explain about BSOL, the British Standards On-Line, services that is available by annual subscription. All BSI brochures are available to download from the BSI website. You may also be interested in subscribing to BSI as a member to enjoy the membership benefits which include a 50% discount on standards and other services provided by BSI.
BSI - Standards for statistical methods, tools and techniques
Standards for statistical methods, tools and techniques - A presentation to the MSPI 2010 Workshop at NPL, Teddington, UK by Geoffrey Williams, Programme Manager, BSI 20 April 2010 An introduction and overview of formal standards in the world of applied statistics
Why we need standards <ul><li>Why do we take measurements? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To obtain information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many management systems require data analysis before and after decisions are made </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process-based, PDCA or DMAIC methodologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions based on accurate analysis of measured data can lead to increased profitability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparable and consistent data analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to comparable and consistent information on which to base decisions </li></ul></ul>
Formal standards <ul><li>Consensus standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many interested organizations represented on technical committees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well defined and transparent consensus process gives authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statement of accepted best practice </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition by government, the courts and regulatory agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Text books and academic papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written for the dissemination of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve a different purpose and are not subject to the same degree of transparency </li></ul></ul>
National, European & International Standards <ul><li>BSI is the National Standards Body (NSB) in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>CEN and CENELEC are the two European standards organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prepare European standards, EN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISO and IEC are the two international standards organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prepare international standards, ISO or IEC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If EN exists, BSI is obliged to adopt it as the national standard </li></ul>
BSI relationship with ISO <ul><li>ISO is structured into a number of Technical Committees, Subcommittees and Working Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCs have Participating or Observer Members which are the NSBs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards development work is governed by a set of rules known as the ISO/IEC Directives, currently at edition 7:2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BSI is the UK Member Body of ISO and is the member of a significant number of TCs and SCs </li></ul><ul><li>UK national delegations to the international TCs are appointed and briefed by BSI “mirror” committees </li></ul>
ISO standards - main development stages <ul><li>New work proposal - NP (3 months ballot) </li></ul><ul><li>Working draft – WD – prepared by expert group </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus building – Committee Draft – CD (3 months ballot) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be concurrent with NP ballot if draft document available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public enquiry – Draft International Standard – DIS (5 months ballot) </li></ul><ul><li>Approval – Final DIS - FDIS (2 months Yes/No ballot) </li></ul>
ISO/TC 69 – Applications of statistical methods <ul><li>Scope: "Standardization in the application of statistical methods, including generation, collection (planning and design), analysis, presentation and interpretation of data." </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for International Standards for Applications of statistical methods </li></ul><ul><li>Secretariat held by AFNOR (France) </li></ul><ul><li>79 standards </li></ul>
Main categories of ISO/TC 69 standards <ul><li>Vocabularies - defining statistical terms and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Generic statistical methods and techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Guides to the use of statistical process management </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance sampling schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Precision of laboratory analysis and test methods </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance for the Six Sigma community </li></ul>
Summary <ul><li>How standards are created and which committees are responsible for standards for statistical methods </li></ul><ul><li>The roles of NSBs, like BSI, AFNOR and ANSI and how they relate to CEN, CENELEC, ISO and IEC </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for all interested parties to influence the content of the standards by seeking nomination to national committees </li></ul><ul><li>Information that is available through BSI </li></ul><ul><li>Please contact us for further information about membership and other services </li></ul>
Contact Us Geoffrey Williams Name: Programme Manager Title: BSI Address: www.bsigroup.com Links: +44 (0)20 8996 7400 Fax: [email_address] Email: +44 (0)20 8996 7411 Telephone: W4 4AL London 389, Chiswick High Road