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- 1. Senior/Graduate HMA Course Aggregate Specific GravitiesAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 1
- 2. Volumetrics • All matter has mass and occupies space. • Volumetrics are the relationships between mass and volume • Superpave mix design based on aggregate and mixture volumetricsAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 2
- 3. Specific Gravity, G • Ratio of the mass to volume of an object to that of water at the same temperature Mass Solid Volume Mass Water VolumeAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 3
- 4. Densities • Density is the unit weight of a material • lb/ft3 or kg/m3 • Unit weight = γ w G γ w = 1.000 g/cm3 γ w = 62.4 lb/ft3 γ w = 1000 kg/m3 Bulk density means sample contains more than one mass and/or volumeAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 4
- 5. Bulk Specific Gravity, Dry Mass, oven drySurface Voids Gsb = Vol of agg, + surface voids Vol. of water-perm. voidsAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 5
- 6. Bulk Specific Gravity, SSD Mass, oven dry agg + mass water Gs, ssd = Vol of agg, + surface voids Vol. of water-perm. voids Surface VoidsAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 6
- 7. Apparent Specific Gravity Mass, oven dry agg Gsa = Vol of aggAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 7
- 8. Phase DiagramPhase: a change in state (e.g. solid, liquid, gas) V = (mass) / (Gs γ w) Volume Mass (Weight) Water permeable voids Aggregate SolidsAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 8
- 9. Specific Gravity Tests for Aggregates • Two tests are needed • Coarse aggregate (retained on the 4.75 mm sieve) • Fine aggregate (passing the 4.75 mm sieve)Aggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 9
- 10. Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity • ASTM C127 • Dry aggregate • Soak in water for 24 hours • Decant water • Use pre-dampened towel to get SSD condition • Determine mass of SSD aggregate in bucket • Determine mass under water • Dry to constant mass • Determine oven dry massAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 10
- 11. Coarse Aggregate Specific GravityAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 11
- 12. Coarse Aggregate Specific GravityAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 12
- 13. Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity Calculations • Gsb = A / (B - C) • A = mass oven dry • B = mass SSD • C = mass under water • Gs,SSD = B / (B - C) • Gsa = A / (A - C) • Water absorption capacity, % • Absorption % = [(B - A) / A] * 100Aggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 13
- 14. Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity• ASTM C128 • Dry aggregate • Soak in water for 24 hours • Spread out and dry to SSD • Add 500 g of SSD aggregate to pycnometer of known volume • Pre-filled with some water • Add more water and agitate until air bubble have been removed • Fill to line and determine the mass of the pycnometer, aggregate and water • Empty aggregate into pan and dry to constant mass • Determine oven dry massAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 14
- 15. Fine Aggregate Specific GravityAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 15
- 16. Fine Aggregate Specific GravityAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 16
- 17. Fine Aggregate Specific GravityAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 17
- 18. Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity Calculations• Gsb = A / (B + S - C) • A = mass oven dry • B = mass of pycnometer filled with water • C = mass pycnometer, SSD aggregate and water • S = mass SSD aggregate• Gs,SSD = S / (B + S - C)• Gsa = A / (B + A - C)• Water absorption capacity, % • Absorption % = [(S - A) / A] * 100Aggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 18
- 19. Summary of Terms • Gsb = Gravity stone bulk • Gsa = Gravity stone apparent • Gsb(ssd) = Gravity stone bulk (saturated surface dry) • γω = unit weight of waterAggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 19
- 20. QUESTIONS ?Aggregates Aggregate Specific Gravities 20

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