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Webinar: “The emerging science of planning for cycle inclusion: Lessons for public transport and BRT?”


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Presented by Lake Sagaris, Postdoctoral researcher Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, BRT - Centre of Excellence, on Wednesday April 8th.

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Webinar: “The emerging science of planning for cycle inclusion: Lessons for public transport and BRT?”

  1. 1. The emerging science of planning for cycle inclusion: Lessons for public transport and BRT? Webinar 7 April 2015 Dr. Lake Sagaris Post-Doctoral Fellow and Adjunct Professor Bus Rapid Transit Centre of Excellence Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable Facultad de Ingeniería - Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
  2. 2. 1. Concepts and methods from the social sciences applied to transport 2. Cycleinclusion: collaborative planning processes for rapid change 3. Lessons for BRT? The “Sandwich” Tour, Bicipaseos patriomoniales, Feb 2015
  3. 3. 1. Concepts and methods from the social sciences applied to transport
  4. 4. Today, what little citizen participation there is in bus system development usually occurs at the project level, and is often too little, too late We don’t pay enough attention to participation at the planning level: the process to define the consensuses necessary to get the most out of public transport
  5. 5. Projects Processes Focus on projects and implementation Seeks the optimum, the “best” solution Seeks a known result, within a given timeframe Results uncertain Tries to control people Try to involve people Inflexible, linear process Original concepts may change Based on technical expertise Circular (“iterative” process): ensures good feedback and good knowledge base Doesn’t produce greater learning, or identify learning for the future Flexible, participants learn/teach and build new goals together RISK: Obsolete by the time it’s completed, doesn’t build support completarse, no construye apoyo cuidando RISK: Endless conversation.
  6. 6. Single cause/single effect Single problem/single solution In/out approach Planning focused on identifying and responding to trends, often reinforcing them, even the negative or harmful ones.
  7. 7. Faces multiple causes (and interactions)/ unforeseen results, eg. “butterfly” effect Multiple problems/Solutions for as many as possible Demands cyclical approach that generates less waste/turns everything into resources for different processes along a chain… Requires a new kind of planning…
  8. 8. Complexity and Positionality
  9. 9. 1994: A book that “translates” new discoveries from physics, meteorology and biology for a general audience. Prigogine, Maturana & Varela, Mandelbrot…
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Gundersen & Holling Bridge between new discoveries in ecology and the social
  12. 12. Into the urban… growing interest and applications
  13. 13. Otto Scharmer
  14. 14. Perspective based in urban planning …theory, discipline, and practice Engineering Architecture & design
  15. 15. Engineering Sociolog y Architecture & design In a very complex —and constantly changing— world
  16. 16. Engineering Architecture & design Planning (urban) Urban planning: interdisciplinary, social
  17. 17. Applications in urban planning
  18. 18. Questioning positionality • Desde afuera (tercera persona tradicional) • Desde adentro (primera persona singular o plural) • Posibilidades de investigar en el laboratorio vivo de la ciudad en diversos espacios y escalas • Con diversos actores Outsiders' perspective Insider perspecti ve Insider perspective Insider perspective Mid-person’s perspective perspective Mid-person’s perspective Mid-person’s perspective perspective Mid-person’s perspective Perspective LAC Perspective UE o N. America Perspective India
  19. 19. Diverse methods • PAR - Participatory action research • Etnography from diverse perspectives: participant observers, and observing participants • Using both qualitative and quantitative methods to better understand complexity • With researchers in diverse positionalities to mobilize different types of knowledge
  20. 20. Integrate this perspective… Engineering Architecture & design Planificación (urbana)
  21. 21. …into other types of knowledge Citizens’ experiential Political knowledge (how to move power) Engineering Sociology Architecture & designPlanific ación (urban a)
  22. 22. Theory & practice of collaborative planning Citizens’ experiential knowledge Political knowledge (how to move power) Engineering Sociology Architecture & design Planning (urban)
  23. 23. Complexity
  24. 24. Multiscalar Interdisciplinary Rather than seeking universal laws, gives priority to identifying “rules” and testing them in local (specific) contexts.
  25. 25. The importance of the “meso”
  26. 26. The individual The individual in a group The groups in the wider community The community in the world The world in the community
  27. 27. A FLOCK OF BIRDS Separation: steer to avoid crowding local flockmates alignment diagram Alignment: steer towards the average heading of local flockmates Cohesion: steer to move toward the average position of local flockmates
  28. 28. Open system: as subsystems merge unpredictable new entities and conditions appear Central metaphor: an ecology composed of diverse (living and non-living) actors Nested interconnected scales: the meso becomes very important Closed system: relatively predictable Central metaphor: the machine that collapses if it is not properly maintained Separate scales/linear connection: micro, macro
  29. 29. Table 2.3 Framing as Machine versus Complex Living Systems Machine/industrial perspective City system example Planning system example Industry seeks “single point” and “closed loop” (pp.33-35, Merry 1995) repetitive processes that constantly produce the same result, but in living systems, repetition occurs but never produces exactly the same result. To (re)produce a rational city, planners apply zoning by-laws, transport modelling, etc. modelled on closed loop approaches, sometimes placing human and non-human living systems at risk. In its attempts to act as a predictable and closed system, the planning system excludes many of those affected. When machines break down they cease to function; living systems, however, tend to reorganize and generate new ways to function Politicians, media and others threaten “collapse” if highways are not built, but in fact, when they are closed or eliminated, the city adapts and moves on. Rather than “wrench-in- the-works” citizen participation opens up debate and new possibilities Focus on rules, repetition and conformity, rather than recognizing the presence and value of self- generating and self-managing systems. Police repression of young people who use parks for juggling, street theatre and barter on weekends -- they don’t recognize the value of a self- managing system applied in public space. Self-generating, autonomous citizens’ movements and institutions may be seen as problematic rather than ideal partners in managing the complex city system. Source: Own elaboration, based on Merry (1995), De Roo and Silva (2010), Portugali (2011) and Innes and Booher (2010). Collapse??? Reorganizati on
  30. 30. 2. Cycleinclusion: collaborative planning for rapid change
  31. 31. Full integration of cycle users into the planning, organization and functioning of the city and complementary systems, particularly education, health, inclusion, and the guarantee of social, economic and cultural rights.
  32. 32. CONTEXT: Like watersheds, street sheds communicate, connect, isolate and separate the city. Enormous power…
  33. 33. The fewer the cars on your street, the more people you will meet, the more social relations, the more mental and physical health…
  34. 34. Streets % of urban territory “Developed” New York, 22% London, 23% Tokyo, 24% Paris, 25%. “Developing” Shanghai, 7.5% Bangkok, 11.4% Delhi, 21% Sao Paulo, 21%. (Vasconcellos, 2001) Green space Optimum: 40 m2/capita International minimum (WHO): 9m2/cap. Berlin: 60.0 m2/cap. Curitiba: 51.0 m2/cap. Cordoba: 9.6 m2/cap. Madrid:7.0 m2/cap. Santiago: 3.2 m2/cap. Sao Paulo: 2.7 m2/cap.
  35. 35. Festivals and street fairs, in Buenos Aires, Santiago and Sao Paulo
  36. 36. Japanese fair and Metro station, Sao Paulo
  37. 37. Nury Gatica, founder of Living city (Ciudad Viva), third generation flower vendor; streets fairs (Sao Paolo).
  38. 38. Arte Reciclaje Servicios
  39. 39. Santiago, The community proposes improving Barrio Bellavista’s main street, Santiago 2003. Inaugurated 2008.
  40. 40. Delhi, March 2012
  41. 41. …the full integration of cycling considerations into the city and planning systems, through diverse measures developed over the past 40 years by cyclists and planners, particularly in The Netherlands
  42. 42. Santiago: BEFORE (1980s - 2007) “Get yourself a car, Buddy” pro-car advertising campaign that marked more than a decade of social thinking about cycling…
  43. 43. AFTER: CYCLE MASTER PLAN PARTICIPATORY PROCESS = PROGRESS US$45 mn for cycling facilities Master plan result of consensus- building Km of cycling facilities quadrupled (2007-2012) Cyclists on main routes up 20- 25% per year, 2007-2014. 3% modal share (2006) to 7% (2012) Women 1/3 cyclists Presidential priority, beyond elections
  44. 44. Ciudad Viva, I-CE, Metro Santiago Regional Government (GORE) & Ciclistas Unidos de Chile (2007-2010)
  45. 45. “ECOLOGIES OF ACTORS” (EVANS) Aprovechar la diversidad: superar divisiones, construir puentes Dejar de disputar quién era “dueño” del tema: todos tienen un rol, un nicho. Necesitamos •muchas organizaciones y actores •aliados entre técnicos y políticos •otros grupos, especialmente caminantes, y los diferentemente capacitados Bicicultura, CicloRecreovía, Ciclistas Universidad Central, Club Burunú (Gran Avenida), YMCA , Mujeres Arriba de la Cleta Ciudad Viva
  46. 46. Partnership with Dutch experts, Interface for Cycling Expertise, and global network Dutch and global expertise, thanks to Interface for Cycling Expertise, and its network (India, Africa, Europa, L.
  47. 47. 1. Working group: Adaptation of Dutch CROW design manual to our reality 2. Newsletter Ciudad Sustentable 3. Santiago Green Map, with cycle routes (not infrastructure, real routes, used by real cyclists) 4. Technical commission of all government departments, with citizen representation 5. Citizen-Regional Government roundtable, with municipalities, civil society groups, and ministerial representatives (sports, culture, public works, transport) Small working groups and Citizen- Government roundtable, co-chaired by citizen rep and Santiago governor
  48. 48. 3. Lessons — for BRT?
  49. 49. Interactions that produce systemic change
  50. 50. In the planning system
  51. 51. Citizens with good ideas Technical staff Politicians Change (laws, regulations, procedures, policies, programs, projects) Technical staff
  52. 52. Nacional Regional Local Regional
  53. 53. variegated collection of organizations that constitute the state (Evans 2002) Politica l Technical Active citizens Private interests Active citizens Elite Excluded
  54. 54. Politica l Technical Private interests Active citizens Transparency Democratization Sustainability Academic knowledge variegated collection of organizations that constitute the state (Evans 2002)
  55. 55. The importance of civil society (organized citizens)
  56. 56. And the kind of “participation” Susskind et al. 1983. Conflicto Paternalismo Coproducción
  57. 57. Delivers information Controls Imposes Power ¡Yes! Citizens
  58. 58. Individual and collective learning and development Capacity for change Builds autonomous active citizens Power ¡No!Citizens Coordinadora No a la Costanera Norte, movimientos de Aisén, Freirina, movimiento estudiantil, otros.
  59. 59. Two faces of the same coin Exclusion-Inclusion Discrimination-Power behind the scenes Power ¡No! ¡Sí! Citizens
  60. 60. More fruitful: C Power Deliberation Diversity Interdependence (Booher & Innes 2002) I understand Builds strategic conviction Systemic change Credibility and continuity Mesa Ciudadanía - Gobierno para el Plan de Ciclo Rutas del Bicentenario (2007- 2010), con asesoría holandesa.
  61. 61. Clientship Citizenship Competes against rivals Autonomous political agency Expects favours Demands political rights Negotiates without challenging the authoritarian framework Exercises civil rights Interactions framed as personal ties Interactions framed by social rights Assumes inequality and does not attempt to change it Requires equality and struggles to establish it where it does not exist Source: Own elaboration using definitions by Lucy Taylor (2004).
  62. 62. Diverse Interdependent With different profiles, leaderships, strategies and organizations, and some common objectives Live and let live, collaborate where we agree
  63. 63. Matrix. Mapping the Complexity of Pro-Cycling Actors Single issue Multi-issue Single tactic (1-3) Movimiento de Furiosos Ciclistas, CicloRecreovía Bicipaseos Patrimoniales (heritage + cycling); Mujeres arriba de la Cleta (Escuela BiciMujer), women+cycling Multi-tactic (+3 tactics) Bicicultura (festival, mapeo, cultura, lobby, estudios) Ciudad Viva (heritage, public and active transport, democratization of urban planning, recycling)
  64. 64. No country has achieved steady progress toward cycleinclusion without a diverse, complex, robust ecology of citizen organizations st is our ecology of citizens for BRT and public t
  65. 65. In the city system…
  66. 66. Urban measures • US$48 million fund for cycling infrastructure • Training in traffic calming and other diverse measures • Training in quality infrastructure, standards • Vision beyond cycle paths Cycling economy • More bikes for women, cargo, packaging, etc. • Better trained consultants for design and planning • Studies tendered for bikeshare Behavioural change • Training in civil society and participatory methods • Design, testing and ongoing realization of women’s cycling school • More diverse media presence • Links with culture, gender, recyclers, and other groups/issues
  67. 67. Urban measures • US$48 million fund for cycling infrastructure • Training in traffic calming and other diverse measures • Training in quality infrastructure, standards • Vision beyond cycle pathsCycling economy • More bikes for women, cargo, packaging, etc. • Better trained consultants for design and planning • Studies tendered for bikeshare Behavioural change • Training in civil society and participatory methods • Design, testing and ongoing realization of women’s cycling school • More diverse media presence • Links with culture, gender, recyclers, and other groups/issues
  68. 68. Urban measures Cycling economy Behavioural change
  69. 69. Urban measures Cycling economy Behavioural change
  70. 70. Could these “levers for change” be relevant for other transport forms?
  71. 71. An industry and a financial product A culture and a way of life A globalization based on cheap energy and unbridled consumption (by a tiny minority at the expense of the majority) A potent symbol inciting competition beyond ethical and moral limits, The result of 50 years of intense propaganda (like the cigarette), i.e. there is nothing “natural” or “inevitable” about it.
  72. 72. A century of car-centred planning Economy deeply linked with banks, tourism, manufacturing, etc. Billions in advertising and associated behavioural modification efforts All work together very effectively
  73. 73. Urban measures: some segregated busways, few complete grids (none?) Economy (new jobs, direct and indirect) ??? Customer “information”, few efforts to excite, seduce, attract, win hearts BRT
  74. 74. We need to partner with cyclists and other sustainable transport modes We need to build powerful alliances favouring sustainable transport We need to build robust civil society ecologies to achieve our goals
  75. 75. We need to know more about social sustainability, especially the politics of sustainability and social justice, as they relate to cities and “transport-sheds” We should complement models using simple causality models with complex causality approaches We need to take civil society organization and participatory theory and practice much more seriously.
  76. 76. Laboratory for Social Change A space for research in the community, with the community, led by Transport Engineering (PUC) and Living City, which brings together leaders and partners working in the Living Laboratory of real cities. With support from the Center for Sustainable Urban Development (Cedeus) and the Across Latittudes and Cultures, Center for BRT Excellence Gracias Dr. Lake Sagaris