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MEDIA IN LEBANONTowards Enhancing Freedom of Expression              POLICY BRIEF
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                                                                         ...
FRAMING THE ISSUEThe Problem                                .Historically, Lebanon has beenportrayed as a center of human ...
LOOKING AT EXISTING POLICIES, LAWSAND PRACTICESDespite the protection of freedom of expression and civil liberties in Leba...
CONSIDERING POLICY OPTIONS                                                                                                ...
RECOMMENDING POLICYEnhancing Freedom of Expression and Independent MediaThe challenges to freedom of expression and the gr...
THE WAY FORWARDPillar                                   PillarOpen Up Media Ownership                  Eliminating censors...
THE WAY FORWARDPillar                                                                             Existing Studies and Pro...
FUTURE ACTION                                                                    SHORT TO MEDIUM TERM                     ...
ILLUSTRATIVE ACTIVITIESDuring the last decade, several initiatives have sought to further freedom ofexpression and indepen...
ENGAGING WITH DIFFERENT                                                               PARTIAL LIST OF REFERENCESSTAKEHOLDE...
PARTIAL LIST OF REFERENCES	    Memorandum on the Draft Law Amending the Press Law of Lebanon (July 2009). Article 19,     ...
Media in Lebanon -English
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Media in Lebanon -English


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This policy proposal aspires to:
 Create more credible, representative, and non-partisan media outlets;
 Redesign the laws and standards of governance for the media sector; and
 Eliminating censorship and proposing alternative regulatory policies.

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Media in Lebanon -English

  1. 1. MEDIA IN LEBANONTowards Enhancing Freedom of Expression POLICY BRIEF
  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Lebanese media institutions are This policy proposal aspires to: an extension of sectarian politics and partisan public officials. Rather Create more credible, than creating an issue-based representative, and non-partisan accountability and participation media outlets; culture, media outlets are the mouthpiece of political leaders Redesign the laws and standards and a powerful tool for sectarian of governance for the media sector; incitement and polarization at the social, political, ideological, and Eliminating censorship and socio-economic levels. proposing alternative regulatory policies. While Lebanon’s Constitution and ratified international statutes Adoption and implementation of emphasize freedom of belief and these policies requires a long-term expression, current governing process that starts by documenting frameworks make it impossible for and researching relevant tools and citizens to access and influence the decisions, gaining the support of a media industry. maximum number of citizens, and pushing for reforms of media-related Media, a cornerstone of civil laws, regulations, and practices. society and democratic liberties, needs to be transformed to reflect This policy briefs takes a first step public interests and enable public in this direction by identifying a participation. However, this is multifaceted approach focused on hindered by three main challenges: removing licensing and censorship a weak regulatory framework, lack restrictions to enhance freedom of proper infrastructure for internet of expression, protect media usage and speed, and a vague practitioners, and facilitate the entry censorship policy in the hands of of new actors to the media industry General Security. in Lebanon. With the advent of social media and increased demands for youth and civil society participation, there is an opportunity to deploy national andThis policy brief was developed by Beyond Reform & Development , part of BRD/I Group S.A.L., local efforts aimed at overcoming the in close collaboration with experts, activists and civil society organizations. monopoly over the media scene in Lebanon, 2012 Lebanon. 1
  3. 3. FRAMING THE ISSUEThe Problem .Historically, Lebanon has beenportrayed as a center of human rightsand freedoms in the Arab world.Freedom of expression is enshrinedin the Lebanese Constitution as wellas in international treaties to whichLebanon is a party.In practice, however, the country’s Situation Brief The Urgencymedia industry presents a differentimage, with serious threats to There are many challenges facing With the evolution of social media,freedom of expression, lack of freedom of expression and Lebanese citizens display amedia objectivity, and constraints independent media in Lebanon, strong interest and willingness toto the growth of independent media. including: contribute more freely to mediaContrary to other Arab countries, content, but are unable to do 1. Media ownership and content isthe state does not control media so. The rise in sectarianism and controlled by political figures.outlets, and state media is among polarization calls for issue-basedthe least viewed. Instead, Lebanon 2. Vague and outdated press and and citizen-centric media.has in place a number of media broadcasting laws lead to low Opening up media spaces caninstitutions that are an extension of accountability in media performance reposition Lebanon as a trueits sectarian politics, a reflection of and the media sector in general. sanctuary of press libertiesforeign interests, and a mouthpiece 3. Overlapping roles and unclear and freedom of expression. Atfor public officials. There is a broad jurisdiction of public institutions the same time, an alternativeconsensus that the Lebanese and media regulating bodies. and inclusive post-productionmedia is politicized, partisan, regulatory framework is essentialunrepresentative and unregulated, 4. Inefficiency of professional unions for enhancing the quality of mediaand used as a tool for political control in protecting the rights of journalists outlets and creating accountabilityand polarization. and bloggers. mechanisms. 5. Inconsistent censorship systemIn addition, a Censorship Bureau without clear standards and ”within General Security controls regulations, contributing to the The continuous decline in thecontent and deprives citizens restriction of rights. role of the media in Lebanonfrom access to various cultural,educational, and political sources 6. Distribution of media ownership will lead to the decline of licenses highly dependent on political the role of the state, andof information. It also suffers from consequently, to its death.lack of clear regulations, poormanagement, and subjective content decisions. 7. Absence of access to information ” Abdel Hadi Mahfouz, Director of the Nationalanalysis. laws. Council for Media2 3
  4. 4. LOOKING AT EXISTING POLICIES, LAWSAND PRACTICESDespite the protection of freedom of expression and civil liberties in Lebanon’sConstitution, this has not been institutionalized into proper frameworks to 1 Press Freedom & Civil Libertiesregulate and support media content. This section presents existing policies and 2 Protect Media Practitionerstheir shortcomings. In assessing these policies, we used three key indicatorsthat are essential for any policy option aimed at enhancing freedom of expressionand improving the quality and performance of media institutions: 3 Enable Entry To Media Industry1. preserve press freedoms and civil liberties2. protect media practitioners Policy3. enable entry to the media industry Law Assessment Practice Policy > There are highly complex and intertwined relationships between Law Assessment Public Institutions’ Jurisdictions different institutions, causing an overlap in roles, responsibilities, Practice and jurisdiction. > The Ministry of Information and regulating bodies (including Lebanese Constitution: Introduction & Article 13 > As overarching pieces of legislation, the Lebanese Constitution and International Declaration for Human Rights state that freedom of the judiciary) reflect political and sectarian divisions in their expression is a guaranteed citizen right. management and in the distribution of licenses to media outlets. > However, they are not translated into existing laws and legal > Censorship bodies lack autonomy from political and sectarian frameworks, and are therefore not enforced properly. influence, and lack clear orientations in censorship principles. > Nevertheless, they can be used to build arguments for suggested > Media councils operate on a minimal basis due to limited funding policy amendments. and unclear roles. > A limited number of journalists are part of unions due to outdated > The Press Law and Broadcast Law limit the creation of new media Role of Media procedures and restricted benefits, as well as the prevalence of 1994 Broadcast Law outlets by introducing a licensing system with extremely high fees. partisan influence. 1960 Press Law Unions > They include vaguely formulated constraints and censorship > Unions do not have power or competencies to support journalists mechanisms that result in random filtering of information, content, or monitor media outlets. and ideas. > Heads of unions are assigned based on sectarian quotas. > They allow financial control by the state and do not properly protect the rights of media workers and content developers. Internal Governance > From ownership to hiring, content development, and internal of Media Outlets governance, political parties and political figures are involved in > Censorship regulations include vague and unclear mechanisms overall media management, making media outlets inaccessible to Regulations Censorship for censorship, resulting in subjective influence over the flow of the younger generation of media practitioners and aspiring media information. owners. > They enable a high level of state interference in the transmission of > This affects content, transparency, and the politicized role played information. by existing outlets.4 5
  5. 5. CONSIDERING POLICY OPTIONS “ Media outlets should focus on solutions rather than transmitting negative messages and spreading despair. ” Dr. Arda Ekmekji, The following table describes policy options for enhancing freedom of expression Dean of the Faculty of Arts& Sciences thorough research and participatory consultations with stakeholders around the Haigazian University country. Each policy is based on different assumptions, has a specific objective and strategies, and presents both advantages and disadvantages. Policy Assumptions Objectives Strategies Advantages Disadvantages Experts’ Take Policy options options1 1 Reforming Media Legislation Reforming Media Legislation > Reforming press and “The continuous decline broadcasting laws can in the role of the media > Pass a new media > Long-term process guarantee freedom > Creates a democratic in Lebanon will lead law with clear division that requires a clear of expression and > Support and advocate means of regulating the to the decline of the of mandates among lobbying strategy role of the state, and promote transparency for a new media law media industry while regulatory agencies, with no guarantee of consequently, to its and accountability in through direct lobbying protecting the rights of transparent decision- proper implementation, death." the media sector, while of decision-makers. journalists and media making mechanisms, and particularly if the Abdel Hadi Mahfouz, allowing new, non- professionals. new licensing practices. judicial system is weak. Director of the National politicized voices to enter Council for Media the media sphere.2 2 ture and Internet Freedom ture and Internet Freedom Improving ICT Infrastruc- Improving ICT Infrastruc- > Improving the state “Improving internet > Provide basic infrastructure is the of the internet will > Faces resistance, infrastructure and a > Create a legislative > Can lead to rapid quickest and most allow easy access to specifically from regulatory framework framework to protect change in the media efficient method we information, foster government and public can use to achieve the to empower newcomers internet freedom, while sphere, promote freedom the growth of new and institutions, slowing change we aim for in to the media scene improving broadband of expression, and expand unconventional media down the change the media sphere.” and protect freedom of and telecom services. access to information. channels, and enhance process. Rouba Helou, Communication expression. freedom of expression. Expert and Journalist3 3 Alternative Regulatory Policies Alternative Regulatory Policies > Faces resistance Eliminating Censorship with Eliminating Censorship with from religious groups “Internet censorship and media restrictions are > Eliminating censorship who will loose their increasing as a result > Support campaigns will encourage citizens > Foster respect for > Can lead to concrete control over cultural of sectarianism and against General to have constructive freedom of expression to change in a short period aspects, and from partisan interests, and Security censorship there is a strong need discussions about respond to citizen needs, of time, while creating a the existing political and propose legal to join efforts and sensitive issues and aspirations, and main more open and tolerant groups who will no reforms and decrees to speak up to change this limit the state’s political concerns. environment. longer have the ability reality.” eliminate censorship.. interference. to use censorship as Ayman Mhanna, SKeyes a means to create Executive Director sectarian balance. 6 7
  6. 6. RECOMMENDING POLICYEnhancing Freedom of Expression and Independent MediaThe challenges to freedom of expression and the growth of independent mediain Lebanon are complex, multilayered, and tied to the financial interests of “ The rise of sectarianism and polarization calls for issue-based and citizen-centric media.political and sectarian groups. Addressing these challenges thus requiresa multidimensional approach that draws on all three of the policy options ”mentioned above.While all of the suggested policy options are important to enhancing freeexpression, this policy brief focuses on three critical pillars that are most urgentand actionable by civil society organizations (CSOs):Pillar PillarOpen up media ownership Eliminating censorship and proposing This approach will advance freedom In the long run, complementaryby removing the monopoly over media alternative regulatory policies. of expression and the growth of efforts should include:through reforming media legislation, This offers citizens the means independent media by removingwhich includes licensing and to engage freely with traditional barriers to entry in the media industry,ownership regulations. Current media and social media as a means decreasing media monopolization Modernizeing outdated andlicensing and ownership practices of political participation, while in the hands of political figures, sometimes contradictory media-constrain the role of the media as alternative post-production eliminating government censorship, related laws,platforms for free expression and regulations create accountability and creating a more enablingmeaningful exchange of information. mechanisms for media outlets. Improving ICT infrastructure and environment for social and online access, and media. Preserving internet freedom. Pillar Improve internet infrastructure and speed to facilitate the growth of alternative media channels and expand the space for citizens to express their ideas.8 9
  7. 7. THE WAY FORWARDPillar PillarOpen Up Media Ownership Eliminating censorship Existing Anti-Censorship Efforts and proposing alternative regulatory policies > SKeyes is exposing government censorship and fostering dialogue on thisUnder current media regulations, it is Vague censorship policies place issue through periodic reports, events, and the web series “Mamnoo3”extremely difficult for new television ample discretionary powers in (“Forbidden”).stations and newspapers to obtain the hands of General Security’slicenses due to legal and financial Censorship Bureau, which is > MARCH, a local NGO, has researched and compiled cases of governmentbarriers. The Maharat Foundation influenced by religious institutions censorship in a “Virtual Museum of Censorship” (www.censorshiplebanon.developed a draft law to reform the and political parties. CSOs have org), among other awareness activities and sector in collaboration with launched several campaigns other CSOs and non-governmental criticizing the mandate of the Social Media Exchange (SMEX) and Ontornet, among other NGOs, have >organizations (NGOs), which is being Censorship Bureau and its decisions launched a campaign against the Lebanese Internet Regulation Actdiscussed within parliamentary to censor movies, books, theater (LIRA), which has yet to be passed but which has in its current form highcommittees. The proposed law performances, and other forms of degrees of censorship over online content.includes a set of reforms, the most expression. These have included Theimportant of which is modification of Virtual Museum of Censorship and > The media law is currently being debated in parliamentary committees.licensing rules to foster the growth the web series Mamnou3!of independent media outlets. Thecurrent situation presents two The current situation calls for anchallenges: approach focused on: During parliamentary committee Designing a policy that respectsdiscussions, it is important to freedom of expression while takingmaintain the integrity of the law into consideration the realities of theproposal developed by civil society local context. and prevent major changes thatwould dilute the impact of key Forming an alternative andreforms, particularly those related to inclusive structure to oversee a post-media licensing and ownership. production regulatory framework instead of prior censorship. The timeframe betweenconcluding parliamentary committee Convincing the executive branchdiscussions, placing the new law on to reform current censorshipthe agenda of the General Assembly, policies and practices.and voting on it might be long,especially since there is a backlog of300 law proposals that Parliamenthas yet to vote on.10 11
  8. 8. THE WAY FORWARDPillar Existing Studies and Proposals on Media Governance,Improve Internet Censorship, and Media ReformsInfrastructure and SpeedOne of the main obstacles to Civil society can support existing > Recommendations from the Internews Network, published in 2009, arebetter internet infrastructure is initiatives to increase internet speed a solid starting point for setting new internal governance standards forgovernance of the sector. There such as the “Ontornet” campaign the media industry.are overlapping responsibilities demanding the implementation of af- fordable, high-speed internet across > The Heinrich Böll Foundation presented recommendations for fightingbetween the Information andCommunication Technology (ICT) the country ( and censorship in a study titled “Censorship in Lebanon: Law and Practice.”Strategy Coordination Unit within the the “Broadband Manifesto” issued by > In 2011, the Maharat Foundation presented a media law reform proposalPrime Minister’s Office, the Ministry the Internet Society-Lebanon Chap-of Telecommunications, the state- ter (ISOC, based on a consensual process that involved all major stakeholders inrun telecom provider OGERO, the the media sector.Telecom Regulatory Authority, and > The Lebanese Association for Democratic Elections (LADE), in partnershipthe Office of the Minister of State forAdministrative Reform (OMSAR). The with media entities and with support from the European Union Afkargovernment thus exercises a virtual program, launched a code of conduct for Lebanese journalists, whichmonopoly over the internet sector. was signed but not endorsed as a binding policy.The main reason behind low internetspeed is the weak infrastructure for > The Arab Rule of Law Initiative published a study on the state of thebroadband access. In light of these media in Lebanon highlighting limitations over ownership and content.factors, civil society efforts should > The International Press Initiative published a report titled “Media infocus on: Lebanon: Reporting on a Nation Divided” describing how the media is In the short term, advocate a reflection of sectarian politics, but the recommendations were notimprovements of the internet translated into concrete initiatives.infrastructure to the Ministry of > OMSAR developed in 2003 an ICT strategy with seven pillars forTelecommunications and OGERO. reforming the ICT sector. In the long term, push for > ISOC issued the “Broadband Manifesto” calling for better broadbandrestructuring governance of the connectivity.internet sector to liberate it fromgovernment monopoly. > Law Proposal Number 435 calls for regulating and reforming the telecom sector. > Ontornet launched a campaign in 2011 calling for faster internet speed.12 13
  9. 9. FUTURE ACTION SHORT TO MEDIUM TERM LONG TERM National Level Local Level National Level Local Level Outcome Expected Outcome Expected A new media law is passed that includes open media ownership with low Grassroots community-level media outlets are created and spread across financial barriers for new entrants the country Open Up Media Open Up Media Ownership Ownership Build a coalition of CSOs, NGOs, and Support the establishment of Create a collaborative, inclusive, Foster networking between local Strategy social media activists to monitor new local media outlets, and progressive, and sustainable Strategy media outlets to feed into a national parliamentary committee discussions assist existing ones in expanding media outlet that can contribute outlet and share technical and and General Assembly voting on the their reach and increasing their to elevating citizen concerns and financial resources. proposed law sustainability issues Eliminating Censorship with Outcome Expected Alternative regulatory policy reforms are adopted by the Cabinet, all types Eliminating Censorship with Outcome Expected A new regulatory framework to guarantee freedom of expression and curb of censorship are eliminated, and a committee is formed to implement new Regulatory Policies censorship is developed and endorsed by a large number of stakeholders Regulatory Policies regulations Develop a new inclusive regulatory Launch a campaign bringing framework to replace censorship Develop a social media platform Strategy together CSOs, NGOs, and social Encourage local media outlets to Strategy policy, based on documented cases that documents and exposes media activists to put pressure expose and publicize government and practices by General Security’s the government’s censorship on government to adopt the policy censorship practices Censorship Bureau and benchmarks practices and create a committee with other countries Outcome Expected Improve Internet Infrastructure Improve Internet Infrastructure Outcome Expected Internet speed is improved due to development of the network and The internet sector is liberated and not monopolized by government, and the infrastructure as well as the availability of the needed budget to sustain it sector is organized within an effective governance model Research and recommend a Leverage and strengthen existing Organize and mobilize local governance model for the internet Decentralize national campaigns campaigns by expanding outreach to Strategy Strategy stakeholders to increase pressure sector and increase pressure on to multiply their effects locally to other stakeholders such as the private on local MPs, linking internet government to liberate the sector increase internet access and speed sector, NGOs, and the media and use speed to local development through direct actions led by at the local level direct actions to call for faster internet existing campaigns14 15
  10. 10. ILLUSTRATIVE ACTIVITIESDuring the last decade, several initiatives have sought to further freedom ofexpression and independent media, including attempts to establish a code of “ An alternative and inclusive post-production regulatory frameworkconduct for journalists and legislative proposals to improve media regulations. is essential for enhancing the quality of media outlets and creatingThese have yet to translate into concrete results. The advent of social media and accountability mechanisms.its popularity among youth, coupled with an increase in online news agencies, are ”indicators of interest and readiness by citizens to play a more influential role inmedia. Removing licensing restrictions, curbing censorship, and improving theinternet infrastructure are critical steps for Lebanon to open the media industryto new entrants and aspiring groups.The following are suggestions for illustrative activities based on expert roundtables,interviews, and focus groups, which can be adopted by NGOs, CSOs, and CBOs tofoster freedom of expression and independent media.Illustrative Activities at the Illustrative Activities at theNational Level: Local Level: Expose documented cases of media Establish a committee of experts to Link media freedoms and internet Invite municipalities to support media censorship. review and reform governance of the rights to basic standards of living and projects and purchase of new licenses. ICT sector. local development. Document and raise awareness on Lobby MPs to adopt new proposals mismanagement of General Security’s Support innovative television and radio Provide incentives for municipalities to curb censorship and open media Censorship Bureau. programs that encourage freedom of to start new media outlets focusing ownership to new entrants. expression. on democratic dialogue and local Work with universities to establish Advocate for reforms aimed at curbing development issues. media clubs. government censorship. Initiate creative platforms to encourage dialogue and free expression on Showcase successful cases of local Create a lobbying group of new priority issues, including current use of media and internet to raise aspiring media owners and content censorship policies. awareness and influence the national developers. agenda of MPs and Cabinet members. Lobby MPs and parliamentary Propose amendments to existing committees to review and endorse Advocate to improve internet speed licensing and media ownership Law Proposal 435 for reform of the and access. practices. telecom sector. Encourage the dissemination of Launch loan and incubator projects for Increase pressure on government to citizen-generated content online and interested new media owners. enhance broadband infrastructure via national news agencies. Monitor media performance and through creative direct action and alliances with international internet Help establish small online media expose biased coverage and sectarian activists. outlets covering local issues. incitement.16 17
  11. 11. ENGAGING WITH DIFFERENT PARTIAL LIST OF REFERENCESSTAKEHOLDERSThe suggested policy option must be endorsed by key stakeholders and policy- Arab Rule of Law Initiative. State of Media in Lebanon. Retrieved from http://www.arabruleoflaw. org/Files/PDF/Media/Arabic/P2/MediaLebanonReportP2S2_AR.pdfmakers to be implemented. The influence that the various stakeholders yieldon the decision-making process will determine how they should be engaged “Artist Facing Jail Time: ‘Freedom of Expression Is a Myth in Lebanon.’” (April 6, 2012). Ya Libnan. Retrieved from the messages they should receive. Below is a list of stakeholders to be expressionis-a-myth-in-lebanon/considered. Chahine, J. (May 5, 2004). “Lebanese Media Fractured, Politicized.” The Daily Star.> President of the Republic > International > Media development Retrieved from> Cabinet of Ministers media associations organizations “Circumventing Censors” (September 2012). Al-Ahram Weekly Online, Issue 1114. Cairo.> Ministry of Information > NGOs, CSOs, CBOs > Syndicates of> Other Ministries > International journalists & editors Ekmekji, A., Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Haigazian University (September 19,> Parliamentary Committee media agencies > Production companies 2012). Personal interview by A. Hmayed, BRD/I. on Media > Lebanese diaspora & publishing houses Feintuck, M. (1999) Media Regulation, Public Interest and the Law. Edinburgh: University of> National Council for > Existing media > Academia & research Edinburgh Press. Media outlets institutes Freedom in the World 2005 - Lebanon (2005). Freedom of Expression, Freedom House. Article> Political parties > New small media > Advertising agencies 19. London.> Municipalities outlets> ICT Coordination Unit at > Bloggers Helou, R., Communication Expert and Journalist (October 5, 2012). the Prime Minister’s office Personal interview by N. Menhall, BRD/I.> General Security Internews Network (2009). Behind the Scenes: Transparency in Lebanese Media Business Practices.Each of these entities requires a different strategy and approach to ally it with Kraidy, M. (2011). Media Reform in Lebanon: New Media, New Politics? Annenberg Schoolthe suggested policy. The following table highlights the incentives for the key for Communication University of Pennsylvania.stakeholders to adopt or support the proposed policy. These incentives can form Krischer, O. (August 2012). Censorship in Lebanon. Art Asia Pacific. Lebanon.the basis for developing communication messages to persuade the stakeholders Retrieved from take action. Maharat Foundation, Mahfouz, A., Director of the National Council for Media (September 3, 2012). Personal Stakeholders Incentives interview by A. Hmayed, BRD/I. Parliamentary Rebuild trust and credibility with constituents and McNally, R. (January 4, 2012). Comparative Media Law in the MENA Region. MENA City Blocks and Lawyers (MCL). Lebanon. improve communication channels with them Committees Media in Lebanon: Part Two. Arab Center for the Development of Rule of Law and Cabinet & Improve civic engagement and responsibility through Integrity (ACRLI). Retrieved from Ministries enhanced outreach to citizens MediaLebanonReportP2S2_AR.pdf ICT Coordination Media Law Proposal. (n.d.). Maharat Foundation. Retrieved from Increase ability to implement the ICT strategy and wp-content/uploads/2011/02/media-law-proposal2.pdf Unit and Telecom Regulatory engage citizens in the process Media Situation in Lebanon (2006). The National Commission on Electoral Law. Retrieved Authority from Rebuild trust and credibility in the media sector and Media Sustainability Index: Developing Independent and Sustainable Media in Lebanon Syndicates and (2010). IREX. Media Outlets improve membership base Melki, J., Dabbous, Y., Nasser, K. et al. (March 15, 2012). Mapping Digital Media in Lebanon. Create new alternative form of participation, Open Society Foundation. London. NGOs, CSOs, & communication, and outreach and increase civil society CBOs influence within the public sphere18 19
  12. 12. PARTIAL LIST OF REFERENCES Memorandum on the Draft Law Amending the Press Law of Lebanon (July 2009). Article 19, London. Monitor for the Situation of Women and Children. (2009). Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS): Final Report. Lebanon. Mouhanna, A., SKeyes Executive Director (September 3, 2012). Personal interview by N. Menhall, BRD/I. Moukhayber, G. (2010). Motives of the Law Proposal. Murr, A., Chief Executive Officer of El Nashra (September 7, 2012). Personal interview by N. Menhall, BRD/I. Open Society Foundation. Digital Media in Lebanon. Retrieved from http://www. Power, C. (2006). Media in Lebanon: Reporting on a Nation Divided. International Press Institute. Retrieved from Lebanon_Mission_Report.pdf Press and Cultural Freedom In Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Palestine (2011). Samir Kassir Foundation Annual Report. Lebanon. Puddephatt, A. (2006). Defining Indicators of Media Development. IPDC Intergovernmental Council, 25th session. Saghieh, N., Saghieh, R. Geagea, N. (n.d.). Censorship in Lebanon: Law and Practice. Heinrich Böll Foundation. Retrieved from Sharro, K. (2011, November 10). The Paradoxes of Free Speech in Lebanon: Index on Censorship. London. SKeyes, SKeyes (2012). Mamnou3! (web video series). Retrieved from Mamnou3 The Virtual Museum of Censorship (2012). UNESCO (2009). The Regulatory Environment for Broadcasting: An International Best Practice Survey for Brazilian Stakeholders.20