Corruption in Public Institutions-English


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The proposed policy aims at enhancing government transparency by ensuring citizens’ access to information, particularly about the legislative process and public finances, thereby allowing greater civic participation, government transparency and accountability.

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Corruption in Public Institutions-English

  1. 1. Towards the Right for Access to Information POLICY BRIEF
  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYLebanon has one of the most irrelevant. Another challenge facingcorrupt governance systems in the anti-corruption initiatives is theworld. Both a result and a cause need for efficient accountabilityof the persistence of its sectarian mechanisms and institutions assystem, corruption creates endemic well as an independent judiciary inclientelism that negatively influences order to create an overall enablingcitizen participation, socio-economic environment.development, and governmentperformance. The proposed policy aims at enhancing governmentAlthough Parliament ratified the transparency by ensuring citizens’United Nations Convention Against access to information, particularlyCorruption (UNCAC) in 2008, about the legislative processLebanon continues to be plagued and public finances, therebyby rampant corruption due to allowing greater civic participation,structural, institutional, social and government transparency andeconomic factors. Lack of access to accountability.information, inability to monitor publicspending, and weak accountability This policy proposal aspires to fightmechanisms are among the many corruption by:reasons contributing to corruption.In addition, the sectarian system of Improving access to informationpower-sharing does not allow for laws;horizontal accountability among the Improving transparency of thedifferent branches of government. legislative process;The political and economic costs of Enhancing public budgetcorruption threaten the country’s transparency.stability, growth, and democraticsystem. In the last two decades, Adopting and enforcing thecivil society organizations (CSOs) implementation of these policieshave tackled this issue but have requires a long-term processnot succeeded in persuading that starts by documenting anddecision-makers of real changes researching relevant tools andand required reforms. Though anti- decisions, piloting action with acorruption laws are being negotiated maximum number of citizens,in parliamentary committees, and supporting government inthere is the risk that they may not implementing reforms.pass or that they may be amendedto such a degree as to become 1
  3. 3. FRAMING THE ISSUEThe ProblemThe Lebanese Parliament ratified theUnited Nations Convention AgainstCorruption (UNCAC) in 2008. TheConvention proposes measures to Lebanese Citizens cannotprevent and criminalize corruption, access the voting records of committee meetings ofpromote international cooperation, MPs.and facilitate asset recovery. Yet (Lebanese Parliamentary bylaws)Lebanon continues to suffer fromsevere corruption due to structural,institutional, social and economicfactors. Lack of access to information,inability to monitor publicspending, and weak accountability Situation Brief The Urgencymechanisms are among the manyreasons contributing to high rates of Lebanon faces high political andcorruption. The following challenges hinder economic risks and citizens cannot efforts to combat corruption and afford an increase in public debt andCorruption in Lebanon exists in enhance government performance: continuing deterioration of publicall its forms, including bribery, 1. Confessional power-sharing leads services. Fighting corruption isnepotism, favoritism, patronage, to the distribution of public assets becoming a priority for Lebanon’sembezzlement, and vote-buying. The and resources based on sectarian political, economic, and democraticsectarian system is an enabler for interests. development. Concrete measuresmany corrupt practices that result to fight corruption and improvein economic monopolies, unfair 2. Lack of awareness of the causes government performance are neededdistribution of public assets, and low and consequences of corruption. to restore trust in state institutionslevels of citizen participation. One of 3. Weak and ineffective institutions and and respond to growing economicthe main means to fight corruption mechanisms to fight corruption. crises and social by ensuring citizens’ access toinformation and providing them with 4. Weak legal framework and lack of proper judicial controls. With the intensification ofthe mechanisms to hold government international pressure and buildupaccountable. 5. Endemic nature of corruption, of citizens’ dissatisfaction, it is which affects all levels of government. becoming imperative to ensure 6. Inability of citizens and voters to transparency, accountability and hold public officials accountable. good governance standards within the legislative, executive, and judicial 7. Invisible line between politics and branches. large private corporations. 2 3
  4. 4. LOOKING AT EXISTING POLICIES, LAWSAND PRACTICESThe following policies, laws and practices reflect the choices made by theLebanese government to improve the quality of public services. However, 1 Transparencythroughout our research, we could not identify any clear policy to fight corruption.In assessing existing policies, we used three key indicators that are essential for 2 Accountability Mechanismsany policy option aimed at fighting corruption: 3 Citizen Participation1. guarantee transparency2. provide accountability mechanisms3. allow citizen participation Policy Policy Law Assessment Law AssessmentPractice Practice > Judicial proceedings are slow and do not conform to procedural > Vote-buying is a common practice during parliamentary elections Judicial System & Legal Framework transparency standards. and is impossible to monitor due to bank secrecy, among other reasons. Campaign Finance > The judiciary lacks autonomy and is manipulated by political players. Electoral & > The judicial system, like other public institutions, is affected by > Management of the elections falls under the purview of the Ministry corruption. As a result, courts do not respond to allegations of of Interior and Municipalities and the executive branch, rather than corruption. an independent body, leading to political interference. > Social and economic services are provided by sectarian political parties before and after elections based on partisan interests. The > The internal by-laws of the legislature keep parliamentary committee proceedings secret and do not require publishing MPs’ lack of clear campaign finance controls contributes to corrupt voting records. practices and lack of accountability. Performance Legislative > Due to the confessional system and electoral law, the legislative Information & Communication Technology (ICT) Strategy, Infrastructure & Regulatory Framework branch does not question nor hold the executive branch accountable. > The legislative process is not transparent; law proposals and adopted laws are not easily accessible. > Public institutions are resistant to integrating ICT into their practices due to lack of political will, capacity, and resources. > The technological infrastructure is weak, with slow internet speed > The state budget is neither performance- nor policy-based, but rather and limited broadband access. divided per ministry as a result of clientelism and partisan interests. > Laws related to e-government have yet to be passed, and the ones > The budget development process is inefficient and does not allow for Budgeting that were adopted are not enforced. citizen participation. Public > There is no clear mechanism to monitor spending and access > Lebanon does not have an access to information law and does not financial reports per ministry and public institution. have systemized archiving and publishing mechanisms. > For at least seven years, public budgets have either been delayed or not issued at all.4 5
  5. 5. CONSIDERING POLICY OPTIONS “ Corruption is theof a publicauthority for personal or privateexploits decisions misuse of benefit. It occurs when an incumbent post or a person with authority The following table describes policy options for fighting corruption based on or information for the advantages of his own tribe, group or relatives. ” Towards a National Anti-Corruption Strategy thorough research and participatory consultations with stakeholders around the country. Each policy is based on different assumptions, has a specific objective and strategies, and presents different advantages and disadvantages. Policy Assumptions Objectives Strategies Advantages Disadvantages Experts’ Take Policy options options1 > Transparency in > Provide access > Advocate for the > Proposed laws were > These laws are “Political and sectarian fig- 1 Whistleblower protection Whistleblower protection Access to Information & Access to Information & government decreases to all types of adoption of a set developed according subject to discussions ures are afraid of scandals… corruption as the information pertaining of laws related to to international within Parliament, If citizens had access to performance of politicians to government access to information standards and and might be information, facts and real- becomes more exposed. performance and and whistleblower advocated by a network amended to such a ity, they would use them protect civil servants protection, and monitor of CSOs under previous degree as to lessen to fight corruption at the > Informed citizens who expose acts of their implementation. initiatives, and are their impact on highest levels.” are empowered to hold corruption. being discussed fighting corruption. politicians accountable. in parliamentary Dr. Randa Antoun, Associate committees today. Professor at the American Uni- versity of Beirut2 > Integrating ICT in > Simplify government > Create a legislative > There is an ICT > The e-government “E-governance and a proper 2 government operations procedures, make framework for strategy and a legislative framework ICT infrastructure will streamlines procedures and them accessible to e-government coordination unit is insufficient as provide citizens with the ICT Integration & ICT Integration & E-Government E-Government interactions between public citizens, and publish and enforce its within the Prime it requires a long means to claim their rights, servants and citizens. performance reports implementation, while Minister’s office process of integration and institutions with the related to public improving broadband that has drafted and coordination needed efficiency to pro- > E-government allows services and policies. and telecom services. laws related to to ensure vide services.” easy access to information e-government. implementation and for citizens and contributes enforcement. Salam Yamout, Head of the ICT to national development Coordination Unit, Office of the indicators. Prime Minister3 > A public body is needed > Create a public > Lobby for the > This issue is > Within a weak "Simple anti-corruption 3 to enact the UNCAC and body of lawyers and creation of the being discussed judicial framework, measures by government Higher Commission Higher Commission to Fight Corruption to Fight Corruption develop a national strategy experts focused on Higher Commission in parliamentary the appointment and political parties can to fight corruption. fighting corruption to Fight Corruption committees and is a process for the Higher help citizens feel the differ- and coordinating and ensure CSOs and requirement of the Commission to Fight ence and restore their trust > A public body coordinates implementation of a non-governmental UNCAC that Lebanon Corruption might fall in the state.” efforts to fight corruption national strategy. organizations (NGOs) has ratified. prey to clientelism and becomes a focal point are represented. and render it inactive. Dr. Khalil Gebara, President of for citizen complaints. the Lebanese Center for Good Governance 6 7
  6. 6. RECOMMENDING POLICYAccess to Information LegislationThis policy brief focuses on the first policy option highlighted above—access toinformation and whistleblower protection—as the most urgent and actionable “ Simple anti-corruption measures by government and political partiesby CSOs, NGOs, and community-based organizations (CBOs). can help citizens feel the difference and restore their trust in the state.Citizen access to information is a requirement for any anti-corruption and ” Dr. Khalil Gebara,accountability mechanisms. It is one of the main rights stipulated in Article 19 President of the Lebaneseof the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the UNCAC. Center for Good GovernanceCitizens have the right to know about the performance of their governmentrepresentatives, voting records within Parliament, and how their taxes arespent. Access to information would ensure greater government responsivenessto citizen concerns and accountability of elected officials.The following pillars and arguments illustrate how access to information cancontribute to fighting corruption and promoting government transparency andaccountability:Pillar Pillar PillarPromote access to information Enhance transparency of the Ensure public budget transparency. Create a Higher Commission tolegislation to enforce archiving, legislative process. Parliament’s The budget development and Fight Corruption, and Strengthenanalyzing and publishing of all by-laws should be reformed to monitoring process should be the judiciary and otherrelevant data by public institutions, open parliamentary committee reformed to make it more inclusive, accountability mechanisms,including laws on access to meetings and document MPs’ voting participatory, and transparent. such as the Higher Council forinformation, on whistleblower records and other affairs. Access the Prosecution of Presidents Fighting corruption requires accessprotection, and around illicit wealth. to information allows meaningful and Ministers, the Court of Audit, to information on public financialThese laws go hand in hand to provide citizen participation, representation, and the Civil Service Board. management, starting from thecitizens with the needed information and ability to hold parliamentarians national budget development These institutions wouldand authority to hold public officials, accountable by knowing about their process to spending mechanisms strengthen the notion ofwhile preserving their right to do so debates, stances, and votes on and financial reporting. accountability and supportand not be subjected to threats or issues, in addition to being able toharm. If passed, these laws would monitor the legislative process. In the long run, an access to its implementation, thereforeprovide citizens with mechanisms for information policy should be limiting corruption in publicholding government accountable and complemented with efforts to: institutions.exposing acts of corruption. Promote ICT integration and E-government infrastructure,8 9
  7. 7. THE WAY FORWARDPillarPromote Access to Information Legislation Past Proposals & Reform EffortsThree interrelated law proposals on Launched in 2008, the Lebaneseaccess to information, whistleblower Network for Access to Information, a > In 2012, Beyond Reform and Development (BRD) developed a paperprotection, and illicit wealth are being CSO coalition that played a key role with practical recommendations on ways to enhance citizen-parliamentdiscussed within parliamentary in introducing the laws mentioned relations for improved legislative performance and citizen participation.committees. The next step will be to above, was largely inactive fromput these reforms on the agenda of 2010 to 2012. Efforts to reactivate > The Lebanese Network for Access to Information proposed access tothe Parliament’s General Assembly the network were recently launched, information and whistleblower protection laws that are currently beingfor a vote. The current situation spearheaded by the Lebanese debated in Parliament.presents three key challenges: Transparency Association (LTA), and an LTA representative has been > During discussions in attending parliamentary committee “Towards a National Anti-Corruption Strategy” developed by LTA, parliamentary committees, it meetings. To move the effort forward, proposed a Higher Commission to Fight Corruption, currently being is important to maintain the civil society actors have one of two drafted into a law. integrity of the law proposals options: that were developed by civil > In 2007, Nahwa el Muwatiniya proposed an amended illicit wealth law society to prevent major changes Join the Lebanese Network and obtained the endorsement of some MPs. that would dilute the impact of for Access to Information and the proposed reforms. actively lobby Parliament while > LTA published the Campaign Finance Monitoring Toolkit and monitoring parliamentary The timeframe between Standards in 2009. committee discussions on concluding parliamentary the proposed laws so that key committee debates on the law articles are not changed and are > The Lebanese Association for Democratic Elections (LADE) has proposals, placing them on the put to a General Assembly vote. documented hundreds of cases of vote-buying and campaign spending agenda of the General Assembly, violations. and voting on them might be Launch a parallel campaign, long, especially since there are using social media and creative > In 2005, the Parliament passed the Ombudsman Law. However, the 300 pieces of legislation on the actions, to expose MPs who Ombudsman institution has yet to be established. agenda that have yet to be voted attempt to alter the integrity of on. the proposed laws or who vote against those laws in the General Once a law is passed, the Assembly. executive decrees required to begin implementation of the new law must be issued, which might again take a long time.10 11
  8. 8. THE WAY FORWARDPillar PillarEnhance Transparency of Ensure Public Budget Past Proposals & Reform Effortsthe Legislative Process TransparencyParliament’s current by-laws present Public budget and financial reportsbarriers to access information are posted on the Ministry of Finance > The Arab Network for Social Accountability (ANSA) was created in 2010related to the legislative process. This website ( , but and includes members from the public, private, and NGO sectors.issue has not been a priority in the are not simplified in a way thatpublic discourse or the civil society makes them accessible to citizens. > The ICT Unit at the Presidency of the Council of Ministers is workingagenda, though it is a pre-requisite Key stakeholders, including CSOs on an e-transaction law, improving broadband access, and integratingfor informed citizen engagement. and NGOs, lack the competencies e-government.Three main types of information are to understand these reports.needed for citizens to be informed Moreover, some information, suchand should be included in the by- as budget allocation per ministry, > The 2003 National ICT Strategy developed by the Office of the Ministerlaws: is inaccessible and does not allow of State for Administrative Reform (OMSAR) has instituted a number of issues-based budget monitoring. The mechanisms for transparency and improved access to public services. Voting Records of MPs: Citizen Budget Project, an initiative Parliament established a launched by the Ministry of Finance > MP Ghassan Moukhaiber has proposed reforms of the Parliament’s by- computerized voting records in 2007, has developed analytical laws to increase transparency of the legislative process. system in 1996, which was reports that provide a useful starting refurbished in 2011. This point for enhancing public budget system is not being used. > The Lebanese Parliamentary Monitor launched by Nahwa el Muwatiniya transparency. To build on this effort, civil society stakeholders need to be in 2006 documents the performance of MPs from secondary sources. Parliamentary Committees’ Agenda and Minutes equipped to access and analyze two of Meetings: These are critical components: > The Lebanese Physically Handicapped Union (LPHU) initiated the Open confidential per Parliament’s Budget Project in 2007 to promote access to information related to Budget Development Process: accessibility for persons with disabilities. by-laws, and deliberations Understanding the budget within parliamentary development process will enable committees are generally > The Ministry of Finance launched the Citizen Budget Initiative in 2007, stakeholders to recommend closed to civil society. with support from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), reforms and enhance their ability to participate in the process. aiming at producing simplified, non-technical representation of the Parliament Database of Law state budget. Proposals: There are almost Budget Data Analysis: 300 law proposals currently Simplifying budget data and in Parliament, which are > Lebanese Parliamentarians Against Corruption is active on a number of linking it to specific issues inaccessible to citizens even accountability law proposals and initiatives. related to citizen concerns will though they are contained in a allow citizens to be sufficiently computerized database. informed to participate in public decision-making.12 13
  9. 9. FUTURE ACTION SHORT TO MEDIUM TERM LONG TERM National Level Local Level National Level Local Level Outcome Expected Outcome Expected The Parliament’s General Assembly passes access to information legislation The Cabinet issues decrees to implement laws passed by Parliament to Information LegislationInformation Legislation Promote Access to as advocated by civil society before the next parliamentary elections increase citizen access to information Promote Access to Engage NGOs, CBOs, and civic Focus the civil society coalition’s Build a coalition of NGOs, CSOs, and Build t h e capacity of local groups in monitoring information campaign to putting pressure on Strategy social media activists to monitor stakeholders to put pressure on Strategy at the governorate, district, and the Cabinet to issue decrees and parliamentary committee discussions entities at the governorate, district, municipal levels and in putting monitor government institutions’ and General Assembly voting on the and municipal levels to publish pressure on MPs in their districts compliance with the laws passed proposed laws information as per the passed laws. to support access to information by Parliament Outcome Expected The issue of legislative transparency is a citizen priority and part of the public Outcome Expected Parliament reforms its by-laws by incorporating the recommendations of the Legislative Process discourse, specifically access to MPs’ voting records, the meeting minutes of Enhance Transparencyof the Legislative Process suggested by civil society Enhance Transparency parliamentary committees, and the law proposals submitted to Parliament Increase the number of civil society Develop recommendations to and social media activists requesting Enable local mainstream and Build t h e capacity of local amend Parliament’s by-laws and Strategy permissions to attend parliamentary social media to monitor local MPs’ stakeholders to lobby their MPs to Strategy launch a social media campaign committee and General Assembly voting records and stances within adopt reforms to Parliament’s by- to expose opposing MPs and meetings, and publicize data on social parliamentary committees, and laws and provide them with access to pressure the legislature to adopt media networks, thus challenging the publicize them to citizens locally their MPs’ stances on the issue. the recommendations parliamentary by-laws restrictions Outcome Expected Outcome Expected Key stakeholders understand public budgets, and are able to monitor and One ministry adopts a transparent budget development process andBudget Transparency Budget Transparency influence the budget development process engages key stakeholders in that process Ensure Public Ensure Public Develop and build the capacity of Bring together stakeholders Bring together local stakeholders stakeholders to understand the budget Simplify public budget information around an issue pertinent to one to work with municipalities, develop Strategy Strategy development process and enable them and make it locally accessible ministry, develop budget process budget process reforms, and engage to analyze components relevant to through creative tools reforms, and engage with the with those municipalities to adopt their work ministry to adopt the reforms the reforms.14 15
  10. 10. ILLUSTRATIVE ACTIVITIES ENGAGING WITH DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDERSIn the last decade, several civil society-led initiatives have pushed for access to The suggested policy option must be endorsed by key stakeholders and policy-information and government transparency in Lebanon. Despite these efforts, the makers to be implemented. The influence that the various stakeholders yieldcountry continues to suffer from lack of transparency and rampant corruption. on the decision-making process will determine how they should be engagedIt is crucial for civil society to achieve incremental successes to rebuild trust and the messages they should receive. Below is a list of stakeholders to bethat reform is possible while using more direct and creative tools to increase its considered.reach and influence. > President of the Republic > Political parties > Business associationsThe following are suggestions for illustrative activities based on expert > Cabinet of Ministers > Lawyers & Judges > Syndicatesroundtables, interviews, and focus groups, which can be adopted by NGOs, > Ministry of Finance > Civil servants > Bar AssociationCSOs, and CBOs to advance citizens’ right to access information. > OMSAR > Judiciary > Media Outlets > Municipalities & Unions > Court of audit > Voters of Municipalities > Civil Service Board > Academia & Research InstitutesIllustrative Activities at the Illustrative Activities at the > NGOs, CSOs & CBOsNational Level: Local Level: Develop a strategy for direct actions Create models of transparent budget Each of these entities requires a different strategy and approach to ally it with to pressure MPs to pass access to development and monitoring with the suggested policy. The following table highlights the incentives for the key information legislation. municipalities and demonstrate their implications on local development. stakeholders to adopt or support the proposed policy. These incentives can form Raise the awareness of public the basis for developing communication messages to persuade the stakeholders servants on how access to Use available information on MP’s to take action. information can benefit their stances to allow local constituents to institutional performance. hold them accountable. Provide business associations with Develop a “Municipal Monitor” to Stakeholders Incentives case studies on how their productivity increase access to information at the can be enhanced with improved local level. Parliamentary Blocks & Rebuild trust and credibility with constituents and access to information. Committees improve responsiveness to their needs Advocate for publishing all local affairs Engage the media at the national and decisions online. Municipalities & Unions Increase representation, responsiveness to level in exposing acts of corruption. of municipalities citizens’ needs and reach out to different groups Integrate ICT mechanisms to provide Create a social media platform citizens with access to information on Decrease corruption and enhance public for publicizing corruption-related municipal procedures and services. Cabinet & Ministries institutions’ performance, which will motivate complaints using a “name and shame” citizens to comply with the law and pay their taxes Disseminate legislative information strategy. at the local level and discuss them in Court of Audit & Civil Reclaim their role and authority while becoming Build court cases against corrupt townhall meetings. Service Board more respected by citizens politicians and use them as Engage with the media at the local precedents to lobby for access to level to expose acts of corruption. Improve the business environment by overcoming information. Business Associations & administrative bureaucracy and corruption, in Engage with local civil servants who Syndicates Enhance the role of the Prosecutor addition to being more able to study external risks wish to expose cases of corruption. General to respond to acts and complaints of corruption. Create youth local councils to shadow Become better informed to influence public policy NGOs, CSOs, & CBOs and hold decision-makers accountable municipalities.16 17
  11. 11. PARTIAL LIST OF REFERENCES Abdelnour, Z. (2001). “The Three Faces of Corruption in Lebanon.” Middle East Intelligence Luca, A. M. (November 22, 2009). “Corruption up” NOW Lebanon. Bulletin. Retrieved from 10 2_ l2.html Retrieved from Access to Information Draft Law: Overview (2009). Lebanese Network for the Right of Access Middle East Advocacy and Research Center, to Information, Beirut. National Integrity System Study (2009). Lebanese Transparency Association. Beirut, Lebanon. Adwan, C. (n.d.). “Corruption in Reconstruction: The Cost of ‘National Consensus’ in Post- War Lebanon.” Retrieved from n.pdf Newell, D. (2008). “Corruption in Lebanon: Between Decline and Steadiness.” NOW Lebanon. Retrieved from Antoun, R. Associate Professor at the American University of Beirut. (September 13, 2012). Personal interview by N. Menhall, BRD/I. Rossis, Nicholas, Michael. (2011). The Informal Economy in Lebanon: Dangers and Benefits. Durham theses, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur. Balboa, J., & Medalla, E. M. (May 2006). “Anti-Corruption and Governance: The Philippine Experience.” APEC Study Center Consortium Conference, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Retrieved from Shidrawi, M. Y. (2009). Combatting Administrative Corruption: The Case of Lebanon. American University of Beirut (Master’s Thesis). Beirut, Lebanon. Campaign Finance Monitoring: From Monitoring to Reform (n.d.), Lebanese Transparency Association, Beirut. Tabet, I. (n.d.). “Printemps arabe et lutte contre la corruption.” L’Orient le Jour. Retrieved from http://www.transparency- Control of Electoral Spending: A Step Towards Reform (n.d.), arabeetcorruption_L›Orientlejour_30072012_Fr.pdf Lebanese Transparency Association, Beirut. Takydine, S. Lawyer and Legal Expert (September 25, 2012). Personal interview by N. Corruption in Lebanon (n.d.). Lebanese Transparency Association, Beirut. Retrieved from Menhall, BRD/I. The Efficiency of a National Anti-Corruption Commission (2011). Lebanese Transparency "Corruption Remains Rampant in Lebanon, Transparency Organization Warns” (June 14, Association, Beirut. 2012). The Daily Star. Retrieved from 14/176776-corruption-remains-rampant-in- lebanon-transparency-organization-warns.ashx Towards a National Anti-Corruption Strategy (n.d.), Lebanese Transparency Association and UNDP, Beirut. Culture of Corruption in Lebanon’s Driving Tests (July 9, 2010), Youth Association for Social Awareness (YASA). Retrieved from .aspx?id=5&id2=689 United Nations Convention Against Corruption Compliance Review (n.d.), Lebanese Transparency Association, Beirut. Devre, G. (2011). State Corruption in Post-War Lebanon: The Relation Between Post-War Inclusive Institutions and State Corruption. University of Amsterdam. Youth Against Corruption (2005). Lebanese Transparency Association, Beirut. Farida, M. & Ahmadi-Esfahani, F. Z. (n.d.). Corruption and Economic Growth in Lebanon. Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society 52nd annual conference, Sydney, Australia. Retrieved from Feasibility of Establishing the National Anti-Corruption Commission in Lebanon (May 2011), Lebanese Transparency Association. Retrieved from publications/NACC.pdf Gebara, K., President of the Lebanese Center for Good Governance (September 24, 2012). Personal interview by C. Geha, BRD/I. Gillespie, K. (2006). The Middle East’s Corruption Conundrum: Current History. Hijazi, C. A. (2005). The Effects of Corruption on Economic Growth: The Case of Lebanon in Comparison with Romania. American University of Beirut (Master’s Thesis). Beirut, Lebanon. Jannoun, S. R. (2006). The Impact of Kleptocracy on Economic Development: The Case of Lebanon. American University of Beirut (Master’s Thesis). Beirut, Lebanon.18 19
  12. 12. This policy brief was developed by Beyond Reform & Development , part of BRD/I Group S.A.L., in close collaboration with experts, activists and civil society organizations. Lebanon, 2012