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Urban Air Quality and Sustainable Urban Transportation in Asia Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia A CAI-Asia Program Semin...
Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Urban Air Quality in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Transportation Trends in Asia </li...
Total Energy Consumption in Asia Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
Energy Mix in Asia 1990-2005 Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
Oil Consumption, Million Tonnes China, P.R. and India Indonesia and Thailand <ul><li>All the countries in Asia except for ...
Motorization Trends in Asia
2-wheelers and Per capita income  <ul><li>Countries like Malaysia and Thailand have the highest per capita income and 2-wh...
Vehicle Growth Forecast in Asian Countries (in Millions of Vehicles) Note: Vehicle Population Projection from Segment Y Lt...
PM10 and CO 2  Emissions Forecast Thousand Tons of PM10 Million Tons of CO 2 China, P.R. India Source: ADB, 2006 *Projecte...
<ul><li>Ambient air quality in Asia is still generally improving despite continued increase in motorization and energy use...
Hong Kong   Bangkok   <ul><li>Roadside particulate levels are always higher than ambient confirming that vehicles are majo...
Reducing Emissions from Mobile Sources Emissions  Standards & Vehicle Technology   Clean Fuels Inspection &  Maintenance T...
<ul><li>Compared to five years ago, more Asian countries have now adopted or have legislated plans to adopt stricter vehic...
Vehicle Emissions Standards (new light duty vehicles) Source: CAI-Asia, 2006 Italics  – under discussion a – gasoline b – ...
Land-use Planning and Transportation <ul><li>Land-use planning, perhaps the most powerful regulatory tool that can be used...
Paradigm Shift in Urban & Transportation Planning (1) The 6-lane Cheonggyecheon highway will soon be transformed into a ri...
<ul><li>Nihonbashi, one of the main historic areas in Tokyo sits oppressed under an eight-lane expressway </li></ul><ul><l...
Bus Rapid Transit in Asia Systems in operation (16): Systems in planning or under construction (25): “ Overall, more citie...
China and India Urban Transportation Policy <ul><li>Both China, P.R. and India have developed policies that call for the i...
Retrofitting Buses <ul><li>Seoul has implemented a comprehensive project on retrofitting all its buses with after-treatmen...
2-Stroke Gasoline Rickshaws <ul><li>Several Asian cities have a big problem with emissions from 2-stroke gasoline three-wh...
Electric Bikes in China, P.R. <ul><li>Electric bikes in China increased from only 40,000 in 1998 to 10 million in 2005 </l...
Natural Gas Vehicles  <ul><li>Emphasis have been on gasoline vehicle conversions to run on CNG in the past  </li></ul><ul>...
Biofuels <ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>China and India are now the world’s third and fourth producers of ethanol in th...
PSUTA: An Overview <ul><li>Review of Sustainable Urban Transport materials - (i) key resource persons; (ii) key organizati...
<ul><li>Key Result Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutionalize of AQM and SUT knowledge management system at the regional...
Building Partnerships <ul><li>Importance of strong partnerships to ensure success </li></ul><ul><li>Initial partners in th...
Conclusions (2) Contacts: Bert Fabian [email_address]   www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia
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Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia

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Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia

  1. 1. Urban Air Quality and Sustainable Urban Transportation in Asia Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia A CAI-Asia Program Seminar-Workshop on Sustainable Transportation and Safety 17-19 January 2007 Pampanga, Philippines Bert Fabian Transport Specialist, CAI-Asia
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Urban Air Quality in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Transportation Trends in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>CAI-Asia SUT Activities </li></ul>
  3. 3. Total Energy Consumption in Asia Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
  4. 4. Energy Mix in Asia 1990-2005 Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
  5. 5. Oil Consumption, Million Tonnes China, P.R. and India Indonesia and Thailand <ul><li>All the countries in Asia except for Hong Kong, India, Malaysia and Philippines exhibited increase in oil consumption from 2004 to 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>% increase in oil consumption are lower than % increase in coal consumption. </li></ul>Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
  6. 6. Motorization Trends in Asia
  7. 7. 2-wheelers and Per capita income <ul><li>Countries like Malaysia and Thailand have the highest per capita income and 2-wheelers per thousand people </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing per capita income and inefficient and poorly supported public transportation in Asian countries is seen to drive the increasing demand for individual motorized travel </li></ul>Source: Bajaj Annual Report 2005-2006
  8. 8. Vehicle Growth Forecast in Asian Countries (in Millions of Vehicles) Note: Vehicle Population Projection from Segment Y Ltd China, P.R. India Thailand Indonesia
  9. 9. PM10 and CO 2 Emissions Forecast Thousand Tons of PM10 Million Tons of CO 2 China, P.R. India Source: ADB, 2006 *Projected PM10 and CO 2 are based on current plans for emission (Euro) standards and fuel efficiency targets in China and India
  10. 10. <ul><li>Ambient air quality in Asia is still generally improving despite continued increase in motorization and energy use </li></ul><ul><li>Average ambient TSP, PM10 and SO 2 trends are improving </li></ul><ul><li>Average ambient TSP and PM10, however, continue to exceed WHO and USEPA guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Average ambient SO 2 is in compliance with WHO guideline </li></ul><ul><li>NO 2 close to guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient information on O 3 for reliable trend analysis </li></ul><ul><li>It is uncertain whether the observed improvements in air quality will be sustained </li></ul>Aggregated Annual Ambient AQ Trends,  g/m 3 (1993 to 2005) Status of Urban Air Quality in Asia WHO (1979) TSP guideline, 60-90  g/m 3 WHO SO 2 guideline, 50  g/m 3 WHO (2005) PM10 guideline, 20  g/m 3 WHO NO 2 guideline, 40  g/m 3
  11. 11. Hong Kong Bangkok <ul><li>Roadside particulate levels are always higher than ambient confirming that vehicles are major PM source </li></ul><ul><li>Increased number of policies on mobile sources (e.g. fuel quality and stricter emission standards) can help to close the gap between ambient and roadside levels </li></ul>Roadside versus Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations
  12. 12. Reducing Emissions from Mobile Sources Emissions Standards & Vehicle Technology Clean Fuels Inspection & Maintenance Transport Planning and Demand Management
  13. 13. <ul><li>Compared to five years ago, more Asian countries have now adopted or have legislated plans to adopt stricter vehicle emissions standards as well as fuel standards </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis has been on institutionalizing new vehicle emissions standards and not enough attention has been given in addressing emissions from in-use vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>More attention has been given as well to light-duty vehicles compared to heavy duty vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most pressing problem of Asian countries is the rapid increase in the motorcycle fleet but not enough attention has been given towards appropriate regulatory measures to control the associated emissions </li></ul>Vehicle Emissions Standards
  14. 14. Vehicle Emissions Standards (new light duty vehicles) Source: CAI-Asia, 2006 Italics – under discussion a – gasoline b – diesel c – Entire country d – Delhi and other cities; Euro 2 introduced in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai in 2001; Euro 2 in Bangalore, Hyderabad, Khampur, Pune and Ahmedabad in 2003, Euro 3 to be introduced e – Beijing and Guangzhou (as of 01 September 2006) have adopted Euro 3 standards; Shanghai has requested the approval of the State Council for implementation of Euro 3 f – Euro 4 for gasoline vehicles and California ULEV standards for diesel vehicles g – Gasoline vehicles under consideration
  15. 15. Land-use Planning and Transportation <ul><li>Land-use planning, perhaps the most powerful regulatory tool that can be used to address vehicular emissions, is still seldom used by most Asian countries </li></ul><ul><li>Governments and development institutions have started to place an increasing emphasis on urban transportation issues, particularly on public transportation </li></ul><ul><li>International organizations have acknowledged the direct relationship between climate change mitigation and the promotion of public transportation and have initiated several projects on this </li></ul><ul><li>Several countries in Asia have now started to develop sustainable urban transportation policies promoting public transportation, i.e. Bus-rapid transit </li></ul><ul><li>In China, the Vice Minister of Construction, Qui Baoxing, has ordered city authorities to improve and maintain cycling facilities and in to order to restore the country’s title as the &quot;kingdom of bicycles&quot; </li></ul>
  16. 16. Paradigm Shift in Urban & Transportation Planning (1) The 6-lane Cheonggyecheon highway will soon be transformed into a riverscape Seoul - Asia’s Big Dig
  17. 17. <ul><li>Nihonbashi, one of the main historic areas in Tokyo sits oppressed under an eight-lane expressway </li></ul><ul><li>It was once the point from which distances in Japan were measured </li></ul><ul><li>A government project is now looking at ways to restore Nihonbashi’s old look </li></ul><ul><li>The recommendation is to transfer 2km of the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway underground and create space along the river for waterside life </li></ul><ul><li>The committee looking at this issue believe that restoring the Nihonbashi area's cityscape to its original state serves as a basic guideline for urban renewal plans to be put together in the future </li></ul>Paradigm Shift in Urban & Transportation Planning (2)
  18. 18. Bus Rapid Transit in Asia Systems in operation (16): Systems in planning or under construction (25): “ Overall, more cities are now planning or building BRT systems in Asia than cities planning or constructing subway or light rail lines” Note: List as of October 2006 Jakarta, Indonesia Kanazuwa, Japan Kunming, China Miyazaki, Japan Nagaoka, Japan Nagoya, Japan Nigata, Japan Seoul, South Korea Shijiazhuang, China Taipei,China Akita, Japan Ankara, Turkey Beijing, China Fukuoka, Japan Gifu, Japan Hangzhou, China Huai’an, China Hyderabad, India Incheon, South Korea Jinan, China Karachi, Pakistan Makati City, Philippines Metro Manila, Philippines Pune, India Shanghai, China Shengyan, China Surabaya, Indonesia T’aichung, China T’ainan, China Tienjing, China Wuhan, China Xi’an, China Xiamen, China Ahmedabad, India Bangalore, India Bangkok, Thailand Chengdu, China Chongqing, China Colombo, Sri-Lanka Delhi, India Guangzhou, China
  19. 19. China and India Urban Transportation Policy <ul><li>Both China, P.R. and India have developed policies that call for the integration of transport system plans with urban development, equitable allocation of road space and increased investments on public transportation, including BRT, rail and non-motorized transportation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) Guideline states that the 11th Five-Year Plan of China, P.R. which started in 2006 will prioritize the development of public transportation with mass rapid transit (MRT) as a key transport mode in mega cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 2006 Indian National Urban Transport Policy vision is to “recognize that people occupy center-stage in our (Indian) cities and all plans would be for their common benefit and well being” i.e., invest on more on transport systems that encourage greater use of public transport and non-motorized modes instead of personal motor vehicles </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Retrofitting Buses <ul><li>Seoul has implemented a comprehensive project on retrofitting all its buses with after-treatment devices in Seoul, Incheon and Gyeonggi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2005, over 29,000 vehicles were fitted with either diesel particulate filters or DOCs, according to the class of vehicle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scheme has now entered its Main Program phase, and in 2006 a further 83,000 vehicles will be fitted with after-treatment devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Tokyo, a program which started in 1999 has paved the way for the wide circulation of low sulfur diesel fuel and continuous regeneration DPFs </li></ul><ul><li>Several cities like Beijing, Bangkok, and Pune have pursued pilot projects on retrofitting </li></ul><ul><li>Retrofitting Euro 1 or pre-Euro 1 diesel buses with particulate filters (DPFs) has not proven to be an effective means to reduce urban air pollution unlike Euro 2 busses where impacts are more substantial </li></ul>
  21. 21. 2-Stroke Gasoline Rickshaws <ul><li>Several Asian cities have a big problem with emissions from 2-stroke gasoline three-wheelers </li></ul><ul><li>A trend has emerged on the complete ban of 2-stroke three-wheelers in several Asian cities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Delhi, 2-stroke rickshaws have been banned in favor of 4-stroke rickshaws that run on CNG and is now 100% free from 2-stroke gasoline rickshaws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Kathmandu, a similar ban has been effected and prohibits the operations of such vehicles in the valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dhaka no longer allows the operations of 2-stroke rickshaws in the city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lahore start has been made in banning 2-stroke rickshaws and Karachi is considering it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jakarta has introduced CNG bajajs in the city and have started to ban 2-stroke rickshaws </li></ul>Note: compiled from various sources
  22. 22. Electric Bikes in China, P.R. <ul><li>Electric bikes in China increased from only 40,000 in 1998 to 10 million in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Sales increased from about 7.5 million units in in 2004 to 10 million units in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>This dramatic growth has been largely due to legislation banning gasoline fuelled scooters and bicycles, introduced from 1996 onwards in several major Chinese cities </li></ul><ul><li>The most problematic issue with electric bikes is the use of lead acid batteries that have high lead loss rates during the production, manufacturing and recycling processes </li></ul>Sources: ADB, 2006; Cherry, 2006; Weinert, 2006
  23. 23. Natural Gas Vehicles <ul><li>Emphasis have been on gasoline vehicle conversions to run on CNG in the past </li></ul><ul><li>A trend towards replacing diesel-fed public transportation modes with CNG is being adopted by several Asian countries </li></ul><ul><li>Several Asian countries, like Pakistan, India, and Indonesia have aggressively adopted measures to convert their existing 2-stroke rickshaws to CNG </li></ul>Number of NGVs in selected Asian countries Source: Asian NGV Communications, Vol 1 Num 6, August 2006 223 140 14,433 14,796 Thailand 18,300 18,300 Malaysia 14,507 1,205 10,984 27,605 Japan 3 1023 22,178 42,178 Bangladesh 32,369 10,146 Buses 100 66,440 127,120 China 207,000 248,000 India 1,000,000 Pakistan Trucks Cars Total Country
  24. 24. Biofuels <ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>China and India are now the world’s third and fourth producers of ethanol in the world and accounted for a combined 5.4 billion liters in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>As of July 2006, gasohol use in Thailand (E10) reached 3.5 million liters daily and available at 3,000 pump stations nationwide– a government mandate in 2007 will require the complete replacement of benzene octane 95 (petrol 95) with E10 and E20 blend will be introduced in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippines has mandated E5 gasoline by 2007 and to E10 by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel production have increased in Asia, particularly in Southeast Asia in the past years, with Malaysia and Indonesia leading the production of palm oils worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippines and Thailand have adopted policies that could lead to mandating as much as 10% of biodiesel blend in marketed fuel </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippines has mandated a 1% blend of coco-methyl ester in diesel for government vehicles </li></ul>Sources: ADB, 2006; and http://thailand.prd.go.th/the_pm_view.php?id=1621
  25. 25. PSUTA: An Overview <ul><li>Review of Sustainable Urban Transport materials - (i) key resource persons; (ii) key organizations on SUT; (iii) SUT related projects; (iv) SUT studies; (v) important events on SUT; and (vi) news items on SUT </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Framework for Sustainable Urban Transport in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators for Sustainable Urban Transport – (i) Indicator Training Manual; and City Reports for Hanoi, Pune, and Xi’an </li></ul>www.cleanairnet.org/psuta
  26. 26. <ul><li>Key Result Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutionalize of AQM and SUT knowledge management system at the regional, national and local levels in Asia; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance capacity for AQM and SUT of relevant stakeholders; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutionalize AQM and SUT network at the regional, national and local levels; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase number of policies for AQM and SUT developed at regional, national and local level; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase number and strengthened implementation of AQM and SUT activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish program coordination, monitoring and evaluation of SUT activities in Asia </li></ul></ul>SUMA Conceptual Framework CAI-Asia: Past and Present Organizational Development Knowledge Management Capacity Building Local Networks/ Partners Policies Investments
  27. 27. Building Partnerships <ul><li>Importance of strong partnerships to ensure success </li></ul><ul><li>Initial partners in the SUMA program include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EMBARQ - World Resources Institute Transportation and Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Nations Centre for Regional Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GTZ – SUTP – German Agency for Technical Cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface for Cycling Expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute for Transportation and Development Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional international partners will follow and efforts are made to bring in private sector as partner as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen partnerships with specialized local transport institutes such as: CATS/CST-China, PUSTRAL- Indonesia, UP-NCTS-Philippines, TSDI- Vietnam, TRIPP-India etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen partnerships with relevant government agencies </li></ul>
  28. 28. Conclusions (2) Contacts: Bert Fabian [email_address] www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia

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