Status of Urban Air Quality Management in Asia


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  • Countries covered under Asia – Bangladesh, China, China Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand.
  • North America share – 34.7% (1995) to 28.2% (2005) Europe and Eurasia share – 43.2 (1995) to 40.8% (2005)
  • Forecast rationale for the vehicle fleet projections The vehicle fleet projections used in this document were developed by Segment Y Automotive Intelligence Pvt Ltd taking into consideration a number of criteria for each of the emerging markets in Asia. The expected growth in GDP per capita, in population, vehicle density per capita, vehicle density in relation to the road network, segment shifts driven by income and government policy, and acceleration in vehicle scrappage are all important elements in projecting future in-use vehicle populations. Whilst for short term forecasts, vehicle sales are principally driven by the availability of credit, interest rates and fuel prices, other elements require deeper scrutiny over the longer term: GDP per capita development: While the past may not be the best guide for the future, past performance was analyzed together with the projections presented in Goldman Sachs' "Dreaming with BRICs" report to arrive at plausible rates of GDP growth. Population growth and vehicle density per capita: This GDP growth was combined with population growth forecasts based on UN projections and the assumption that as GDP grows, vehicle sales in emerging markets will follow similar trends to those in more developed markets and will rise for at least the next thirty years. The current vehicle density in these emerging markets is still very low; for example, the vehicle density in India is just 7 vehicles per 1000 persons, compared to 550 in Germany. Taking into account interest rates and retail prices, there is a broad correlation between development in GDP and vehicle populations. This applies both to passenger cars and motorcycles. Vehicle density in relation to the road network: Infrastructure is also a driver, and whilst it is hard to predict changes over the long term there are clear pointers to the future, with countries like India and China investing substantially in comparison to, for example, Indonesia or the Philippines. Better roads promote easy of transit and longer drives, which in turn leads to increased vehicle sales, higher mileages and earlier scrapping. Statistics on road networks were obtained from the United Nations Asian Highway Database. Segment shifts driven by income and government policy: The future will see a number of changes in terms of segment shifts, driven by larger incomes, desire for safety and comfort and government regulations. City dwellers in Thailand are increasingly opting for smaller cars, and hence growth in the pickup segment will be more confined to the rural areas, but a lot of growth will come from those parts as the rural to urban gap narrows. The Thai government is also toying with the idea to develop a second pillar of expertise in small cars, to reduce its dependency on oil imports. This will probably also contribute to a shift from pickups to small cars. Income development also drives the shift from two-wheelers to cars. In most Asian countries, the point at which motorcycle sales start tailing off and cars sales increase is at a GDP per capita of around US$ 3,000 per annum. This point is yet to be reached in India and Indonesia, but China is getting close. What will accelerate this trend in China is the tendency to spend more on status symbols, in comparison to Indians for example, which tend to live more frugally. This information is borne out by the sales statistics from the trade associations in the various countries and confirmed by motorcycle companies such as Yamaha and Honda. Acceleration in scrappage: Another factor that is taken into consideration is the accelerated vehicle scrappage as markets mature. The average age in China is currently quite low, as so many vehicles have been added in recent years. The same applies in Indonesia, where record sales in recent years have substantially rejuvenated the current parc. In comparison, the parc in India is much older, as the sales have developed more gradually, and private vehicle ownership prolongs life through better maintenance. Official scrappage statistics in Asia are generally unreliable, as records are not scrupulously maintained, and registered users generally have no incentive to report scrappage. Scrappage rates have therefore been derived from data from the Center for Transportation Analysis at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the US, the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders in the UK (SMMT), the Rijwiel- en Automobiel Instelling in the Netherlands (RAI), which is the Dutch equivalent of the SMMT, and the Japanese Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA).
  • The GOOD NEWS is that ambient air concentrations are generally decreasing. The BAD NEWS is that the levels, especially for TSP and PM10 still exceed WHO guidelines. How this improvement can be sustained will depend on the AQM capabilities of the cities.
  • Capacity to manage air quality is variable in Asia.
  • Notes: Italics – under discussion a – gasoline b – Diesel c – Entire country d – Delhi and other cities; Euro 2 introduced in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai in 2001; Euro 2 in Bangalore, Hyderabad, Khampur, Pune and Ahmedabad in 2003, Euro 3 to be introduced e – Beijing has adopted Euro 3; Shanghai and Guangzhou has requested the approval of the State Council for implementation of Euro 3 f – Euro 4 for gasoline vehicles and California ULEV standards for diesel vehicles g – Gasoline vehicles under consideration
  • Top speed of between 20 – 30kph and a range of 25 – 100 km During operation they emit zero local air pollution, but they do use about 2 kWh of electricity per 100 km Power ranges between 200 - 600 W and they take around 6 – 8 hours to charge
  • Status of Urban Air Quality Management in Asia

    1. 1. Urban Air Quality and its Management in Asia: Status Report 2006 Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia A CAI-Asia Program Regional Dialogue of Air Quality Management Initiatives and Programs in Asia 12 October 2006 Bangkok, Thailand
    2. 2. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Objective: Present an overview of current status of AQM in Asia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status of drivers of urban air pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emissions Inventories and Source Apportionment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship Ambient Air Quality Standards with WHO guideline values, US-EPA and EU standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status of urban quality and ambient Concentration of PM versus the new WHO PM standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status and Trends in controlling emissions from mobile sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status and Trends in controlling emissions from stationary sources </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Total Energy Consumption in Asia Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
    4. 4. Energy Mix in Asia 1990-2005 Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
    5. 5. Electricity Generation in Asia Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
    6. 6. Electricity Generation in Asia and other Regions Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006 Note: Some countries in the EU are also included in OECD.
    7. 7. Coal Production - Coal Consumption Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
    8. 8. Coal Consumption, Mtoe China, P.R. and India Indonesia and Thailand <ul><li>All the countries in Asia exhibited increase in coal consumption from 2004 to 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, the largest increases from 2004 to 2005 coal consumption are in Asia (e.g. China - 10.9%, Pakistan – 14.8%, Phils – 17.7% and Thailand –12.1%) </li></ul>Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
    9. 9. Oil Consumption, Million Tonnes China, P.R. and India Indonesia and Thailand <ul><li>All the countries in Asia except for Hong Kong, India, Malaysia and Philippines exhibited increase in oil consumption from 2004 to 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>% increase in oil consumption are lower than % increase in coal consumption. </li></ul>Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
    10. 10. Refinery Capacities in Asia Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
    11. 11. Natural Gas Consumption, Mtoe <ul><li>With the exception of Hong Kong and Singapore, all countries in Asia have increased consumption of natural gas from 2004 to 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Share of Asia in world natural gas consumption has increased from 8.8% in 1995 to 13.4% in 2005 while share of Europe and North America has decreased for the same period. </li></ul>Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
    12. 12. Energy intensity – BTU per $PPP 1990-2004 Source: Energy Information Administration
    13. 13. Energy intensity – BTU per $PPP 1990 - 2004 Source: Energy Information Administration
    14. 14. Motorization Trends in Asia
    15. 15. Vehicle Growth Forecast in Asian Countries (in Millions of Vehicles) Note: Vehicle Population Projection from Segment Y Ltd China, P.R. India Thailand Indonesia
    16. 16. PM10 and CO 2 Forecast for China and India Thousand Tons of PM10 Million Tons of CO 2 China, P.R. India Source: ADB, 2006 *Projected PM10 and CO 2 are based on current plans for emission (Euro) standards and fuel efficiency targets in China and India
    17. 17. Emission Inventories: Scope and Coverage (1) <ul><li>Emission inventories remain the weak link in AQM in the majority of Asian countries. Emission inventories are often often conducted as part of donor-funded programs and academic researches, only in few cases it is used for government regulatory purposes such as in PRC and Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>With the exception of China and Hong Kong, EIs are usually partial and not covering all sources. Mostly mobile sources are covered, less often stationary and seldom area sources </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria pollutants (PM, CO, SO2, NOx, HC) are usually covered in the EIs </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the emission inventory studies are ad-hoc meaning that they are not repeated on a regular basis which makes trend analysis difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Important study which was started recently is the India Clean Air Program which is the most comprehensive effort to develop emission inventory in India yet. However, also this project is an ad-hoc effort and not part of a regularly repeated effort. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Emission Inventories: Methodology and Accuracy <ul><li>Compiling emission inventories remains a challenge in Asia due to non-standardized source categorization, operating data not systematically tabulated, inaccurate information and no specific reporting requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Most studies have used the WHO and US EPA emission factors, requiring a need to evaluate the applicability and representativeness of these numbers to Asian sources and conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Comparisons of emissions between different base years are difficult to assess due to differences in methodology (e.g., one year based on emission factors and the next on actual source testing) </li></ul><ul><li>Activity data for many categories are usually incomplete and outdated. Most EIs are based on secondary data where erroneous assumptions are taken into consideration thus decreasing reliability of the estimates </li></ul><ul><li>Limited information is available on the quality assurance methods used, except in China and Singapore where validations and evaluation of accuracy/uncertainty are being carried out </li></ul><ul><li>What if there would be an international body to develop and implement internationally accepted methodology and reporting protocols for emission inventories (i.e., IPCC guidelines for GHGI) ? </li></ul>
    19. 19. Trends in Source Apportionment of PM <ul><li>Source Apportionment studies are not carried out regularly. Where they are conducted this is mostly by academic institutions and/or institutions outside the Ministries of Environment and the use for policy formulation is limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Fair amount of experience is now available with source-receptor techniques both outside and in Asia, but they are not being applied on a routine basis in Asian countries in support of AQ policy making or the evaluation of AQ policy measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Example is the IAEA PM characterization studies which after years of piloting have not been taken up by regulatory agencies in the countries where implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>The source apportionment studies that are conducted in Asia for PM show large ranges in the sources (mobile, stationary, area, biomass burning). The ranges are so large that they can not be explained by vehicle fleet data. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Disclosure and Utilization <ul><li>Only a few countries such as P.R. China, Philippines and Thailand have published the emissions inventory in full however no information is available on the quality assurance methods being implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Source apportionment techniques are not being utilized for validation and improvement of the emissions inventory and enhancement of understanding of the linkages between particular emission sources and ambient air quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Turning these data into useful input for decision-making remains an enormous challenge as EIs and SAs are not being utilized in identifying control strategies (rules, enforceability and compliance, voluntary measures, availability of inputs to evaluate control effectiveness). </li></ul><ul><li>Policymaking generally based on no-regret policies and not based on detailed emissions inventories and source apportionment which can effectively focus resources on integrated control measures and requirements for the sources most responsible for the resulting poor air quality. Positive exception is P.R. China where SO2 emission inventories are now being used on a routine basis to formulate SO2 control measures. </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Ambient air quality in Asia is still generally improving despite continued increase in motorization and energy use </li></ul><ul><li>Average ambient TSP, PM10 and SO 2 trends are improving </li></ul><ul><li>Average ambient TSP and PM10, however, continue to exceed WHO and USEPA guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Average ambient SO 2 is in compliance with WHO guideline </li></ul><ul><li>NO 2 close to guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient information on O 3 for reliable trend analysis </li></ul><ul><li>It is uncertain whether the observed improvements in air quality will be sustained </li></ul>Aggregated Annual Ambient AQ Trends,  g/m 3 (1993 to 2005) Status of Urban Air Quality in Asia WHO (1979) TSP guideline, 60-90  g/m 3 WHO SO 2 guideline, 50  g/m 3 WHO (2005) PM10 guideline, 20  g/m 3 WHO NO 2 guideline, 40  g/m 3
    22. 22. Ambient Air Quality Standards in Asia Remarks Pollutants Country Hourly limits for NO 2 and CO are more lenient than WHO, no PM10 standards, the rest of the standards are almost same as WHO TSP, CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , O 3 , Pb Vietnam TSP twice more lenient than USEPA; SO 2 and CO almost same as USEPA limit, stringent NO 2 compared to WHO TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , O 3 , Pb Thailand TSP standards twice more lenient than USEPA, No annual standard for SO 2 , 24-hour limit for SO 2, a slightly lenient O 3 and NO 2 compared with USEPA and WHO, respectively TSP, CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , O 3 , Pb Sri-Lanka Despite adopting only both WHO guidelines and USEPA limits, Singapore PSI reporting is very efficient PM10, CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , O 3 Singapore based and comparable to WHO and USEPA (for PM 10 ). Standards more lenient, selecting the higher/max allowable limits TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , O 3 , Pb Philippines No legislated ambient air quality standards Pakistan Established only in 2003; standards less stringent than WHO; PM limits less stringent than USEPA TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , Pb, C 6 H 6 Nepal Comparable and to some extent more stringent than WHO guidelines with the exception of CO limits for an 8-hour exposure. CO, NO 2 , O 3 , SO 2, TSP Japan National and local (Jakarta) standards less stringent that WHO; PM limits less stringent than USEPA TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , O 3 , Pb Indonesia Established based on different land-use categories i.e. industrial, residential and sensitive areas. TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , Pb India Standards less stringent than WHO and USEPA limits TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , Pb, O 3 Hong Kong Standards require cities to comply with Class I, II, or III standards. Class I standards more stringent than the WHO and USEPA limits TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , Pb China 1997 standards established for a few pollutants depending on land use category; new standards are pending approval TSP, CO, NOx, and SO 2 Bangladesh
    23. 23. <ul><li>PM2.5 is increasingly acknowledged by WHO, USEPA, and the EU as the major pollutant of concern because of very high correlation with associated health impacts </li></ul><ul><li>In almost all Asian countries, standards for PM2.5 have not been legislated and there seem to be no immediate plans from Asian governments to develop PM 2.5 standards </li></ul><ul><li>Only Singapore and recently Bangladesh have adopted PM2.5 standards based on the old USEPA standards </li></ul><ul><li>As a consequence, PM2.5 is not regularly monitored by Asian governments and only ad-hoc monitoring from project-based studies are available </li></ul><ul><li>This poses a serious challenge for assessing health impacts of PM2.5 and the formulation and implementation of PM 2.5 control strategies </li></ul>Ambient Air Quality Standards in Asia: PM2.5
    24. 24. Air Quality Monitoring <ul><li>With the exception of few countries, most Asian countries do not have immediate and clear plans to expand or upgrade existing AQ monitoring systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan has indicated its plans to establish continuous AQ monitoring stations in five major cities in 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPCB in India has established real-time continuous monitoring of pollutants in four locations in Delhi and is now considering expansion of AQ monitoring capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The number and location of existing monitoring stations are generally not representative of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Programs to ensure the sustainability of operations of AQ monitoring stations and regular maintenance of equipment have caused degradation and inoperability of several AQ monitoring stations in Asian countries such as Indonesia </li></ul>
    25. 25. Air Quality Reporting <ul><li>In China, the government is continuing its drive to expand the coverage of its AQ monitoring stations but there is no indication of plans to report actual ambient AQ data instead of APIs </li></ul><ul><li>After more than five years of not reporting AQ information, Malaysia is now releasing AQ data to the public in the form of APIs </li></ul><ul><li>More cities and countries are starting to publish AQ data on websites and in media </li></ul>
    26. 26. WHO 2005 USEPA WHO 2005 IT-1 WHO 2005 IT-2 WHO 2005 IT-3 EU *No annual ambient air quality standards, only 24-hour limits Annual Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM10
    27. 27. PM10 Annual Ambient Concentrations in Asian Cities (2005) (1) WHO 2005 Guideline Value for Annual Average of PM10 = 20 µg/m 3
    28. 28. PM10 Annual Ambient Concentrations in Asian Cities (2005) (2) WHO 2005 PM10 Interim Target – 1 = 30 µg/m 3
    29. 29. PM10 Annual Ambient Concentrations in Asian Cities (2005) (3) WHO 2005 PM10 Interim Target – 2 = 50 µg/m 3
    30. 30. PM10 Annual Ambient Concentrations in Asian Cities (2005) (4) WHO 2005 PM10 Interim Target – 3 = 70 µg/m 3
    31. 31. Roadside Air Pollution and Health Impacts U Fine, Black Carbon, CO peak near roadways (Los Angeles) (PM 2.5 consistent) (Zhu et al 2003) PM mass Particle numbers
    32. 32. Hong Kong Bangkok <ul><li>Roadside particulate levels are always higher than ambient confirming that vehicles are major PM source </li></ul><ul><li>Increased number of policies on mobile sources (e.g. fuel quality and stricter emission standards) can help to close the gap between ambient and roadside levels </li></ul>Roadside versus Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations
    33. 33. Benchmarking Air Quality Management Capabilities in Asia <ul><li>The Benchmarking study involved 20 cities in Asia representing various economic levels and geographic coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>The cities were categorized according to four AQM capability indices – 1) AQ measurement; 2) data availability and assessment; 3) emission estimates; and 4) AQ management enabling capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities with high levels of economic development tend to have well-developed AQM systems </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking of AQM capability can assist cities in setting priorities and developing strategies for strengthening their AQM capability </li></ul><ul><li>Increased urbanisation, mobilization and industrialisation. Only ad hoc AQM. </li></ul><ul><li>Deterioration of air quality through rising levels of air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanisation, industrialisation and mobilisation continued. Initial systematic AQM procedures applied </li></ul><ul><li>High but stabilising levels of air pollution. Serious health and environmental impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaner processes developed. Systematic AQM procedures developed </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution decreasing from high levels </li></ul><ul><li>Maturing of cleaner processes, use of cleaner fuels and mature emission controls. </li></ul><ul><li>Further improvement of air quality </li></ul><ul><li>High technology applied </li></ul><ul><li>Low air pollution </li></ul>Level of Economic Development/ Trends of Air Pollution - 0-20 Minimal Dhaka, Kathmandu 21-30 Limited II Hanoi, Surabaya 31-40 Limited I Colombo 41-50 Moderate II Ho Chi Minh, Jakarta, Kolkata, Manila, Mumbai 51-60 Moderate I New Delhi 61-70 Good II Beijing, Busan 71-80 Good I Bangkok, Seoul, Shanghai 81-90 Excellent II Hong Kong, Singapore, Taipei, Tokyo 91-100 Excellent I Cities AQM Capability Scoring AQM Capability
    34. 34. <ul><li>Compared to five years ago, more Asian countries have now adopted or have legislated plans to adopt stricter vehicle emissions standards as well as fuel standards </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis has been on institutionalizing new vehicle emissions standards and not enough attention has been given in addressing emissions from in-use vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>More attention has been given as well to light-duty vehicles compared to heavy duty vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most pressing problem of Asian countries is the rapid increase in the motorcycle fleet but not enough attention has been given towards appropriate regulatory measures to control the associated emissions </li></ul>Vehicle Emissions Standards
    35. 35. Vehicle Emissions Standards (new light duty vehicles) Source: CAI-Asia, 2006 Italics – under discussion a – gasoline b – diesel c – Entire country d – Delhi and other cities; Euro 2 introduced in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai in 2001; Euro 2 in Bangalore, Hyderabad, Khampur, Pune and Ahmedabad in 2003, Euro 3 to be introduced e – Beijing and Guangzhou (as of 01 September 2006) have adopted Euro 3 standards; Shanghai has requested the approval of the State Council for implementation of Euro 3 f – Euro 4 for gasoline vehicles and California ULEV standards for diesel vehicles g – Gasoline vehicles under consideration
    36. 36. Land-use Planning and Transportation <ul><li>Land-use planning, perhaps the most powerful regulatory tool that can be used to address vehicular emissions, is still seldom used by most Asian countries </li></ul><ul><li>Governments and development institutions have started to place an increasing emphasis on urban transportation issues, particularly on public transportation </li></ul><ul><li>International organizations have acknowledged the direct relationship between climate change mitigation and the promotion of public transportation and have initiated several projects on this </li></ul><ul><li>Several countries in Asia have now started to develop sustainable urban transportation policies promoting public transportation, i.e. Bus-rapid transit </li></ul><ul><li>In China, the Vice Minister of Construction, Qui Baoxing, has ordered city authorities to improve and maintain cycling facilities and in to order to restore the country’s title as the &quot;kingdom of bicycles&quot; </li></ul>
    37. 37. Paradigm shift in urban & transportation planning (1) The 6-lane Cheonggyecheon highway will soon be transformed into a riverscape Seoul - Asia’s Big Dig
    38. 38. <ul><li>Nihonbashi, one of the main historic areas in Tokyo sits oppressed under an eight-lane expressway </li></ul><ul><li>It was once the point from which distances in Japan were measured </li></ul><ul><li>A government project is now looking at ways to restore Nihonbashi’s old look </li></ul><ul><li>The recommendation is to transfer 2km of the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway underground and create space along the river for waterside life </li></ul><ul><li>The committee looking at this issue believe that restoring the Nihonbashi area's cityscape to its original state serves as a basic guideline for urban renewal plans to be put together in the future </li></ul>Paradigm shift in urban & transportation planning (2)
    39. 39. Bus Rapid Transit in Asia Systems in operation (16): Systems in planning or under construction (25): “ Overall, more cities are now planning or building BRT systems in Asia than cities planning or constructing subway or light rail lines” Note: List as of October 2006 Jakarta, Indonesia Kanazuwa, Japan Kunming, China Miyazaki, Japan Nagaoka, Japan Nagoya, Japan Nigata, Japan Seoul, South Korea Shijiazhuang, China Taipei,China Akita, Japan Ankara, Turkey Beijing, China Fukuoka, Japan Gifu, Japan Hangzhou, China Huai’an, China Hyderabad, India Incheon, South Korea Jinan, China Karachi, Pakistan Makati City, Philippines Metro Manila, Philippines Pune, India Shanghai, China Shengyan, China Surabaya, Indonesia T’aichung, China T’ainan, China Tienjing, China Wuhan, China Xi’an, China Xiamen, China Ahmedabad, India Bangalore, India Bangkok, Thailand Chengdu, China Chongqing, China Colombo, Sri-Lanka Delhi, India Guangzhou, China
    40. 40. China and India Urban Transportation Policy <ul><li>Both China, P.R. and India have developed policies that call for the integration of transport system plans with urban development, equitable allocation of road space and increased investments on public transportation, including BRT, rail and non-motorized transportation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) Guideline states that the 11th Five-Year Plan of China, P.R. which started in 2006 will prioritize the development of public transportation with mass rapid transit (MRT) as a key transport mode in mega cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 2006 Indian National Urban Transport Policy vision is to “recognize that people occupy center-stage in our (Indian) cities and all plans would be for their common benefit and well being” i.e., invest on more on transport systems that encourage greater use of public transport and non-motorized modes instead of personal motor vehicles </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Retrofitting Buses <ul><li>Seoul has implemented a comprehensive project on retrofitting all its buses with after-treatment devices in Seoul, Incheon and Gyeonggi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2005, over 29,000 vehicles were fitted with either diesel particulate filters or DOCs, according to the class of vehicle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scheme has now entered its Main Program phase, and in 2006 a further 83,000 vehicles will be fitted with after-treatment devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Tokyo, a program which started in 1999 has paved the way for the wide circulation of low sulfur diesel fuel and continuous regeneration DPFs </li></ul><ul><li>Several cities like Beijing, Bangkok, and Pune have pursued pilot projects on retrofitting </li></ul>
    42. 42. 2-Stroke Gasoline Rickshaws <ul><li>Several Asian cities have a big problem with emissions from 2-stroke gasoline three-wheelers </li></ul><ul><li>A trend has emerged on the complete ban of 2-stroke three-wheelers in several Asian cities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Delhi, 2-stroke rickshaws have been banned in favor of 4-stroke rickshaws that run on CNG and is now 100% free from 2-stroke gasoline rickshaws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Kathmandu, a similar ban has been effected and prohibits the operations of such vehicles in the valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dhaka no longer allows the operations of 2-stroke rickshaws in the city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Lahore start has been made in banning 2-stroke rickshaws and Karachi is considering it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jakarta has introduced CNG bajajs in the city and have started to ban 2-stroke rickshaws </li></ul>
    43. 43. Electric bikes in China, P.R. <ul><li>Electric bikes in China increased from only 40,000 in 1998 to 10 million in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Sales increased from about 7.5 million units in in 2004 to 10 million units in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>This dramatic growth has been largely due to legislation banning gasoline fuelled scooters and bicycles, introduced from 1996 onwards in several major Chinese cities </li></ul><ul><li>The most problematic issue with electric bikes is the use of lead acid batteries that have high lead loss rates during the production, manufacturing and recycling processes </li></ul>Sources: ADB, 2006; Cherry, 2006; Weinert, 2006
    44. 44. Natural Gas Vehicles <ul><li>Emphasis have been on gasoline vehicle conversions to run on CNG in the past </li></ul><ul><li>A trend towards replacing diesel-fed public transportation modes with CNG is being adopted by several Asian countries </li></ul><ul><li>Several Asian countries, like Pakistan, India, and Indonesia have aggressively adopted measures to convert their existing 2-stroke rickshaws to CNG </li></ul>Number of NGVs in selected Asian countries Source: Asian NGV Communications, Vol 1 Num 6, August 2006 223 140 14,433 14,796 Thailand 18,300 18,300 Malaysia 14,507 1,205 10,984 27,605 Japan 3 1023 22,178 42,178 Bangladesh 32,369 10,146 Buses 100 66,440 127,120 China 207,000 248,000 India 1,000,000 Pakistan Trucks Cars Total Country
    45. 45. Biofuels <ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>China and India are now the world’s third and fourth producers of ethanol in the world and accounted for a combined 5.4 billion liters in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>As of July 2006, gasohol use in Thailand (E10) reached 3.5 million liters daily and available at 3,000 pump stations nationwide– a government mandate in 2007 will require the complete replacement of benzene octane 95 (petrol 95) with E10 and E20 blend will be introduced in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippines is considering to mandate E5 gasoline by 2007 and to E10 by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel production have increased in Asia, particularly in Southeast Asia in the past years, with Malaysia and Indonesia leading the production of palm oils worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippines and Thailand have adopted policies that could lead to mandating as much as 10% of biodiesel blend in marketed fuel </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippines have already mandated a 1% blend of coco-methyl ester in diesel for government vehicles </li></ul>Sources: ADB, 2006; and
    46. 46. Stationary Sources: Standards <ul><li>Although countries in Asia have Industrial Emission Standards in place, their implementation and monitoring is generally weak and needs to be strengthened </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance to stationary standards is hindered by lack of access to resources allowing for investments in pollution control, low level of technology, non-availability of trained personnel, and the unwillingness of management to invest in environmental protection </li></ul><ul><li>Many countries have substantial number of small and medium-sized industries interspersed in residential areas making it more difficult to monitor and regulate these sources </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippine Outsourcing Sampling Project showed: </li></ul><ul><li>49% of the 795 stacks reported failed the CAA standard for at least one parameter </li></ul><ul><li>Sources firing heavy bunker fuel oil are exceeding the SO2 and PM emission limits </li></ul><ul><li>Gensets (compression engines) are exceeding the NOx emission limit </li></ul><ul><li>Solid fuel-fired units are exceeding the CO emission limit </li></ul>% distribution of parameters failed by the sources sampled
    47. 47. <ul><li>While international roadmaps for vehicular emissions are in place, stationary sources standards are not readily available for comparison thus absence of roadmaps makes it difficult to promote stricter standards. </li></ul><ul><li>With the exception of the UNEP GERIAP (which has ended), there are very few regional initiatives and programs on stationary sources compared to mobile sources which have resulted in lesser exchanges and policy-dialogues </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of air pollution from stationary sources in Asia are still mostly &quot;end-of-pipe&quot; treatments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tightening emission standards for stationary sources, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory use of clean fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and inspection systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocation of polluting industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is no comprehensive policy on fuels for stationary sources but there is an emerging trend on use of low-sulfur coal, specifically in China, but actions to reduce sulfur content of bunker oil are still largely absent and there are few regulatory or financial incentives for industry to invest in sulfur-emissions abatement </li></ul>Stationary Sources: Control Strategies (1)
    48. 48. <ul><li>Emissions trading – pilot projects have been implemented in China but there are no indications that this will be a major control instruments for stationary sources in the next 5-10 years in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>The availability of carbon financing through the CDM has created especially in for stationary sources a new opportunity to accelerate industries’ acceptance of efficiency investments. This has sparked off: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved (base-line) monitoring of emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural shifts to new, less energy-intensive industrial products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing the energy intensity of existing industrial production through process changes and optimizing industrial energy systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Although China, India, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia all increasingly rely on coal and oil for electricity, they have also all established national goals to increase renewable energy and improve energy efficiency. </li></ul>Stationary Sources: Control Strategies (2)
    49. 49. SO2 Control in China, P.R. <ul><li>In the 11th Five-year plan, SO2 emission reduction is the emphasis of air pollution prevention and control and states that the emissions of sulfur dioxide should be reduced by 10% by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>The three principal components of existing SO2 emissions control policy are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution Levy System (PLS), which is based on the polluter pays principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Control Areas (TCA), is not an instrument like the pollution levy for affecting abatement behavior, but rather a means for prioritizing SO2 control efforts, designating the standards, and identifying cities and regions that should receive extra attention and resources from the national government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Emissions Control (TEC) limits the polluters to discharge under a specified level and levies the charge when any pollution is discharged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>China has been engaged in sweeping energy policy reforms over the last two decades to promote energy efficiency and conservation. Measures taken include the following: reductions in fossil fuel subsidies; research, development and demonstration projects; a national information network with efficiency service and training centers; tax reforms; equipment standards; and special loan programs, among other initiatives. These measures represent emission savings equal to nearly the entire U.S. transportation sector, about 400 million tons per year. </li></ul>
    50. 50. Cobenefits Approach to AQM and GHG Mitigation <ul><li>There are promising areas for application of cobenefits in Asia (e.g. power generation, industrial energy use, sustainable transport and household energy use) </li></ul><ul><li>Countries have started to acknowledge that the cobenefits approach to urban air quality management and climate change mitigation will provide substantial local and global benefits in the long and short-term </li></ul><ul><li>There is an emerging consortium of organization working on cobenefits – (e.g. IGES, OECC, USEPA, CARB, etc) and develop joint programs and activities to further develop and apply the co-benefits framework in Asia </li></ul>
    51. 51. Finally: ……. Court Case in Lahore for AQ Improvement <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>A public interest environmental litigation was filed against vehicular air pollution at the Lahore High Court in 1997 and in 2003, the case was re-opened by Justice Sair Ali of the Lahore High Court and took it as a high priority concern </li></ul><ul><li>The LAHORE CLEAN AIR COMMISSION (LCAC) was subsequently created, composed of lawyers, EPD, City Government, Punjab Government, City Mayor (Nazim), environmental scientists and civil society members, and tasked to prepare a report to control emissions from mobile sources </li></ul><ul><li>A national workshop on UAQM was organized in December 2004 that included international experts from all over the world to assist in the formulation of the solutions and measures called for by the Court </li></ul><ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><li>The set of measures identified in the workshop was submitted to the High Court and scheduled for implementation </li></ul><ul><li>2-stroke rickshaws have now been banned in several areas in the city and air quality is reported to have improved </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel fuelled public transport vehicles are to be banned </li></ul>
    52. 52. Conclusions (2) Contacts: Glynda Bathan, [email_address] Cornie Huizenga,