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  1. 1. SPECIFICATIONS Pyranometer: It is an instrument with a hemispherical field of view, used for measuring total or global solar radiation, specifically global horizontal radiation. A pyranometer with a shadow band or shading disk blocking the direct beam measures the diffuse sky radiation. The EQ08 Pyranometer is used for measuring global solar irradiance on a plane surface it exceeds the requirements for an ISO9060 first class Pyranometer. The EQ08-E version has an in-built signal amplifier. Construction: The EQ08 is machined from marine-grade aluminium and is hard anodized to provide a durable, corrosion-resistant finish. It has a blackened thermal sensor shielded by two glass domes. The sensor incorporates a precision thermoelectric element that generates a passive micro volt output proportional to the intensity of the incident radiation. The sensor is equally receptive to all radiation wavelengths and therefore its response to solar radiation is non-selectively spectrally. Technical Specification: Performance specification: Response time(to 95%) 11s Non-stability (per year) <1.5%, -0.5% Non-linearity <+-0.5% Directional response (w.r.t 1000 W/m2) <+-15 Spectral Selectivity <+-3% Temperature response <2% Tilt Response <+=0.25% General Specification: Viewing angle 2pi steradions Irradiance 0-4000W/m2 Spectral range 300-3000nm(nominal) 305-2850nm(50%points) Signal resolution < 0.5 W/m2 Impedance EQ08: 40ohm; EQ08-E: 100ohm Operating temperature -35 to +60 Celsius Level adjustment one fixed foot, two adjustable feet Desiccant orange silica gel Output lead 6m Pyroheliometer:
  2. 2. Pyroheliometer is an instrument that measures the amount of solar radiation. It does this by converting the heat of the sunlight into a voltage using a device called a thermopile, and a recording voltmeter. DN5 Pyroheliometer: The Pyroheliometer we have used is the DN% Pyroheliometer. The Middleton DN5 is an affordable precision Pyroheliometer for measuring the direct component of solar radiation when aimed at the sun. It exceeds the requirements for an ISO9060 First Class Pyroheliometer. The DN5 has a passive micro volt output. Specifications: EXCELLENT PERFORMANCE Very wide spectral band pass (0.2 to 5µm). Twin-thermopile detector has a flat spectral response and accommodates rapid temperature changes. Window is flush to the body to prevent obstruction by rain or debris. Fully sealed construction with internal desiccant. DN5-E has low-noise signal amplifier with negligible drift. USER FRIENDLY Can be operated with manual sun tracking, and adapts to most motorized sun tracking systems. Thermistor output for indication of sensor temperature. Aiming diopter conveniently positioned on instrument body. Compact size and lightweight. DURABLE Optical sapphire window is extremely hard and resistant to scratching and chemical attack. Body is corrosion resistant marine-grade aluminium, hard anodized; fasteners are stainless steel. Inverter/Charger: The DR 1524 1500 Watt and 24 Volt inverter is used to convert the direct current (DC) from the solar panels to alternating current (AC). ―DR‖ indicates the type of inverter/charger – DR series. ―15‖ the first two digits of the numerical designator indicate the inverter’s output power – 1500 ―12‖ the second two digits indicate the required nominal battery bank voltage – 12 VDC ―E‖ the letter suffix code indicates the output voltage and frequency of the inverter – 230 VAC/50 Hz The inverter features an AC pass-through circuit, powering home appliances from utility or generator power while charging the batteries. When utility power fails, the battery backup system keeps the appliances powered until the utility power is restored. All operating controls, indicators and sense connectors are located on the front panel of the
  3. 3. unit. The controls are easily accessible, and the LED’s provide inverter/charger status glance. For other specifications visit: Solar Slow Pump: (1304 DC Solar slow pump) It is 12 Volt pump measuring about 5.7 x 15.5 inches and weighing about 16lbs. This uses the energy provided by the solar panel to lift water. This is an ideal pump for lifting water from ponds, streams, storage tanks and shallow wells. This is a very efficient pump, and can run on as little as a single 35watt solar panel for short lifts. Construction & Features · Rotary vane mechanism (positive displacement) made of forged brass, carbon-graphite and stainless steel. · NSF® approved for drinking water · Handles sea water, dissolved minerals · Survives most freezes · Permanent magnet, DC motor · AC models use a low-surge PM motor that greatly reduces starting surges, inverter and wire size requirements · Installation and Service Manual is highly detailed and illustrated Suction Capacity · 20 vertical feet (6 m) at sea level -- subtract 1 ft. for every 1000 ft. altitude (1 m for every 1000 m). P ump should be mounted as close to the water source as possible. Filtration Requirement This pump CANNOT tolerate dirt. Water MUST be filtered clear using a disposable cartridge filter. If water is very dirty, pre-filter it, improve the source, or consider a different pump. PV-Direct (non-battery) Requirements · The rated power of the PV array must exceed the pump watts by 20% or more. · A Linear Current Booster (controller) is required to function in varying light conditions · Solar panel tracker (optional) to increase daily yield (40-55% in summer) Fittings
  4. 4. · 1300/1400 Series: 1/2 inch female pipe thread · 2500/2600 Series: 3/4 inch male thread Dimensions (1300/2500-Series) · 5.7 x 15.5 inches (14 x 39 cm) · Weight 16 lbs (7 kg) For more info visit: Solar Panels: Solar panels are devices that convert light into electricity. They are called "solar" panels because most of the time, the most powerful source of light available is the Sun, called Sol by astronomers. Some scientists call them photovoltaics, which means, basically, "light-electricity." A solar panel is a collection of solar cells. Lots of small solar cells spread over a large area can work together to provide enough power to be useful. The more light that hits a cell, the more electricity it produces. For other information on solar panels visit: 1. 40 Watt Solar Panel: (1 in no) The Kyocera KC-40 is a multi crystal solar electric panel with 36 cells. It is laminated with glass in an aluminum frame. The junction box is a 4" x 4" box with conduit knockouts and terminal strips on back. It is suitable for all applications in all climates. It measures about 20.7 x 25.7 x 2 inches and weighs about 13.2 pounds. 2. 60 Watt Solar Panel: (2 in no) Provides cost-effective photovoltaic power for general use, operating DC loads directly or, in an inverter-equipped system, AC loads. 36 multicrystalline silicon solar cells configured as two 18-cell Series strings; With 60 watts of nominal maximum power, the BP SX 60 is well suited to traditional applications of photovoltaics. · Cells are laminated between sheets of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and high- transmissivity low-iron 3mm tempered glass. · The junction box is rain tight (IP54 rated) and accepts PG13.5 or 1/2" nominal conduit or cable fittings. Mechanical Characteristics: Weight 7.2 kg (15.9 pounds) Dimensions Unbracketed dimensions are in millimeters. Bracketed dimensions are in inches.
  5. 5. Overall tolerances ±3mm (1/8") Electrical Characteristics: BP SX 60 BP SX 554 Maximum power (Pmax) 2 60W 55W Voltage at Pmax (Vmp) 16.8V 16.5V Current at Pmax (lmp) 3.56A 3.33A Guaranteed minimum Pmax 55W 50W Short-circuit current (Isc) 3.87A 3.69A Open-circuit voltage (Voc) 21.0V 20.6V Temperature coefficient of Isc (0.065±0.015)%/°C Temperature coefficient of Voc -(80±10) mV/°C Temperature coefficient of power -(0.5±0.05)%/°C NOCT3 47±2ºC Maximum series fuse rating 20A Maximum system voltage 600V (U.S. NEC rating) 1000V (TÜV Rheinland rating) For more information visit: Back to top 3. 80 Watt Solar Panel: (3 in no) Provides cost-effective photovoltaic power for general use, operating DC loads directly or, in an inverter-equipped system, AC loads. 36 multicrystalline silicon solar cells configured as two 18-cell series strings with two bypass diodes are installed. With 80 watts of nominal maximum power, the BP SX 80 is well suited to traditional applications of photovoltaics. · Cells are laminated between sheets of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and high- transmissivity low-iron 3mm tempered glass. · The junction box is rain tight (IP54 rated) and accepts PG13.5 or 1/2" nominal conduit or cable fittings. Mechanical Characteristics: Weight BP SX 80 9.5 kg (20.9 pounds) Grounding Detail Electrical Characteristics: BP SX 75 BP SX 80 BP SX 85 Maximum power (Pmax) 2 75W 80W 85W Voltage at Pmax (Vmp) 16.5V 16.8V 17.1V Current at Pmax (lmp) 4.54A 4.75A 4.97A
  6. 6. Warranted minimum Pmax 70W 75W 80W Short-circuit current (Isc) 4.97A 5.17A 5.3A Open-circuit voltage (Voc) 20.7V 21.0V 21.3V Temperature coefficient of Isc (0.065±0.015)%/°C Temperature coefficient of Voc -(80±10) mV/°C Temperature coefficient of power -(0.5±0.05)%/°C NOCT3 47±2°C Maximum system voltage4 600V For more information visit: SX 80.pdf Solar Trackers: Solar trackers are designed to align Normal Incidence Pyroheliometers with the direct beam of solar radiation. PV Solar Tracker (UTR 20): It weighs about 100 lbs. 20 Sq. Ft. Module Space Designed for 90 Mph Wind loads. It is made of stainless steel and zinc-plated hardware. Module and J Clip Designs available. For more info visit: DAQ Board: Traditionally, measurements are done on stand-alone instruments of various types- oscilloscopes, multi meters, counters etc. However, the need to record the measurements and process the collected data for visualization has become increasingly important. There are several ways in which the data can be exchanged between instruments and a computer. Many instruments have a serial port, which can exchange data to and from a computer or another instrument. A way to measure signals and transfer the data into a computer is by using a Data Acquisition board. A typical commercial DAQ card contains ADC and DAC that allows input and output of analog and digital signals in addition to digital input/output channels. The DAQ board used in this application can measure voltage directly. The current can be calculated when a known resistance is placed in series with the load. The data acquisition system is used in combination with the lab view software to read and record the voltage or current or temperature readings. The main components of the data acquisition system that are used in the project are: 1. SCXI-1001 2. SCXI-1122 3. SCXI-1102 4. SCXI-1322 terminal block: (used in combination with SCXI-1122) 5. SCXI-1303 terminal block: (used in combination with SCXI-1102)
  7. 7. The SCXI-1001 is the main 12-slot chasis that is used to accommodate the SCXI-1122 and SCXI-1102 modules. The SCXI-1122 is used to read the voltage readings from panels. The SCXI-1303 is connected to the thermocouples that are attached to various parts of the panels at the other end. The SCXI-1322 terminal block is used with the SCXI-1122 module and the SCXI-1303 terminal block is used with the SCXI-1102 module. SCXI –1001: The SCXI-1001 is a rugged, low-noise chassis that can hold up to 12 SCXI modules. This chassis powers SCXI modules as well as handles all timing, trigger, and signal routing between your digitizer and SCXI modules. For larger systems, or future expansion, yoU can also daisy chain up to eight SCXI-1001 chassis with a single E Series digitizer for high-channel-count applications. For more information visit: products/us/4scxisc333_334_335_336.pdf SCXI-1122: The National Instruments SCXI-1122 is designed for a wide variety of sensor and signal inputs requiring isolation. The NI SCXI-1122 offers a single isolation amplifier, filter, and excitation source for all channels. It offers at least 250 Vrms working isolation and can acquire strain, RTD, thermocouple, milli volt, volt, 250 V, 0 to 20 mA, and 4 to 20 mA current input signals. It can multiplex it’s channels into a single channel of the DAQ device. The SCXI-1122 offers only one voltage and one current excitation channel for transducers such as RTDs, thermistors, and bridge-based transducers. The isolated voltage excitation channel is a 3.333 V source with internal half-bridge completion and a single remote sensing terminal to help reduce lead resistance effects. The SCXI-1122 also includes software-controlled shunt calibration capabilities for bridge transducers. When activated, the module switches a 301 k shunt resistor, RSHUNT, across one arm of the bridge, from the positive input to VEX+. The shunt resistor is socketed for easy replacement. The isolated current excitation channel is a 1.0 mA source. This source can drive fifteen 100 devices, such as RTDs, connected in series. You can also configure the SCXI-1122 for 4-wire scanning mode.When configured for 4-wire scanning mode, the current source can drive up to eight 5 k devices, such as thermistors, and still maintain electrical isolation between transducers. The SCXI-1122 is intended for use in low-speed, static (DC) measurements, not dynamic measurements. For more info visit:
  8. 8. SCXI-1102: This module is for signal conditioning of thermocouples, low-bandwidth volt and mill volt sources, 4 to 20 mA current sources and 0 to 20 mA process-current sources. The SCXI-1102 has 32 differential analog input channels and one cold-junction sensor channel. On each channel, the SCXI-1102 has a three-pole low pass filter with a 2 Hz cutoff frequency to reject 60 Hz noise. Each channel also has an amplifier with a selectable gain of 1 or 100. You can multiplex the SCXI-1102 inputs to a single output, which drives a single DAQ device channel. Analog Input Input Characteristics Number of channels ............................32 differential Input signal ranges................................ ±100 mV (gain = 100) or ±10 V (gain = 1) Max working voltage (signal + common mode) ....................Each input should remain within ±10 V of CGND Input damage level ............................... ±42 VAC peak or VDC Inputs protected............................CH<0..31>, CJSENSOR Transfer Characteristics Nonlinearity ........................................0.005% FSR Offset error Gain = 1 After calibration ....................300 mV max Before calibration ..................600 mV Gain = 100 After calibration ....................15 mV max Before calibration ..................100 mV Physical Dimensions .........................................115 by 273 mm (4.54 by 10.75 in.) I/O connector ......................................50-pin male ribbon cable rear connector 96-pin male DIN C front connector For more info visit:
  9. 9. SCXI-1162HV: This module switches and controls low-level and power signals. The SCXI-1162HV operates as 32 digital input channels, arranged as eight banks of four channels. Each bank is optically isolated. The SCXI-1162HV is a module for sensing the presence of AC or DC voltages where high common-mode voltages may be present. The SCXI-1162HV works with National Instruments MIO Series boards; the SCXI-1200 module; Lab series boards; and with the DIO-24, DIO-32F, and DIO-96 boards. You can read 24 inputs in parallel mode with a DIO-24 board, or all 32 inputs with a DIO-32F or a DIO-96 board. You can also use the SCXI-1162HV in parallel mode with other digital logic inputs that comply with some specifications. Specifications of SCXI-1162 Input low voltage (DC or Peak AC) — ±1 V Input high voltage DC ±2 VDC ±240 VDC 50–60 Hz AC 10 VAC 240 VAC 1 kHz AC 2 VAC 240 VAC (VAC assumes sinusoidal waveforms) Physical Dimensions............. 1.2 by 6.8 in. by 8.0 in. (33.78 by 9.91 cm) I/O connector........... 50-pin male ribbon-cable rear connector 48-pin DIN C male front connector (SCXI-1326 screw terminal adapter available) For other info visit: PCI-6033E and NiDAQ: The PCI E Series boards are high-performance multifunction analog, digital, and timing I/O boards for PCI bus computers. Supported functions include analog input, analog output, digital I/O, and timing I/O. The PCI E Series boards are completely Plug and Play, multifunction analog, digital, and timing I/O boards for PCI bus computers. This family of boards features 12-bit and 16-bit ADCs with 16 and 64 analog inputs, 12-bit and 16-bit DACs with voltage outputs, eight lines of TTL-compatible digital I/O, and two 24-bit counter/timers for timing I/O. The PCI E Series boards are completely switchless and jumperless data acquisition (DAQ) boards for the PCI bus. Analog Input Input Characteristics Number of channels
  10. 10. PCI-MIO-16E-1, PCI-MIO-16E-4 ....... 16 single-ended or 8 differential (software-selectable per channel) PCI-6071E .............. 64 single-ended or 32 differential (Software-selectable per channel) Type of ADC ............ Successive approximation Resolution................ 12 bits, 1 in 4,096 Max sampling rate (single-channel) 1 PCI-MIO-16E-1, PCI-6071E ........1.25 MS/s PCI-MIO-16E-4 ........................ 500 kS/s Max working voltage (Signal and common mode).......... Each input should remain within ±11 V of ground over voltage protection ....................... ±25 V powered on, ±15 V powered off Analog Output Output Characteristics Number of channels ........ 2 voltage Resolution ..................... 12 bits, 1 in 4,096 Max update rate 1 channel .......................1 MS/s 2 channel ....................... 600 kS/s–1 MS/s (system-dependent) Type of DAC ..................................... Double-buffered, multiplying FIFO buffer size PCI-MIO-16E-1, PCI-6071E ....... 2,048 S PCI-MIO-16E-4........................... 512 S Data transfers ...........................DMA, interrupts, programmed I/O DMA modes....................................... Scatter gather Physical Dimensions (Not including connectors) .................17.5 by 10.6 cm (6.9 by 4.2 in) I/O connector PCI-MIO-16E-4........................... 68-pin male SCSI-II type PCI-6071E................................... 100-pin female 0.05 D-type For more info visit: SCXI-1303: Terminal Block They are used for providing a convenient method for connecting and disconnecting signals to the system. The SCXI-1303 is a terminal block for use with the SCXI-1102 modules. Designed especially for high-accuracy thermocouple measurements, the SCXI-1303 includes
  11. 11. isothermal construction that minimizes errors caused by thermal gradients between terminals and the cold-junction sensor. The SCXI-1303 also includes circuitry for open- thermocouple detection as well as automatic ground referencing for floating (no grounded) thermo-couples. When used with the SCXI-1102 or the SCXI-1102B/C, the SCXI-1303 provides a high-impedance path (10 M Ohm) from the negative input terminal to ground, so that the system works reliably with either floating or grounded thermocouples. For more info visit: Back to top SCXI-1322: The SCXI-1322 is the terminal block required to connect signals to the SCXI-1122 module. The SCXI-1322 is a general-purposed terminal block with an onboard temperature sensor for cold-junction compensation. For more info visit: SCXI-1326: Terminal Block · 48-screw terminals for signal connections · For high-voltage digital input or digital output applications · For use with the SCXI-1162HV · Mounts to front of SCXI module · Shielded for quick, convenient signal connections For more info visit: Thermocouple Wire: K Type (HHK-24) A thermocouple is a pair of dissimilar metals so joined at two points that a voltage is developed when the junctions are at different temperatures. It is a device for measuring temperatures, consisting of lengths of two dissimilar metals or alloys that are electrically joined at one end and connected to a voltage-measuring instrument at the other end. When one junction is hotter than the other, a thermal electromotive force is produced that is roughly proportional to the difference in temperature between the hot and cold junctions. It is a solid type wire.
  12. 12. ANSI Color Code: Positive Wire, Yellow; Negative Wire, Red; Overall, Brown Insulation: High Temperature Glass used even for overall insulation. MaxTemp: 1300F or 704C Wt.† lb/1000' 5 For more info visit: Thermocouple Connectors: A K- thermocouple connector is used.(A K-male and K-female).It features a glass-filled nylon construction rated to 220°C(425°F). The connector pins and sockets are made of high purity thermocouple alloy to minimize measurement error. For more info visit: SCXI 8-Channel Isolation Amplifiers: Isolation amplifiers are used as analog interfaces between systems with separated grounds. National instruments have three different 8-channel isolated analog input modules for SCXI. These three modules share a common architecture, providing 250 Vrms to 300 Vrms. Analog Input SCXI-1125: The analog input consists of eight programmable isolation amplifiers. Each channel can be programmed independently for input ranges from +/- 2.5mV to +/- 5V.