May 16, 2002 Antwerp 1


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May 16, 2002 Antwerp 1

  1. 1. The Application of Biotechnology to Industrial Sustainability – An OECD Study – Dr Mike Griffiths Mike Griffiths Associates
  2. 2. OECD Publications <ul><li>“ Biotechnology for Clean Industrial Products and Processes” (OECD, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Application of Biotechnology to Industrial Sustainability” (OECD, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li> for both reports </li></ul>
  3. 3. Unanswered Questions <ul><li>Some assessments already existed but were - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>academic studies of environmental problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>specific in-house analyses of process development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We wanted to know: </li></ul><ul><li>Can biotechnology provide a cheaper option? </li></ul><ul><li>Can economic and environmental improvement go hand in hand? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why the latest study? <ul><li>No collections of comparable case studies existed, and </li></ul><ul><li>No analysis to-date of the policy implications </li></ul><ul><li>Why did we do it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotech should be on every industrial agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability on every list of parameters </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Basis of the Study <ul><li>Companies which have adopted new biotechnology processes (21 case studies) </li></ul><ul><li>The factors in their decision making </li></ul><ul><li>The policy lessons which emerged </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsors: the Canadian and UK governments </li></ul>
  6. 6. Two distinct audiences <ul><li>Industrial policy makers (senior management) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>show what others have done and the benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>demonstrate the sustainability of their company </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy makers within government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>see how the “early adopters” have made decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support guidelines for national financing programmes </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The triple bottom line Size of triangle = indicator of sustainability Economic Environment Social
  8. 8. One Company’s Vision
  9. 9. Applications of biotechnology 1 <ul><li>Replacement of fossil fuels by renewable raw materials, for example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cargill Dow polymers - polylactides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastman and Genencor - ascorbic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DuPont and Genencor - 1,3-propanediol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biofuels - bioethanol, biodiesel </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. DuPont Bioproducts
  11. 11. Applications of biotechnology 2 <ul><li>Industrial use of biological systems (whole cells, enzymes) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waste recycling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chiral synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Textile treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil well completion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>etc., etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Production of 7-amino cephalosporanic acid I t 7-ACA Enzymatic Process 0.3 t 31 t Old Chemical Process Waste to be incinerated
  13. 13. Breakdown of cases by sector and country
  14. 14. Participating Companies <ul><li>Avecia </li></ul><ul><li>Baxenden </li></ul><ul><li>Billiton </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemie (Novartis) </li></ul><ul><li>Cargill Dow </li></ul><ul><li>Cereol </li></ul><ul><li>Ciba </li></ul><ul><li>Domtar </li></ul><ul><li>DSM </li></ul><ul><li>ICPET </li></ul><ul><li>Iogen </li></ul><ul><li>Leykam </li></ul><ul><li>M-I, BP Amoco </li></ul><ul><li>Mitsubishi Rayon </li></ul><ul><li>Oji Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Paques (Budel Zink, Pasfrost </li></ul><ul><li>Roche </li></ul><ul><li>Tanabe Seiyaku </li></ul><ul><li>Windel </li></ul>
  15. 15. Experience curve for Penicillin G price 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1999 2010 Absolute price (in year 2000 $'s/kg) Cumulated volumes (MT) 10000 100000 1000000 10 100
  16. 16. Lewis Carroll in ‘Alice through the Looking-Glass’ <ul><li>“ A slow sort of country!” said the Queen. “Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that.” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pre–implementation stages <ul><li>Getting an idea </li></ul><ul><li>Putting biotech on the board’s agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding on parameters to measure and </li></ul><ul><li>Assembling the data </li></ul><ul><li>Looking into the future </li></ul><ul><li>Proceed or not </li></ul>
  18. 18. Technologies for the Future
  19. 19. Life Cycle Assessment <ul><li>Answering the questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does process reduce environmental load or merely transfer it up - or downstream? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where in the process is the most severe environmental impact? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantifying comparisons of alternative process options and competing technologies </li></ul>
  20. 20. Acrylamide processes - energy consumption 0 2 3 4 5 1 Energy Consumption [ MJ / kg-AAm] Catalytic Process Enzymatic [New]-Process Enzymatic [Old] - Process 6 7 Raw Materials Electric Power Steam
  21. 21. Bioextraction of Copper
  22. 22. Significant findings 1 <ul><li>Biotech invariably led to a more environmentally friendly process </li></ul><ul><li>It also resulted in a cheaper process </li></ul><ul><li> but </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the environment was secondary to cost and product quality </li></ul><ul><li>unless </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental legislation is driving - </li></ul><ul><li>then the decision might be clean up or close! </li></ul>
  23. 23. Significant findings 2 <ul><li>Approaches were rarely systematic - so follow your hunch </li></ul><ul><li>Biotech skills had to be acquired - do you need industrial or academic partners </li></ul><ul><li>Lead times improved with succeeding developments </li></ul>
  24. 24. Costs and environmental benefits Case Energy Raw materials Waste to air Waste to water Operating costs a. Same -75% (non- renewables) -50% -66% -50% b. Elec. + Steam - -80% -80% considerable reduction c. -80% down down down d. down down down -54% (raw materials) e. -70% -80% -40% f. -15% Down (clean water) down -9%
  25. 25. Enzyme de-gumming of vegetable oil
  26. 26. Messages <ul><li>Why adopt biotechnology? To improve costs and be environmentally friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of change, find yourself an R & D partner </li></ul><ul><li>Have a champion, assemble arguments to convince doubters </li></ul><ul><li>Build your own in–house biotech skill base </li></ul><ul><li>Companies – work with government and keep close to the regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Government – there is much help the companies still need – especially R & D funding </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know of any good examples we can use? </li></ul>