Learning Experience 2.2
BP Refinery Kwinana – Cleaner Production Initiatives

ENVIRONMENTAL GOAL

BP Refinery Kwinana has...
Step 3:      Report the performance against the targets set, and encourage participation of
the whole workforce in suggest...
Black oil pipeline pumps            Total water savings 90kL/day
Fixed fire system leaks             Reduction of approxim...
•   A Cogeneration Plant was commissioned in 1996, in conjunction with Mission Energy
       (now International Power), fo...
BP Refinery – Kwinana                     Environmental Management

    Environmental       BP’s Objectives           BP’s...
Paragraph Framework
 The main idea of the paragraph is …
 Describe how BP Refinery in Kwinana manages one of the major env...
WRITE (Identify each type of sentence using T.S.[ST], D.S.[EXP], S.S.[EG], C.S.[CON]).

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 Learning Experience 2.2 worksheet (doc, 131KB)

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 Learning Experience 2.2 worksheet (doc, 131KB)

  1. 1. Learning Experience 2.2 BP Refinery Kwinana – Cleaner Production Initiatives ENVIRONMENTAL GOAL BP Refinery Kwinana has undertaken many cleaner production and environmental improvements in accordance with company policy and its commitment to continual environmental improvement. It has been particularly active in minimising water use, maximising energy efficiency and greenhouse gas abatement, protecting ground and coastal waters, and reducing volatile organic compounds (VOC) and other air emissions. BP Refinery Kwinana was built in 1955 on the eastern shore of Cockburn Sound, approximately 40 km south of Perth in the Kwinana Industrial Area. Neighbouring industries include a variety of mineral and chemical processing companies. Crude oil is delivered by ships or trucks to BP Refinery Kwinana, where it is refined into a wide range of products for distribution throughout WA, Australia and the world. These products include LPG, petrol and diesel for motor vehicles; aviation gasoline, jet fuel and bitumen. In accordance with BP's Health, Safety and Environmental Policy and its expectation of no damage to the environment, the prevention of pollution arising from the refinery's operations is of the highest priority. BP Refinery Kwinana is committed to continuous improvement with regard to its environmental performance and the refinery has an environmental management system certified to the International Standard ISO 14001. Key environmental goals stated in BP Refinery Kwinana's Environmental Policy include: • Protecting Cockburn Sound and water resources, including groundwater and scheme water • Reducing greenhouse emissions • Reducing volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions • Reducing other atmospheric emissions, including sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides • Supplying clean fuels to help improve Perth's air quality, including supplying only lead- free motor spirit. Focus Area 1: WATER EFFICIENCY BP Refinery Kwinana initiated a water reuse and minimisation programme in 1997 with three main objectives: to minimise water use; to maximise water reuse in refinery processes, either after or before treatment; and to substitute lower quality water in place of potable water where practical. The approach adopted involves four main steps, aimed to drive continuous improvement: Step 1: Set targets for water use of the different water streams, for water recycling and for the volume of water directed to the Waste Water Treatment Plant. Step 2: Monitor performance against targets, including periodically conducting a detailed site water balance.
  2. 2. Step 3: Report the performance against the targets set, and encourage participation of the whole workforce in suggesting water minimization initiatives. Step 4: Implement water minimisation projects. An innovative aspect of the programme was approaching water management with a whole refinery perspective. All areas were targeted in order to save as much water as possible. All employees were encouraged to discuss and put forward ideas on water conservation, recycling or reuse. Quarterly meetings are held within the refinery to discuss water minimisation and performance against the targets that have been set. In 2008 the refinery commissioned its largest project for water minimisation, which resulted in tertiary treated water from the Kwinana Water Recycling Plant (KWRP) being substituted for all potable water use in the Refining process. This is a significant investment which means that the only potable water used at the refinery is for typical domestic purposes, such as drinking, toilet facilities and showers. This represents an estimated reduction in potable water use of 1200 - 1500 klpd. Previous initiatives have included: • Recycling process water used in the Bypass Seal Pot of the Residue Cracker Unit’s CO Burner. Operating conditions required 200-300 kL/day of water to prevent high flue gas back pressure causing the Seal Pot to blow and consequently shutting the CO burner down. Previously this overflow was directed to sewer. A head tank and recycling system was installed, and pH and chloride testing was carried out to enable the operation to be carried out under suitable conditions. • A refinery-wide steam trap programme aimed at reducing steam leakage and improving condensate return. • Improved process water return where feasible eg. from cooling pumps. Previously half of the total process water was not returned to the refinery. • Modifications to operating procedures for Fremantle, Kewdale and black oil pipeline pumps to minimise process water use. • Maintenance on leaking 'fixed 'fire systems. • A project to recover lubes condensate losses. • Reuse of stripped sour water as wash water on the Crude Unit desalters. This wash water is used to extract salts from crude oil to prevent corrosion and minimise catalyst use. Water consumption The water reuse and minimisation programme resulted in a decrease in total water usage from 7250 kL per day in 1996 to 4065 kL per day in 2007, and a decrease in potable water usage from 6150 kL per day in 1996 to 2179 kL per day in 2007. The programme also provided significant environmental benefits by reducing contaminant loads (eg oil loading decreased from 17kg/day in 1996 to 2.8kg/day in 2007) in the refinery's marine discharge, due to decreased flows and source control (1996 -5258 m³/day; 2007 - 2620m³/day) to the wastewater treatment plant. The benefits from specific initiatives were: Water minimisation initiative Benefit Recycling: Residue Cracker Unit 50-150kL/day and cost savings Steam trap programme Reduced leakage, improved condensate return
  3. 3. Black oil pipeline pumps Total water savings 90kL/day Fixed fire system leaks Reduction of approximately 36kL/day Reuse: Stripped Sour Water Process/total usage reduced 500-900kL/day Wastewater Treatment • The wastewater treatment plant has been in operation since 1994. In the first stage of the treatment process the free oil is separated from the wastewater and sent back to the refinery for reprocessing. The separated wastewater is pumped to an Equalisation Tank where it is held and pH adjusted to the required conditions of the treatment plant. • The second stage involves the removal of small suspended oil particles in the Dissolved Air Flotation Unit by binding the small particles into larger ones so that they can float and be skimmed off. Up to this stage the treatment process is covered to prevent Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions. • The final stage involves the removal of dissolved contaminants and nutrients in the Activated Sludge Units (ASUs), where biological breakdown occurs. The wastewater then enters the clarifiers, where micro-organisms are settled before returning to the ASUs. The wastewater is then directed to the polishing ponds, which are another special feature of the treatment plant. Aerators aid the break down of any remaining organic compounds. • Treated wastewater is discharged to Cockburn Sound under carefully controlled conditions and to strict regulatory requirements. Average daily discharges would place BP Refinery Kwinana as one of the best refineries in the world for wastewater quality. • In 2009 the Refinery plans to commission a project which will divert all treated process water from the current outfall into Cockburn Sound to the Sepia Depression Ocean Outfall Line (SDOOL). The SDOOL line is directed further off the coast where there is increased mixing and flushing. Focus Area 2: ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS Following the signing of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 by many industrialised nations, climate change and reducing greenhouse emissions became a major issue for BP and the world. BP set a target in 1997 to reduce its global greenhouse gas emissions by 10% from a 1990 baseline over the period to 2010, exceeding the reduction agreed in 1997 by the industrialised nations. BP reported in 2001 that the target had been achieved, and set a new target to maintain net emissions at the 2001 levels until 2010, while continuing business growth. BP Refinery Kwinana is part of the BP Australia Greenhouse Challenge which focuses on improvement in such areas as energy efficiency, process efficiency, enhancement of carbon sinks and the effective use of resources. In addition, BP Refinery Kwinana has implemented both onsite and offsite initiatives to reduce greenhouse emissions. Offsite initiatives include tree plantations, which have been occurring since 1998, delivering not only carbon sequestration but additional benefits, such as salinity reduction, habitat conservation and socio-economic benefits to rural communities. BP Refinery Kwinana's carbon sequestration project has achieved recognition through being a finalist, runner up or winner of various environmental awards. Various onsite initiatives to reduce greenhouse emissions have been implemented since 1996. A number of these initiatives are summarised below: • A 'no economic flaring' policy was introduced in 1997, with reductions in flaring achieved by optimisation of plant throughputs and fuel gas usage, and increased fuel gas sales.
  4. 4. • A Cogeneration Plant was commissioned in 1996, in conjunction with Mission Energy (now International Power), for the combined production of electricity and steam. This plant provides 100% of the refinery's 40MW power needs, thereby eliminating the need for electricity from the grid. • Commissioning of the Cogeneration Plant reduced fuel gas usage as the refinery was able to shut down the onsite steam boilers. • A major study was completed in 1997 to identify areas for energy improvement through to the year 2006. • A steam trap management program was initiated to minimise steam energy losses. • Catalytic Reformer furnace air system modifications were carried out to improve furnace efficiency. • Vacuum Distillation Unit modifications were carried out to increase efficiency and reduce energy use and CO emissions per unit throughput. These included a more efficient furnace and upgrades to the unit internals. • Crude Distillation Unit 1 furnace was upgraded in March 2000 to improve its efficiency. • A comprehensive Energy Strategy was developed as part of a long term plan to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse emissions. Energy Benefits Significant savings have been achieved, in addition to reduced greenhouse gas emissions and associated cost savings. The benefits from specific initiatives were: Energy/greenhouse initiative Benefit (annual CO2 reduction ) No economic flaring 16,600 tonnes Steam boiler shutdown 73,000 tonnes Steam trap programme Significant energy savings Catalytic Reformer furnace Significant savings Vacuum Distillation Unit Significant savings Crude Distillation Unit 1 8,000 tonnes
  5. 5. BP Refinery – Kwinana Environmental Management Environmental BP’s Objectives BP’s Action BP’s Specific Initiatives Benefits Management Area Water Efficiency Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Emissions
  6. 6. Paragraph Framework The main idea of the paragraph is … Describe how BP Refinery in Kwinana manages one of the major environmental concerns caused by its operations. THINK PLAN Statement (Topic Sentence T.S.) Explanation (Developing Sentence D.S.) Examples (Supporting Sentence S.S.) Conclusion (Concluding Sentence C.S.)
  7. 7. WRITE (Identify each type of sentence using T.S.[ST], D.S.[EXP], S.S.[EG], C.S.[CON]). _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ EDIT ( ) Spelling ( ) Punctuation ( ) Grammar ( ) Sentences ( ) Keywords PRESENT _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________
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