HARSH ENVIRONMENT COATINGS  HISTORY An address prepared for the SCANZ 2003 Convention by Peter Walters
PREHISTORIC CAVE  PAINT
~30,000 BP <ul><li>Chauvet -Pont-d’Arc   c ave </li></ul>
~30,000 B P <ul><li>Chauvet -Pont-d’Arc  cave </li></ul><ul><li>No binder or mixed with clay wall </li></ul>
~30,000 B P <ul><li>Chauvet -Pont-d’Arc  cave </li></ul><ul><li>No binder or mixed with clay wall </li></ul><ul><li>Charco...
~30,000 B P <ul><li>Chauvet -Pont-d’Arc  cave </li></ul><ul><li>No binder or mixed with clay wall </li></ul><ul><li>Charco...
~17,000 B P <ul><li>Lascaux cave </li></ul>
~17,000 BP <ul><li>Lascaux cave </li></ul><ul><li>Natural manganese and iron oxide pigmentation </li></ul>
~17,000 BP <ul><li>Lascaux cave </li></ul><ul><li>Natural manganese and iron oxide pigmentation </li></ul><ul><li>No binde...
~17,000 BP <ul><li>Lascaux cave </li></ul><ul><li>Natural manganese and iron oxide pigmentation </li></ul><ul><li>No binde...
FIRST RECORDED MARINE COATING
~6,000 BP <ul><li>Noah’s ark </li></ul>
~6,000 BP <ul><li>Noah’s ark </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest written account of coating </li></ul>
~6,000 B P <ul><li>Noah’s ark </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest written account of coating </li></ul><ul><li>Natural pitch </li><...
~6,000 B P <ul><li>Noah’s  a rk </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest  w ritten  a ccount of  c oating </li></ul><ul><li>N atural  p ...
~5,000 BP
~4,000 BP
~2,000 BP
THE  MODERN  ERA
1777-1779 <ul><li>First iron bridge </li></ul>
1777-1779 <ul><li>First iron bridge </li></ul><ul><li>1787: Deep lead colour for iron </li></ul>
1777-1779 <ul><li>First iron bridge </li></ul><ul><li>1787: Deep lead colour for iron </li></ul><ul><li>1950: 3 coats bitu...
1777-1779 <ul><li>1787: Deep lead colour for iron </li></ul><ul><li>1950: 3 coats bituminous paint </li></ul><ul><li>1980:...
1777-1779 <ul><li>1980: 5 coats, Tung oil phenolic MIO finish </li></ul><ul><li>1999: two contrasting colour coats of uret...
28 th  December 1879 Tay Bridge Disaster
21/12/1882 - 5/3/1890   First Substantial Steel Structure
Quebec Bridge 1917
21/12/1882 - 5/3/1890   First Substantial Steel Structure
1887 Supports Reach Intended Height <ul><li>All steelwork was scraped down and dipped in hot boiled linseed oil at the wor...
1888 - 1889 C antilever Arms Extended From Base <ul><li>Dipped in hot boiled linseed oil </li></ul><ul><li>1 coat red lead...
SEPTEMBER 1889 Cantilever Arms Almost Touching <ul><li>Dipped in hot boiled linseed oil </li></ul><ul><li>1 coat red lead ...
6 NOVEMBER 1889 Cantilevers Touch <ul><li>Dipped in hot boiled linseed oil </li></ul><ul><li>1 coat red lead in linseed oi...
5 MARCH 1890 Firth of Forth Rail Bridge Inaugurated
FORTH BRIDGE RED OXIDE OF IRON Used until Mid 1970’s Finest Quality Spanish Red Oxide (Minimum 88% Fe2O3) 68% Boiled Linse...
FORTH BRIDGE RED OXIDE Used mid 1970’s to mid 1990’s Styrenated Alkyd Industrial Enamel Red Oxide Volume Solids = 65%
Forth Bridge Maintenance
Painters at work in the 1950s
Painters at work today
Repainting the Forth Bridge
 
THE END
References (1/2): <ul><li>www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/chauvet/en/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.culture.fr/culture/arcnat/l...
Reference (2/2): <ul><li>History of Painting by Russ Godfrey. The New Zealand Painter & Decorator, August 1991, P.16. </li...
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HARSH ENVIRONMENT COATINGS HISTORY An address prepared for the

  1. 1. HARSH ENVIRONMENT COATINGS HISTORY An address prepared for the SCANZ 2003 Convention by Peter Walters
  2. 2. PREHISTORIC CAVE PAINT
  3. 3. ~30,000 BP <ul><li>Chauvet -Pont-d’Arc c ave </li></ul>
  4. 4. ~30,000 B P <ul><li>Chauvet -Pont-d’Arc cave </li></ul><ul><li>No binder or mixed with clay wall </li></ul>
  5. 5. ~30,000 B P <ul><li>Chauvet -Pont-d’Arc cave </li></ul><ul><li>No binder or mixed with clay wall </li></ul><ul><li>Charcoal & mineral oxides </li></ul>
  6. 6. ~30,000 B P <ul><li>Chauvet -Pont-d’Arc cave </li></ul><ul><li>No binder or mixed with clay wall </li></ul><ul><li>Charcoal & mineral oxides </li></ul><ul><li>Applied by hand or charcoal stick </li></ul>
  7. 7. ~17,000 B P <ul><li>Lascaux cave </li></ul>
  8. 8. ~17,000 BP <ul><li>Lascaux cave </li></ul><ul><li>Natural manganese and iron oxide pigmentation </li></ul>
  9. 9. ~17,000 BP <ul><li>Lascaux cave </li></ul><ul><li>Natural manganese and iron oxide pigmentation </li></ul><ul><li>No binder </li></ul>
  10. 10. ~17,000 BP <ul><li>Lascaux cave </li></ul><ul><li>Natural manganese and iron oxide pigmentation </li></ul><ul><li>No binder </li></ul><ul><li>Applied by horsehair brush </li></ul>
  11. 11. FIRST RECORDED MARINE COATING
  12. 12. ~6,000 BP <ul><li>Noah’s ark </li></ul>
  13. 13. ~6,000 BP <ul><li>Noah’s ark </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest written account of coating </li></ul>
  14. 14. ~6,000 B P <ul><li>Noah’s ark </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest written account of coating </li></ul><ul><li>Natural pitch </li></ul>
  15. 15. ~6,000 B P <ul><li>Noah’s a rk </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest w ritten a ccount of c oating </li></ul><ul><li>N atural p itch </li></ul><ul><li>Had to l ast at l east 190 d ays </li></ul>
  16. 16. ~5,000 BP
  17. 17. ~4,000 BP
  18. 18. ~2,000 BP
  19. 19. THE MODERN ERA
  20. 20. 1777-1779 <ul><li>First iron bridge </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1777-1779 <ul><li>First iron bridge </li></ul><ul><li>1787: Deep lead colour for iron </li></ul>
  22. 22. 1777-1779 <ul><li>First iron bridge </li></ul><ul><li>1787: Deep lead colour for iron </li></ul><ul><li>1950: 3 coats bituminous paint </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1777-1779 <ul><li>1787: Deep lead colour for iron </li></ul><ul><li>1950: 3 coats bituminous paint </li></ul><ul><li>1980: 5 coats, Tung oil phenolic MIO finish </li></ul>
  24. 24. 1777-1779 <ul><li>1980: 5 coats, Tung oil phenolic MIO finish </li></ul><ul><li>1999: two contrasting colour coats of urethane alkyd MIO finish </li></ul>
  25. 25. 28 th December 1879 Tay Bridge Disaster
  26. 26. 21/12/1882 - 5/3/1890 First Substantial Steel Structure
  27. 27. Quebec Bridge 1917
  28. 28. 21/12/1882 - 5/3/1890 First Substantial Steel Structure
  29. 29. 1887 Supports Reach Intended Height <ul><li>All steelwork was scraped down and dipped in hot boiled linseed oil at the workshop </li></ul>
  30. 30. 1888 - 1889 C antilever Arms Extended From Base <ul><li>Dipped in hot boiled linseed oil </li></ul><ul><li>1 coat red lead in linseed oil primer </li></ul>
  31. 31. SEPTEMBER 1889 Cantilever Arms Almost Touching <ul><li>Dipped in hot boiled linseed oil </li></ul><ul><li>1 coat red lead in linseed oil primer </li></ul><ul><li>Interiors: 2 coats white lead paint </li></ul>
  32. 32. 6 NOVEMBER 1889 Cantilevers Touch <ul><li>Dipped in hot boiled linseed oil </li></ul><ul><li>1 coat red lead in linseed oil </li></ul><ul><li>Externals: 2 coats Forth Bridge red oxide of iron </li></ul>
  33. 33. 5 MARCH 1890 Firth of Forth Rail Bridge Inaugurated
  34. 34. FORTH BRIDGE RED OXIDE OF IRON Used until Mid 1970’s Finest Quality Spanish Red Oxide (Minimum 88% Fe2O3) 68% Boiled Linseed Oil 28% Turpentine & Driers 4% Volume Solids = 95%
  35. 35. FORTH BRIDGE RED OXIDE Used mid 1970’s to mid 1990’s Styrenated Alkyd Industrial Enamel Red Oxide Volume Solids = 65%
  36. 36. Forth Bridge Maintenance
  37. 37. Painters at work in the 1950s
  38. 38. Painters at work today
  39. 39. Repainting the Forth Bridge
  40. 41. THE END
  41. 42. References (1/2): <ul><li>www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/chauvet/en/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.culture.fr/culture/arcnat/lascaux/en/index3.html </li></ul><ul><li>The New English Bible, Oxford University Press 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>www.scotland.gov.uk/pages/news/junior/jxa_12.aspx. </li></ul><ul><li>www.forthbridges.org.uk/railbridgemain.htm. </li></ul><ul><li>By e-mail in private communication with Colin Mitchell-Rose from Craig & Rose Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/wonder/structure/firth_of_forth.html. </li></ul><ul><li>www.lawrieweb.com/ea/ea02.html </li></ul>
  42. 43. Reference (2/2): <ul><li>History of Painting by Russ Godfrey. The New Zealand Painter & Decorator, August 1991, P.16. </li></ul><ul><li>PCI, Paint & Coatings Industry. Century of Paint. January 2000, pp 54. </li></ul><ul><li>www.cyber-antiques.net/ironbridge.htm </li></ul><ul><li>www.virtual-shropshire.co.uk/ironbridge-tour/025c.htm </li></ul><ul><li>By e-mail in private communication with David de Haan, Deputy Director, Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust. </li></ul><ul><li>www.heritage.scotsman.com </li></ul><ul><li>Things we Need - Paint </li></ul><ul><li>www.goldengate.org </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese lacquer: an age-old polymer. Shell Polymers Vol 6, No 2 1982. </li></ul><ul><li>filebox.vt.edu/users/aschaeff/tay/tay.html </li></ul><ul><li>www.ironbridge.org.uk </li></ul>

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