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Fuel cells from natural gas-Javaherian


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Fuel cells from natural gas-Javaherian

  1. 1. Kick Starting the Hydrogen Economy with Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Natural Gas Presented on May 2, 2003 By Arshia Javaherian
  2. 2. What If: <ul><li>25% of the World’s Energy Sources Disappear. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of fossil fuels rise dramatically. </li></ul><ul><li>No alternative fuel is ready for immediate commercialization. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Emergence of a middle class in China, Pakistan, India, and Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Nations/War-torn Nations slow rise of consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil Fuels are finite. </li></ul>The Real Problem:
  4. 4. The Solution: <ul><li>Today: Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells (HFCs), Reforming Natural Gas into Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow: The Pure Hydrogen Economy </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Plan: <ul><li>Stationary HFCs reforming natural gas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government support encouragement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Industry takes off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous Deployment of H 2 fueled fleets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs go down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology advances. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centralized H 2 production and improved transportation technology. . </li></ul><ul><li>Mass introduction of HFC vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced production of hydrogen using wind, solar, and biomass. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Timetable Source: British Petroleum
  7. 7. Hydrogen is Not an Immediate Energy Solution <ul><li>Hydrogen used in Fuel Cells will not be a ready supply if 25% of the World’s Energy is unavailable tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, if we begin the shift to Hydrogen as our central fuel today, we will never run out of energy. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why Hydrogen? <ul><li>Environmentally clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Completely renewable. </li></ul><ul><li>Present everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Present in our current energy resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Storable. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationally independent, individually independent </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Basics: How A Fuel Cell Works
  10. 11. UTC Power PC25C Fuel Cell Power Plant 16.5 ft PC25C at Yankee Gas Services Office in Meriden, CT 9 ft
  11. 12. PC25C: Overview <ul><li>Maximum output is 200kW. </li></ul><ul><li>In use since 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>PC25 provides both heat and power,and can replace grid power. </li></ul><ul><li>40% efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Three main components: </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel processor, power section, power conditioner. </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Power of 200 kW Hotel, School, commercial peakshaving Small to medium hospitals and office buildings 80 –500 kW Commercial / Small Scale Distributed Generation Single or Multi-unit residential Premium, high reliability power for telecom, UPS, etc. 1 – 10 kW 10 – 80 kW Residential/ Light Commercial Laptops, handheld electronics Lawn and garden equipment 50 – 100 W Portable Examples of Proposed Applications Typical Power Ratings Application Category
  13. 14. Units Currently Available Using Natural Gas On Site 250 kW FuelCell Energy, Inc. 250 kW Siemens Westinghouse 200 kW UTC Fuel Cells 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40 kW DCH Technology, Inc. 5kW Nuvera Fuel Cells 5kW PlugPower, Inc.
  14. 15. Onsite Reforming <ul><li>Types of Reforming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam Methane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial Oxidation (POX) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma Torch </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. How Steam Methane Reforming Works <ul><li>NG Reacts with Steam at 1500° to 1600° Fahrenheit and a nickel catalyst to strip out the H 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Result is unpure mixture of H 2 , CO, CO 2 , steam and unreacted Methane. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture is cooled to 750°. </li></ul><ul><li>More steam is added, creating more H 2 , and converting the CO to CO 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining impurities are then extracted. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Sequestering the Impurities: How to Keep it Clean <ul><li>Disposing of CO 2 by burying it deep in exhausted aquifers or in gas or oil reservoirs, or by piping it deep in the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequestering adds $1.80/GJ to the cost of Hydrogen Fuel from natural gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Will this happen now? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this the price we pay for a clean future? </li></ul>
  17. 18. Why Natural Gas?
  18. 19. . . . When Natural Gas <ul><li>Is so expensive; </li></ul><ul><li>Is so unpredictable in price and availability; </li></ul><ul><li>Is a cleaner fuel as it is used today, than when it is reformed into Hydrogen; and </li></ul><ul><li>Is a Fossil Fuel, and not a renewable resource. </li></ul>
  19. 20. . . . Because Natural Gas Is <ul><li>Widely available; </li></ul><ul><li>The cheapest readily available source of H 2 ; </li></ul><ul><li>The most efficient; </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to distribute; </li></ul><ul><li>One of the cleanest fossil fuels around; and </li></ul><ul><li>A great transition to a Pure Hydrogen Economy. </li></ul><ul><li>And most importantly . . . </li></ul>
  21. 22. Barriers to the Hydrogen Economy <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Safety/ Consumer Skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Abundance of cheap fossil fuels </li></ul>
  22. 23. How Do We Get There? <ul><li>Reduce Costs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk Purchases by State, Federal, Military, Universities, and Hospitals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Subsidies, Incentives, and Grants. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve Funding. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations Campaign addressing Cost and Safety Issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep using fossil fuels like we are. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Where Do We Stand Today?
  24. 25. Projected Cost of Stationary Fuel Cells
  25. 26. Hydrogen is not prohibitively expensive to get started today. With Gas priced at $3/MBTU Hydrogen Production Method 50-100 Electrolysis (photovoltaic) 40-60 Electrolysis (solar/thermal) 20-40 Electrolysis (wind) 10-20 Electrolysis (hydroelectric) 8-15 Natural Gas   Onsite   Distributed Production     8-13 Gasified Biomass 20 Electrolysis of Water 9-12 Coal 5-8 Natural Gas   Central Production     Cost ($/GJ) 6-7 1-2 L-H 2 60-70 15-20 C-H 2 500 mi 100 mi $/GJ Delivery of hydrogen
  26. 27. Government Funding
  27. 28. Government Subsidies, Incentives, and Grants <ul><li>Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2003 Climate Change Fuel Cell Buy-Down Program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifying Facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illinois will pay for up to $3,000 or half of a HFC. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Getting the Word Out <ul><li>Department of Energy Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A National Vision of America’s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy – To 2030 and Beyond.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bush’s State of the Union Address 1/28/03. </li></ul><ul><li>FreedomCar </li></ul><ul><li>FutureCarCongress </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrations sponsored by DoD and DoE. </li></ul><ul><li>What do we need? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollywood, Press, Full Ad Campaign </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Remember the Hindenburg
  30. 31. Public Must Trust Hydrogen <ul><li>Ad Campaign, </li></ul><ul><li>Government Support, </li></ul><ul><li>Codes and Standards, and </li></ul><ul><li>Begin the Dialog. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Conclusion <ul><li>Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells Using Natural Gas Today </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by Government and Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Hydrogen Economy, Independent of Fossil Fuels Tomorrow. </li></ul>
  32. 33. To Sum Up : Have You Ever Wondered What it’s Like to Breath Fresh Air?