Chapter 2:  Alkanes  and  Cycloalkanes Chem 30A Lecture 8
Physical Properties of Alkanes <ul><li>Intermolecular forces of attraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ion-ion (Na +  and Cl -  ...
Physical Properties <ul><li>Low-molecular-weight alkanes (methane to butane) are gases at room temperature. </li></ul><ul>...
Physical Properties <ul><li>Constitutional isomers have different physical properties. </li></ul>
Oxidation of Alkanes <ul><li>Oxidation is the basis for the use of alkanes as energy sources for heat and power. </li></ul...
Heat of Combustion <ul><li>Heat of combustion for constitutional isomers </li></ul>
Heats of Combustion <ul><li>For constitutional isomers [kJ (kcal)/mol] </li></ul>
Heat of Combustion <ul><li>Strain in cycloalkane rings determined by  </li></ul><ul><li>heats of combustion </li></ul>
Sources of Alkanes <ul><li>Natural gas  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90-95% methane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Petroleum </li></ul><u...
Petroleum <ul><li>Fractional distillation of petroleum. </li></ul>
Gasoline <ul><li>Octane rating:   The percent 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) in a mixture of isooctane and heptane tha...
Synthesis Gas <ul><li>A mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in varying proportions which depend on how it is produced....
Synthesis Gas <ul><li>Synthesis gas is a feedstock for the industrial production of methanol and acetic acid. </li></ul><u...
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Chapter 2: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

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Chapter 2: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

  1. 1. Chapter 2: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Chem 30A Lecture 8
  2. 2. Physical Properties of Alkanes <ul><li>Intermolecular forces of attraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ion-ion (Na + and Cl - in NaCl) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ion-dipole (ions solvated in aqueous solution) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dispersion forces (electrostatic attraction between temporary dipoles) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Physical Properties <ul><li>Low-molecular-weight alkanes (methane to butane) are gases at room temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher molecular-weight alkanes (pentane, decane, gasoline, and kerosene) are liquids at room temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>High-molecular-weight alkanes (paraffin wax) are semisolids or solids at room temperature. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Physical Properties <ul><li>Constitutional isomers have different physical properties. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Oxidation of Alkanes <ul><li>Oxidation is the basis for the use of alkanes as energy sources for heat and power. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heat of combustion: The heat released when one mole of a substance in its standard state is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Heat of Combustion <ul><li>Heat of combustion for constitutional isomers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Heats of Combustion <ul><li>For constitutional isomers [kJ (kcal)/mol] </li></ul>
  8. 8. Heat of Combustion <ul><li>Strain in cycloalkane rings determined by </li></ul><ul><li>heats of combustion </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sources of Alkanes <ul><li>Natural gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90-95% methane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Petroleum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gases (bp below 20°C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>naphthas, including gasoline (bp 20 - 200°C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kerosene (bp 175 - 275°C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fuel oil (bp 250 - 400°C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lubricating oils (bp above 350°C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asphalt (residue after distillation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul>
  10. 10. Petroleum <ul><li>Fractional distillation of petroleum. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Gasoline <ul><li>Octane rating: The percent 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) in a mixture of isooctane and heptane that has equivalent antiknock properties. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Synthesis Gas <ul><li>A mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in varying proportions which depend on how it is produced. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Synthesis Gas <ul><li>Synthesis gas is a feedstock for the industrial production of methanol and acetic acid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is likely that industrial routes to other organic chemicals from coal via methanol will also be developed. </li></ul></ul>

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