86% of global primary energy consumption is fossil fuels (coal, petroleum oil and natural gas).
NOTE: But extracting oxygen from air is very expensive and consumes energy and combustion with pure oxygen occur at higher temperature.
The main complication with CO2 transport is that CO2 behaves differently under varying pressures and temperatures and therefore transport of CO2 must be carefully controlled to prevent solidification and blockages occurring. Pipelines would require a new regulatory regime to ensure that proper materials are used (CO 2 combined with water, for instance, is highly corrosive to some pipeline materials) and that monitoring for leaks and health and safety measures are adequate. However, these are all technically possible, and pipelines in general currently operate in a mature market.
After we collect and transport all that carbon dioxide (CO2), we're going to need somewhere to put it. There are two places we've found to store CO2 -- underground and under water . In fact, estimates project that the planet can store up to 10 trillion tons of carbon dioxide. This would allow 100 years of storage of all human-created emissions
Geological storage can take place in oil and gas reserves, deep saline aquifers and unminable coal beds. The injection of CO 2 at pressure into these formations, generally at depths greater than 800m, means that the CO 2 remains a liquid and displaces liquids, such as oil or water, that are present in the pores of the rock. Researchers have found that when they inject CO2 into basalt, it eventually turns into limestone -- essentially converting to rock.
In addition to underground storage, we're also looking at the ocean for permanent CO2 storage. Some experts claim that we can safely dump CO2 directly into the ocean -- provided we release it at depths greater than 11,482 feet (3500 meters). At these depths, they think the CO2 will compress to a slushy material that will fall to the ocean's floor. Ocean carbon storage is largely untested, and there are many concerns about the safety of marine life and the possibility that the carbon dioxide would eventually make its way back into the environment.
Monitoring and verifying the quantities of CO2 stored is essential. Any CO2 storage options would also need to verify that there is no leakage of CO2 from the storage reservoir.
Methane gas (also called natural gas) is produced from offshore gas fields, and is brought onshore by pipeline. Using existing oil-refinery technology, the gas is 'reformed' into hydrogen and CO 2 . The CO 2 is then separated by a newly-designed membrane, and sent offshore, using a corrosion-resistant pipeline. The CO 2 goes to an oilfield, which is near to the end of its normal life of oil production. But, like many fields, more than 30% of the oil is still un-produced. The CO 2 makes the remaining oil easier to produce - partly paying for the operation. The CO 2 is stored in the oilfield, several km below sea level, instead of being vented into the atmosphere from the power station.
Proposed site : Mattoon, Illinois The Mattoon Site consists of 444 acres in Mattoon Township, Coles County, Illinois. Most of the site is currently used for agricultural purposes. The site has rail access immediately adjacent to the northeast site boundary, and has adjacent 138 kV power lines and a 345 kV substation 16 miles away. The site proposers intend to use the combined effluent from the municipal wastewater treatment plants in Mattoon, Illinois and Charleston, Illinois for cooling water. A natural gas pipeline is less than one-half mile away. The CO 2 injection well for the Mattoon site is proposed to be on the site, therefore, no CO 2 corridor is necessary. Time line :The FutureGen Industrial Alliance plans an aggressive development schedule that includes beginning construction in 2009 and initiating full-scale plant operations in 2012.
Carbon Dioxide Emission: 24 billion tons per year
CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE <ul><li>Carbon capture and storage is mostly used to describe methods for removing CO 2 emissions from large stationary sources, such as electricity generation and some industrial processes, and storing it away from the atmosphere. </li></ul>
Carbon Capture Technology <ul><li>Post- combustion capture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>React the flue gas with chemicals that absorb CO 2 and then heat the chemicals to release CO 2 . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NOTE: </li></ul><ul><li>Flue gas : Mixture of nitrogen , water vapor and 15 % of Carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>. </li></ul></ul></ul>
Carbon Capture Technology <ul><li>Oxy-fuel combustion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use pure oxygen to support the fossil fuel combustion. The flue gas is then mostly CO 2 and water making it to separate easily. </li></ul></ul>
Carbon Capture Technology <ul><li>Pre- combustion capture </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove carbon before combustion. By gasifying the coal through the reaction with more oxygen, it is possible to a mix of mostly CO 2 and hydrogen. </li></ul></ul></ul>
Transportation <ul><li>Many point sources of captured CO 2 would not be close to geological or oceanic storage facilities. In these cases, transportation would be required. </li></ul><ul><li>The main form of transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pipeline. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipping </li></ul></ul>
Oceanic Storage <ul><li>Two storage mechanism has been proposed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolving CO 2 at mid-depth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injecting the CO 2 at depths in excess of 3 km , where it would form lakes of liquid CO 2 . Bellow 3 km liquid CO 2 would be denser than sea water and would sink to the ocean floor. </li></ul></ul>
What might Carbon Capture and Storage look like? The diagram is from a BP news release from the abandoned Miller project, UK North Sea, which is no longer available online.
Carbon Storage Concerns <ul><li>CCS technologies actually require a lot of energy to implement and run </li></ul><ul><li>transporting captured CO 2 by truck or ship, require fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a CCS-enabled power plant also requires a lot of money. </li></ul><ul><li>What happens if the carbon dioxide leaks out underground? We can't really answer this question. Because the process is so new, we don't know its long-term effects. Slow leakage would lead to climate changing. Sudden catastrophic leakage is dangerous, and causes asphyxiation. </li></ul><ul><li>The more CO 2 an ocean surface absorbs, the more acidic it becomes, higher water acidity adversely affects marine life. </li></ul>
FutureGen FutureGen is a public-private partnership to build a first-of-its-kind coal-fueled, near-zero emissions power plant. It will use cutting-edge technologies to generate electricity while capturing and permanently storing carbon dioxide deep beneath the earth. The plant will also produce hydrogen and byproducts for possible use by other
Where are the proposed CCS projects? <ul><li>http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/sccs/storage/storageSites.html </li></ul><ul><li>More links </li></ul><ul><li>http://network.carboncapturejournal.com/video/2018151:Video:4342 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.futuregenalliance.org/about.stm </li></ul>