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  1. 1. A Grateful Eulogy in Praise of Jehovah for His Indefatigable Servant, Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow For David, after he had served his own generation by the will of God, fell on sleep, and was laid unto his fathers, and saw corruption : But he, whom God raised again, saw no corruption. Act 13:36-37 Introduction This year marks the quint centenary (i.e. 500 years) of the birth of John Calvin, (1509-1564) the extraordinary 16th century French reformer who transformed the spiritual landscape of western continental Europe and beyond and by his writings and teachings, arguably altered the course of European history. This same year also marks the historic home going of a noted son of Calvin, a veteran warrior of the reformed faith in the Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow. A notable leader of the 21st century reformation, he was providentially taken up to glory by the Almighty Jehovah on 20th April 2009 5.45am. It was by no coincidence that after preaching at the service at Kulai BP Church on 19th April at 12.20pm, the author thanked God for the visionary thrust of his servant Rev. (Dr.) Tow with Rev. David Wong and Mrs. Fraude sharing of how Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow was the one whom God used to start BPC missions in Malaysia with Kelapa Sawit in 1953, subsequently Kulai BP fellowship in 1973 and Kemaman in 1994 with the late Rev. John Ling and others which were initiated largely through his initiative as well. As Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew is to Singapore, Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow Siang Hui was to the BP movement in Singapore and the Far East. The author was moved of the Spirit of God to awake at 5.30 am on 21st April 2009 to magnify the Almighty Jehovah for the extraordinary labours of a redeemed and industrious man who had made significant and definitive contribution to the ecclesiastical scene for the cause of Christ and the gospel in this part of the world and hence this eulogical treatise. Background
  2. 2. Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow Siang Hui (1920 - 2009) born in Swatow, South China in 1920, was the second son of a big family of 5 boys and 3 girls. Providence brought him and family to Senai, Johore first, then to Kluang and then to Batu Pahat and finally to Singapore in 1926. He was a precocious kid and excelled in his academic pursuits and topped his school in ACS in 1937. He was married to Nancy Lan Yin only to lose her (and their daughter, Le Anne) in 1965 in a car accident. By God's providential hand, 15 months later, Ivy came into his life and they were married and had 2 children. By God’s higher hand, he was influenced by Dr John Sung in the 1935 revival held in Singapore that transformed his whole life (read John Sung, My Teacher). Another man he met who changed the course of his life was Dr. Carl McIntire when he studied in Faith Theological Seminary in 1947 and caught the vision of the 21st century Dr. John Sung, the man whom God used to revive Rev. (Dr.) Reformation. Timothy Tow. In 1950 after his graduation from Faith Seminary and ordination in Geneva, he led the exodus of members out of the compromised Presbyterian Synod of Singapore and Malaya which was part of the ecumenical movement of the World Council of Churches (and Prinsep Street Life Church) and incepted Life BP Church on 20th October 1950. It would be another almost 6 decades of the propagation of the pure gospel and the defence of the faith before he breathed his last and entered into the heavenlies. He had served his Master with distinction for more than half a century and had made definitive contribution to the ecclesiastical scene not only in Singapore and Malaysia but a greater part of the Far East and beyond. He was the successor to Dr. Carl McIntire, the founder of the BPC movement worldwide in 1937, the International Council of Christian Churches (ICCC), the American Dr. Carl McIntire, the Council of Christian Churches (ACCC) and Faith teacher of Rev. (Dr.) Theological Seminary. Timothy Tow. A fervent gospel preacher and a staunch defender of the faith, he authored more than 35 books and had written numerous edifying articles on various 2
  3. 3. theological and practical themes during the span of his life time. We will use 16 phrases to describe his life and ministry below. Parsons' Parson A spiritual mentor to many BP pastors over 5 decades, it can be said that a great number of BP pastors, elders and deacons in Singapore and Malaysia (if not Indonesia, Cambodia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam as well) had been directly or indirectly mentored by him. There were few memorable moments that the author had the privilege to share with this God fearing venerable servant. The author remembered hearing him in August 1982 in Life BP Church when he preached on the 5 points of Calvinism and his exposition of the doctrines of grace which struck a deep cord in his heart. Many ministers and church leaders would come to his parsonage and confer with him on church matters and he would offer advice to resolve many church conflicts. He was also a favourite invited speaker in many church anniversaries, camps, conferences, inauguration, ordination or dedication services. We remembered fondly having him on a number of occasions at the Maranatha BP Church anniversaries during the formative years. Spiritual Entrepreneur Our Lord speaks of a shrewd trader in His parable who made gains in His spiritual business for God’s sake. This was the exemplary testimony of Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow too. He was a wise and careful trustee and steward of the manifold grace of God. He would be always thinking of how to maximize every talent to the Lord. When he came to Maranatha BP Church for our 9th thanksgiving anniversary in 1999, he saw the new pondok we built in the church and encouraged us to optimize every corner of the church. He would finish his last grain of rice and never waste anything. One of his adages is ‘economy is the mother of prosperity’. More importantly, he was a prime mover of spiritual events and he gets things going and done promptly without delay on time and gently nudged and motivated others along with him as well. He encouraged the formation of churches, missions, bible schools, orphanages, kindergartens and other spiritual enterprises. Mersing ‘Lautan Biru’ was his brainchild of an idillyic resort for church camps along the Malaysian East Coast. 3
  4. 4. He also printed the wooden scroll calendars and marketed them well as a wise spiritual entrepreneur for Christ. One of the legacies he left behind was the former Life Book Centre started in 1976 (renamed FEBC bookroom) where he promotes KJV bibles, books and other resources. He was a generous and magnanimous giver with a big heart. At one time, he bought many copies of the Wilmington guide and gave it to many pastors in third world countries for their learning first and to the spiritual nourishment of their flock consequently. Visionary Pioneer It has been said that there are 3 kinds of people in the world, one who make things happen, another who watch things happen and the third who wonder what happened. Undoubtedly, Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow belongs to the first league, enabled and empowered by Christ. Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow pioneered missions in Malaysia in the 1950s - 70s with the founding of Malayan Pioneer Mission with Rev. (Dr.) Quek Kiok Chiang in 1952. He helped to start Rawang, Air Bemban and Bt Gambir BPCs with Rev Koa and others. He would also spearhead the BP missions in Cambodia, Myanmar and Indonesia and when he heard about any mission endeavour, he was among the first to heartily endorse it and encourage us in the work of the Lord (i.e. Tangkak BP Church was a case in point in 1999 when the work was incepted with his blessing by Rev. Sim Peng Sin with the help of Maranatha BP Church). He would go to Pontianak (means ‘ghost’ in Indonesian) West Kalimantan with Rev. Djunaidi, and Rev. (Dr.) Quek Kiok Chiang and helped to start and support new BPCs in the 1970s and 1980s. Prudent Bible-Based Counselor There are many confusing voices in the world of counseling today. It is a popular course now in the seminaries, universities and bible colleges. Laden with deadly Freudian concepts and man made ideas, Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow stands foursquare against the intrusion of man-centred Freudian and Rogerian psychological theories and practices and stand for the sufficiency of the word of God (Rev. 22:18-20). He would have nothing to do with man-centered self- esteem and positive thinking theories and psychological instruments to typecast and box people that is practiced prevalently in many churches and bible colleges. That the authoritative and inspired word of God alone is sufficient for all these things was his firm conviction. His recipes were the Psalms of King David as a Balm of Gilead, as God’s panacea for troubled souls. 4
  5. 5. Astute Sage Prov 9:10 says, 'The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom: and the knowledge of the holy is understanding'. Sages are a rare breed these days and it seems to belong to the past ages but there is one whose God had given to him a sanctified and discerning mind. Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow had preached many edifying sermons and he had also written or coined many succinct wise sayings too. A man is known by what he says, does, sings, draws or writes. The author had compiled some of his many piquant sayings in 1995 and it can be found in the 5th anniversary magazine of Maranatha BP Church on page 121 and here are some of them : 1. Galilee Sea that gives and gives is ever full. The Dead Sea that gets and gets is dead empty. (Great minds think alike. This was said also by my teacher, Dr. Yehuda Paz, Principal of the Afro-Asia Institute in Tel Aviv, Israel). 2. Quoting John Sung in baptism, 'More faith less water and less faith more water'. 3. When you preach, speak with your ears. (i.e. listen to yourself also). 4. Do something good for Jesus everyday. 5. Quoting Augustine, the 3 rules of rhetoric are pronunciation, pronunciation, pronunciation. 6. Quoting Calvin, the first 3 rules of theology are humility, humility and humility. 7. Self help with God's help is the best help. 8. Economy is the mother of prosperity. 9. Every church is a missionary society and it is most cost effective. 10. When you are going on business for the Lord, don't be distracted and do something else. 11. Speak homiletically so that everyone can HEAR you at the back. 5
  6. 6. 12. Serving the Lord is unlike working in the secular world because His yoke is easy and His burden is light. 13. A minister of God should never retire and a Christian should never say die. 14. Have you heard of any banana skin story? Suppose I invite you to dinner and you break your knee cap on the way by tripping on a banana skin. Who is liable? (in the predestination). 15. Every student should be like an elephant - very docile with big ears to learn. 16. The Great Commandment is a full four commission : missions, evangelism, church organisation and indoctrination. 17. Decentralisation, not centralisation is the key to Church growth. 18. If you want a happy trip, the only way is generously tip. 19. Music is next to theology - Martin Luther. Music is half of John Sung's sermons (it was said more were converted through Wesley's hymns than sermons). 20. Not tongues in confusion but tears in confession. 21. Anticipation in a sermon will lead to effective application. 22. Every pastor should be like the fireman. Be on call 24 hours of the day. (Rev. Tow lives up to his own saying - He is available all the time). 23. Why did God choose you? Because he 'su-kak' you (love you in Hokkien) (on the mystery of election). 24. Revise old things and acquire new things. 25. Man's extremity, God's opportunity. 26. The greater part of knowledge is knowing where to find it. 27. Put the go in the gospel and the gospel in the go. 6
  7. 7. 28. Debate is a good way of hammering out the truth. 29. The church is a trading company and the word "gain" is mentioned three times in the parable of talents. 30. FEBC is like a spiritual SAFTI, training hardy soldiers for the Lord. God’s Fund Raiser If there is a pastor in the BPC movement who can effectively challenge many to rightfully honour God with their substance, notably among many worthy contenders would be Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow. The author remembered in 1993, during the life BP Church cum FEBC camp where the author was the treasurer, Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow literally passed his hat around to the campers and collected a tidy sum for Rev. Dan Ebert III whose mission in Manila, Philippines was growing and was in need of financial assistance. He did the same in Yangon when we were there to ordain Andrew Kam in 1998. After hearing the orphans sang, he told the author to convey to the mission team of 12 members that we would collect an offering for the missions there and those who did not have the money with them could write a note of IOU and Ordination of Rev. Andrew Kam in put it in the envelope. Yangon, Myanmar, 1998. He himself passed me an IOU note, with the words "I owe you, Lord Jesus, $1000" with his signature on it. More than $5,000 was collected for the cause of the gospel in Myanmar because of one man’s spiritual burden and initiative that day (with many IOUs that were honoured later). New Life BP Church in Woodlands was also largely his initiative in raising $933,000 for the purchase of the land and another 2 million for the building in 1983 and the funds for the Stone Mansion of Hope BP Church in Adelaide was partly raised by him as well. Intrepid Pilgrim Traveler The apostle Peter spoke of believers as pilgrims and strangers sojourning in this temporal land (1 Pet 2:11). We live in days of global travel and 7
  8. 8. international commuting is almost a necessity today. Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow was a frequent and seasoned traveler and there was one occasion when he flew on a Saturday to Perth to preach one sermon at the Bible Presbyterian Church of W.A on the Sabbath and returned on Monday to continue his duties in Singapore. He told the author that the one sermon was worth $900 (i.e. his airfare). He had held the fort in BPCs in Toronto, Canada, Perth, Melbourne, London and he had preached in other stations as well. There was also an occasion when we travelled together to preach in Kemaman, a new mission station started under Life BP Church in 1994 with the late Rev. John Ling. Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow would travel 16 hours both ways over night and would devour the inimitable Ramly burger (that out-classed the occidental Big Mac) along the way after Rompin at midnight. He had the amazing feat to rest well in the Lord wherever he was and that gave him added strength and vigour to preach and teach the word when he reached his destination. The Cantonese say, 'eating is prosperity', we add an enjoiner here, 'so is sleeping well'. Church Historian Every denomination has its own historian as the Lord provides for each generation. With the home going of Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow, we have lost a shrewd and careful historian who recorded fairly the history of the BPC movement up to the present era. The BP Church Story and The Son of a Mother's Vow are historical annals of the life of the BPC movement that is almost synonymous with his life as well. The old Life Church BPC weeklies were actually chronicles of the life of the church with interesting pastoral insights and memorable recordings of past significant events that made relevant material for the keen historian and a needful study for those who wanted to understand the course of the more than 70 years of the BP ministry, both local and worldwide since 1937. Master Teacher 2 Tim 2:2 says, 'And the things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach 8
  9. 9. others also'. Teachers are valuable spiritual multipliers for they equip and nurture others who will be able to teach others also. Only eternity will reveal how many had been instructed under the feet of Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow over almost 6 decades of didactic ministry. One of his catchphrase was 'the trend is towards the trained’. After returning from Faith Theological Seminary with a S.T.M. in 1959, he founded FEBC in1962 with a burden to train the next generation of pastors and church leaders. He was the able instructor (and supervisor for thesis) in systematic theology, homiletics, at one time, church history (which he asked his unworthy student to teach and he obliged for the next 10 years from 1997 - 2007), Greek, Hebrew and OT subjects and pastoral theology as well. The author remembered attending the modern Hebrew Reading course under him in 1989 and benefited much with his accurate pronunciation coupled with a strong guttural sound. The bible college lectures were not the only avenue for his creative teachings. More often it was the lunch time pep talk, the home visitations and the informal chats that one would glean from this wise rabbi who dished out anecdotes and practical theological tips to his apprentices. Once he shared on the importance of waiting upon the Lord or patience with this anecdote. "Do not pluck the durian from the tree, let it drop naturally and it will be sweet". Those were words pregnant with wise counsel for our young courting couples today. Prolific Writer / Biographer and Illustrationist It is said that the pen is mightier that the sword and there is much truth in it. By the providential guidance of God, Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow had a gifted hand that had bequeathed upon us a rich legacy of more than 35 books for us not counting the numerous weeklies, articles, commentaries, pamphlets, tracts and theological treatises. He had chronicled the life of John Sung his teacher and the life of John Calvin, William Burns, Wang Ming Tao, Jason Linn, Carl McIntire, his predecessor and had commented on books of the bible and other pastoral themes. Some of the more notable ones are listed below (not exhaustive). Old Testament Law John Sung My Teacher The Minor Prophets The Story of My Bible-Presbyterian Faith The Asian Awakening My Homiletic Swimming Pool Visions of the Princely Prophet 9
  10. 10. An Abridgment of Calvin's Institutes Disciples of McIntire Pearls of Great Wisdom McIntire Maxims The Singapore B-P Church Story Pattern for Church Growth and Missions Jason Linn, Pioneering in Dyak Borneo Clock of the 7-fold Will of God Recipe for Living a Happy Life Wang Ming Toa and Charismaticism Williams Burns - Grandfather of BPs Prophescope On Israel Life of John Calvin He was also a gifted illustrationist. Besides his 7 Fold Will circular chart, here is another illustration from his book, The Singapore B-P Church Story, on The Growth of Tamil BPCs on The Rock of Christ, 129. Concerned Mentor cum Care Giver There are those who are imbued with action and others with passion. Some would serve with head knowledge but there are yet others with the 10
  11. 11. heart. Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow epitomized one who had both. He always had a word of encouragement for the depressed, bereaved and the down cast and he did not despise anyone but with a magnanimous spirit, he assisted others with alacrity and sacrifice. He seemed to always have the right words for the right occasion and often visited the sick, conducted family worship and opened the church grounds to strangers for a hospitality ministry in the good oriental tradition. You would see him often walking around with his 'cha kiak' with ease surveying the church ground with a keen eye. Many weary travelers had found solace and comfort with his benevolent gestures that showed genuine Christian love and concern for the brethren and strangers too and he had entertained ‘angels’ unaware (Heb 13:1-3). Once, he entertained a stranger to stay in Beulah House who took some things away before he left and he said 'Never mind, live and let live'. Gospel Propagator There is one laudable example about Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow that we can emulate. It was his profound ardour and passion for souls saved and his love for the kingdom of God. There is no greater joy than for one to declare the mystery of the everlasting gospel of Christ. He encouraged witnessing and the giving out of tracts and started Wednesday afternoon evangelism for his students. His messages are always Christ-centred and gospel based (which is rare these days in many other churches). Such is the man who was after God's own heart for souls. One day after a church camp, he told the author to always preach the gospel and said that one never know who was listening (he just preached Christ to the Chinese section that day). This would be indelibly marked in my mind. For the sake of the advancement of the gospel, he would have traveled to more than 30 countries including Australia, US, India, Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Canada, Israel (which he led in many holy lands trips) Egypt, Jordan, among others without murmuring or reluctance at all accompanied always by his dear wife, Ivy. (He nearly entered Brunei once to preach but was turned back by the authorities at the airport.) Gifted Composer Pastors are rarely gifted in both music and theology, leave alone the extraordinary ability to compose hymns and choruses. It was said by 11
  12. 12. Martin Luther that music is next to theology and the German reformer had composed many German hymns during the 16th century reformation that are still extant today. Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow had remarkably mastered not only his theology but his musical skills and hymnology. He had composed numerous hymns and short choruses like John Sung of Old and introduced new hymns from time to time to both college and the church to the delight of his students and members. Below is one of them among many others (to the tune of Auld Lang Syne) which says, ‘Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity! It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard: that went down to the skirts of his garments; As the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion: for there the LORD commanded the blessing, even life for evermore' (Psa 133:1-4) and here is another hymn by him on Prayer taken from the Then Sings My Soul songbook. Our Father, hear us when we pray With one accord through Thy dear Son. On bended knee before thy throne, We wait on Thee. We come to Thee with empty hands, No merit of our own we bring, Simply to Jesus' cross we cling, Our cries attend! With contrite and with loving hearts, We seek Thy pardon and Thy grace. Joy of salvation and of praise To us impart! Help us carry our daily cross, Bear up our burden with good cheer, Be they so weary and so drear, Mind not the loss! We thank Thee for strength of each hour, For heath and wealth, for home and friends, For peace and quiet confidence, Our shield and tower! We pray for church at home, abroad. We pray for gov'nors of our land. 12
  13. 13. We pray for missions to earth's end, Send forth thy Word! O Father, bless us when we part. Thy Spirit pour down from on high. Till Thy servants again draw nigh, Breathe in our hearts! There are many others in Songs and Verses from the Holy Land by him for your edifying worship and praise. Custodian of the Faith The heart's burning desire of this veteran warrior for Christ was the vigilant defence and contention for the faith once delivered to the saints (Jude 3, 4). He was among the first to warn us of the spiritual compromises of Billy Graham so that when the Billy Graham crusade came to Singapore in the late 1970s, the BPC was one of the few denominations who did not participate according to the will of heaven. He stood against charismaticism, new age mysticism, Romanism, Liberalism and modernism and neo evangelicalism of the day and wrote against the idolatrous compromises and practices and proclaimed Christ as Saviour and Lord. He was in the forefront of the work of ICCC until October 1988 when the BP Synod of Singapore was dissolved due to theological differences. He stood for the purity of the faith and for biblical separation which is sadly a forgotten stand today among many churches (2 Cor 6:14-18) Reformed Theologian There are many capable pastors but few are theologians in the true sense of the word. There is a dearth of sound and conservative reformed theologians in the Far East and we are thankful that God that blessed us with at least one if not more in the BPC movement. Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow distinguished himself as a covenant theologian in the reformed tradition having studied and loved the doctrines of grace by John Calvin and of God's providence and the sovereignty of God under theological luminaries like the celebrated Laird Harris, Buswell and Allan McRae among others. He has written many theological treatises one of them notably was the excellent abridgement of the Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion, on homiletics, pastoral theology, soteriology, eschatology, missiology, OT law and the minor prophets among others. 13
  14. 14. Talented Linguist In my generation, there are very few BP pastors that can preach effectively in more than one language. Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow preached in impeccable Queen’s English, fluent Chinese and was conversant in Cantonese, Hokkien, Teochew and read Latin, Greek and Hebrew and appreciated Malay as well. Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow used to be a court interpreter during the days of the Japanese Occupation of Singapore (1942 - 45) and his oratorical and linguistic skills came in handy in the work of the Lord in this part of the world. He taught a course on phonetics and the author benefitted from his insights on the proper accent for words and a quick crash course on phonology. Arguably a five talent man, he would receive that 'Well done, thou good and faithful servant' from His master (Mt 25:18-30). Conclusion What are you living for today? Self? Wealth? Health? Possessions? World? Serve the right Master and you have bring a bright eternal future like Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow. With Christ, it is an endless hope, without Him, a hopeless end. In closing, we need to soberly contemplate and reflect upon our own lives and ponder seriously about eternity. Are you ready to leave this world, my friend just like Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow? If you are not ready to die, you are not ready to live. We have an invitation for you today from the King of Kings and the Lord of Lords in Isa 55 1-3, 6-7, 'Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye, buy, and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price. Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread? and your labour for that which satisfieth not? hearken diligently unto me, and eat ye that which is good, and let your soul delight itself in fatness. Incline your ear, and come unto me: hear, and your soul shall live; and I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David. Seek ye the LORD while he may be found, call ye upon him while he is near: Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and let him return unto the LORD, and he will have mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon'. Our Lord Jesus has a gentle call for all of us in Matt 11:28-30 which says, 'Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light'. 14
  15. 15. Heed these everlasting words to seek and embrace Christ, as Saviour and Lord before our time is up. DIN (Do it now) before it is too late! Finally, Rev. James Smith, of the Remembrancer has the last words which properly summarise the life of God’s faithful servant, By faith in Christ I walk with God, With heaven, my journey's end, in view; Supported by His staff and rod, My road is safe and pleasant too: Though earth and hell my course withstand, JEHOVAH guards me by His hand. Jack Sin 26th April 2009 Maranatha BPC, Singapore www.maranatha-bpc.com (read The Son of a Mother's Vow and The BP Story of my Faith for a deeper understanding of the life and ministry of Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow.) Thanks be to God who giveth us At the new burial grounds (off old the victory through our Lord Choa Chu Kang Road), attended by Jesus Christ (1 Cor 15:57). many pastors and church leaders, the body of Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow was laid to rest. 1960, Rev. (Dr.) Timothy Tow, former Pastor, Life B-P Church,1993, Pastors’ Rev. (Dr.) Quek Kiok Chiang, Pastor, Faith and Zion B-P Churches, Dr. Conference at Arthur Steele and Dr. Philip Clark, formerly of Independent Board of Manila, 15 Hilltop, Presbyterian Foreign Missions, and Dr. S H Tow, former Elder, Philippines with the Life B-P Church. Eberts and Lifers.