Digital Radar Processing and the New Low Power Radars

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Presentation by Odin Sletten (Navico UK Ltd) at the BMEA Conference 2010

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Digital Radar Processing and the New Low Power Radars

  1. 1. Navico BR24 Radar<br />Odin Sletten<br />Technical Sales Engineer<br />Navico Denmark<br />
  2. 2. © Navico Company Confidential<br />2<br />A Short History of Radar<br /><ul><li>In 1917, Nikola Tesla first established the principles for primitive radar units
  3. 3. In 1935, The British invented and patented the first radar for aircraft defence
  4. 4. In 1950, Decca introduced the first marine pulse radar utilising a magnetron, which eventually trickled down into recreational boats…</li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />3<br />60 Years of Development<br />
  5. 5. © Navico Company Confidential<br />4<br />Weaknesses of Traditional Radar<br /><ul><li>User expertise required
  6. 6. Blurs and distorts objects, making it difficult to interpret surroundings and navigate safely
  7. 7. Obscures objects closest to the boat, where visibility is most important for collision avoidance
  8. 8. Difficulty distinguishing targets from clutter - requires experience to safely operate
  9. 9. Inconvenient installation and operation
  10. 10. Magnetron takes several inconvenient minutes to warm up
  11. 11. Magnetron has a limited life, and is expensive to replace
  12. 12. Large cables and connectors
  13. 13. Power consumption is impractical for small boats and most sailboats
  14. 14. Emissions require mounting away from humans and other electronic equipment. Most small boats have no room at all</li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />5<br />First X-band Radome Radar <br />
  15. 15. © Navico Company Confidential<br />6<br />Navico’s BroadBand Radar<br /><ul><li>“Revolutionary improvement in situational awareness” - the best short-range resolution and target discrimination of any X-band marine radar
  16. 16. Radar is finally easy enough for a novice – identifies targets clearly with no ‘tune control’, as sea and rain clutter rejection is 5-10 times better than a pulse radar
  17. 17. Navigation is truly easy, even at an unprecedented 1/32 NM range, with unparalleled resolution and clarity within two metres of the dome, with no ‘main bang’, ‘zero range adjust’, or close-range sidelobe distortion</li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />7<br />Close Range Performance <br />
  18. 18. © Navico Company Confidential<br />8<br />Comparison and Main bang<br />main <br />bang<br />4 kW HD pulse radar, 1/8 NM range <br />BroadBand Radar, 1/16 NM range<br />
  19. 19. © Navico Company Confidential<br />9<br />Comparison and Main bang<br />main bang<br />suppression<br />4 kW HD pulse radar, 1/8 NM range <br />Broadband Radar, 1/16 NM range<br />
  20. 20. © Navico Company Confidential<br />10<br />Close Range Performance<br />
  21. 21. © Navico Company Confidential<br />11<br />Approximate position <br />of boat<br />Close Range Performance<br />Moored boat<br />Foot bridge<br />4 kW HD pulse radar <br />Broadband Radar<br />
  22. 22. © Navico Company Confidential<br />12<br />Superb Resolution<br />Pile moorings<br />Moored boat<br />4 kW HD Pulse Radar <br />BroadBand Radar<br />
  23. 23. © Navico Company Confidential<br />13<br />Seaclutter Performance<br />Two boats, towing into the harbour<br />4 kW HD pulse radar, 1/2nm <br />Sea clutter rejection 50% <br />BroadBand Radar ¼ NM <br />No sea clutter rejection applied<br />
  24. 24. What makes the difference?<br />
  25. 25. © Navico Company Confidential<br />15<br />Traditional Radar<br /><ul><li>The radar transmits a powerful, but very short pulse, at a fixed frequency.
  26. 26. The pulse propagates outwards in a direction determined by the angle of the rotating radar antenna at the time of transmission.
  27. 27. The radar then switches to receive mode to listen for reflections.
  28. 28. If the pulse reflects off an object, it will return to the receiver with a delay proportional to the distance of the object from the transmitter.
  29. 29. The antenna angle at the time of pulse transmission equals the direction of the object.</li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />16<br />Frequency<br />9.41GHz<br />9.4GHz<br />1ms<br />4ms<br />Time<br />BroadBand Radar<br /><ul><li>FMCW = Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave
  30. 30. Transmits a ‘rising tone’ (Tx wave) with linear increasing frequency
  31. 31. The wave propagates out from the transmitter retaining the frequency it had when it was transmitted
  32. 32. If it reflects off an object, it will return to the receiver, still at the frequency it had when originally transmitted
  33. 33. Meanwhile the transmitter continues to output an increasing frequency</li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />17<br />Tx<br />Rx– retains same frequency it had when it was transmitted<br />Frequency<br />At any instant in time, Tx freq is higher than Rx freq<br />Time<br />Time delay<br />BroadBand Radar<br />Frequency Difference in Transmitted and Received Signals<br />The difference in the currently transmitted and currently received frequencies, coupled with the known rate of frequency increase, allows a time of flight to be calculated, from which we can calculate distance. <br />
  34. 34. Unique Advantages<br />
  35. 35. © Navico Company Confidential<br />19<br />Solid State – No Magnetron<br /><ul><li>“Start faster, go longer” - 100% solid state RF design – no magnetron! Provides InstantOn™ power up and low power consumption
  36. 36. Eliminates 2-3 minutes warm-up time typical of magnetron pulse radars
  37. 37. Conserves power; operating power drain is ~30% less than the best 2 kW radar (<1/20 in standby mode) – extremely beneficial for sailboats and smaller power boats
  38. 38. No limit on transmit usage lifetime – typically 2-3,000 hours for a magnetron pulse radar</li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />20<br />Two Antenna Arrays<br />RX<br />TX<br />
  39. 39. © Navico Company Confidential<br />21<br />Totally Safe<br /><ul><li>“Incredibly approachable” - Totally safe RF transmitted emissions and flexible installation setup allows you to mount the radome anywhere
  40. 40. Extremely low power - less than 1/10th of the transmitted emissions of a mobile phone; install in any position, even on the smallest of boats </li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />22<br />Proven Safety<br />Safe Distance<br />Radar Type<br />Conclusion: Human exposure level to radiation outside the radome is 0.45 W/m2, well below the general public safety emission level of 10 W/m2. Included is the possible case of mechanical failure of the motor or drive belt with the antenna pointing into a fixed direction. <br />1,4 m (4.6 ft)<br />Standard 2 kW pulse radar<br />2,8 m (9.3 ft)<br />Standard 4 kW pulse radar<br />0 m (0 ft)<br />New Navico Broadband radar<br />Page 22<br />
  41. 41. © Navico Company Confidential<br />23<br />Easy Installation<br /><ul><li>“Incredibly approachable” - Totally safe RF transmit emissions and flexible installation setup allows you to mount the radome anywhere
  42. 42. Extremely low power - less than 1/10th of the transmitted emissions of a mobile phone; install in any position, even on the smallest of boats
  43. 43. Super small custom 13.5 mm RJ45 connector and round 9 mm pre-connected radar cable allows simple bridge tube installations</li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />24<br />Radar Interface<br />Radar Interface Box<br /><ul><li>Fully watertight
  44. 44. Small RJ45 connector</li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />25<br />Connector<br />Radar Dome Connection<br /><ul><li>External watertight connector
  45. 45. Same footprint as today’s 2 kW scanner</li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />26<br />Mutltiple Displays<br /><ul><li>“Incredibly approachable” - Totally safe RF transmit emissions and flexible installation setup allows you to mount the radome anywhere
  46. 46. Extremely low power - less than 1/10th of the transmitted emissions of a mobile phone; install in any position, even on the smallest of boats
  47. 47. Super small custom 13.5 mm RJ45 connector and round 9 mm pre-connected radar cable allows simple bridge tube installations
  48. 48. Compatible with a wide range of Navico multifunction displays and heading sensors</li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />27<br />Multiple Displays<br />NSE8<br />NSE12<br />HDS-7<br />HDS-7m<br />HDS-10<br />HDS-10m<br />HDS-5<br />HDS-5m<br />HDS-5x<br />HDS-8<br />HDS-8m<br />GB40<br />NX45 12”<br />NX40 8”<br />
  49. 49. © Navico Company Confidential<br />28<br />The Highlights<br /><ul><li>Super high resolution
  50. 50. No blind spot at center (mainbang)
  51. 51. Totally safe, 0.1 W TX – install anywhere
  52. 52. InstantOn – no warm up time
  53. 53. Lower power consumption, no standby power
  54. 54. Five times better sea and rain clutter performance
  55. 55. Easy to install – very small connector</li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />29<br />The Differences Between Pulse and FMCW Radars<br />Summary from a Technical Briefing by Bill Mullarkey from Navigate-us.com<br />N.B This was purely from theoretical analysis, no practical testing was made<br />
  56. 56. © Navico Company Confidential<br />30<br />Long Range Performance<br /> <br /> <br />Scanner height<br />Target <br />Object at sea level<br />Small boat (2 m high)<br />Big launch (6 m high)<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />2 metres<br />3.1 miles<br />6.3 miles<br />8.5 miles<br />3 metres<br />3.8 miles<br />7.0 miles<br />9.2 miles<br />4 metres<br />4.4 miles<br />7.5 miles<br />9.8 miles<br />Maximum range for any radar under ideal circumstances:<br />__________________________________________________________________________<br />So….. there is no possible way a radar on a small/medium boat can see a large launch at more than 10 miles <br />But… It may be possible to see rain or high land features beyond 10 miles.<br />
  57. 57. © Navico Company Confidential<br />31<br />Further Enhancement<br />Navico’s R&D teams have developed technologies, which bring interference from other radar and onboard reflectors to a minimum or even totally eliminates them.<br />This also means we are not depending on already patented technologies, which would have influenced the price of the radar.<br />
  58. 58. © Navico Company Confidential<br />32<br />Power Requirements<br />Power consumption transmitting is only 17 W <br /><ul><li>30% less than a 2 kW radar
  59. 59. 50% less than a 4 kW radar
  60. 60. Power consumption in standby is only 1.6 W
  61. 61. The BroadBand radar has no magnetron to heat!</li></li></ul><li>© Navico Company Confidential<br />33<br />Not Considered in the Report<br />The very low TX power of the BroadBand radar will often not trigger Racons and SARTs.<br />Racons are ’active radar reflectors’ on some major buoys used mainly by commercial vessels for long distance radar navigation.<br />The BroadBand radar cannot be used as the primary radar for rescue vessels, but serves as an outstanding no. 2 radar for close range search.<br />
  62. 62. © Navico Company Confidential<br />34<br />Additional Benefits<br /><ul><li>No 30 m blind spot at centre (mainbang)
  63. 63. Easy to operate. No tuning or adjusting required
  64. 64. Very low sidelobe effects
  65. 65. Totally safe, 0.1 W TX – install anywhere
  66. 66. No magnetron that wears out over time
  67. 67. Easy to install – 9 mm cable and very small connector
  68. 68. Easy to dismantle – external connector at radome</li></li></ul><li>Thank you<br />Questions?<br />

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