LEARNING OBJECTIVES• Describe the sport of orienteering.• Describe the features and be able to read & understand topographical maps.• Explain how to use a magnetic compass in orienteering.• Describe how distances are measured during orienteering.• Describe the land navigation techniques used in orienteering.• Be able to accurately plot bearing and ranges on a topographical map.
OrienteeringA sport that involves land navigationover unfamiliar terrain with a map andcompass
Orienteering originated is Scandinaviain the late 1800’s and came to the U.S in the 1940’s
OrienteeringThe object of orienteering is to run, ski,walk, or mountain bike to a series ofpoints shown on a map. These pointsare called control points.
OrienteeringCourse lengths range from less than 1mile for beginners to 4 or more milesfor experienced orienteers.
The Well-Dressed Orienteer Lightweight Compass Long Sleeve ShirtLooped At Wrist Johnston Wristwatch Tear Resistant Old Pants Shin Guards Old Shoes
Introduction to Maps Knowing how to read and understand maps are valuable skills. Your effective use of maps requires a basic understanding of them, as well as of their scales, symbols, and colors.
Definition of a MapA map is a line drawing of a portion ofthe Earth’s surface, drawn to scale asseen from above.
Of the many different types, the mostcommon are:• City or state road• Geographic• Topographic.
Geographical MapGeographic maps show an overall viewof the mapped area in relation to climate,population, relief, vegetation, andhydrography (water features).
Map ReadingOrienteering usually requires the use ofa topographic map depicting the area inwhich the course is laid out.A topographic map is a graphicrepresentation of manmade and naturalfeatures of a part of the Earths surface.
Topographical Maps Topographic maps show terrain and landforms in a manner that can be measured. Elevation on these maps is indicated by vertical contour lines.
Orienting a Map Finding your way requires the ability to read and interpret a map and move to the desired location. One method of comparing your map to the ground is to orient it so that the map symbols fit the location of the features as they appear on the ground.
OrientTo align or position oneself(or a map) in relationship toone’s surroundings
Global Positioning System (GPS) GPS is a high- tech worldwide radio/navigation system with a network of 24 satellites and ground stations.GPS provides a method of mapmakingand location identification.
Introduction to Topographic MapsCompared to road maps, topographic mapsshow more detail of an area’s natural features.
Introduction to Topographic MapsWhether you are practicing basic landnavigation techniques, participating inorienteering, or performing land navigation atsummer camp, knowing how to use topographicmaps can help you in the following ways: • Finding your way • Navigating a group • Determining distances • Pinpointing locations • Determining type of terrain • Planning trips ore operations
FeaturesBoundaries DamsBridges RailroadsBuildings RiversCaves/Mines Roads/TrailsCoastal Features PipelinesContour Lines Bodies of Water • Elevations Fences And this is only a partial list!
The most usefulscale for anorienteering map is:1:15,000 or 1:10,0001 inch on the mapRepresents 15,000or 10,000 inches onthe ground)
ConversionScale of the Map is 1:12,000If you measured a distance of 3 incheson the map, how many feet would thatequate to on the ground?1:12,000 as 3:36,000 (3 x 12,000)36,000 inches / 12 (inches per foot) =3000 Feet
ConversionScale of the Map is 1:15,000If you measured a distance of 2 cmon the map, how many meters wouldthat equate to on the ground?1:15,000 as 2:30,000 (2 x 15,000)30,000 cm/ 100 (cm per meter) =300 meters
DirectionOn most maps, north is at the top, southto the bottom, east to the right, and westto the left.There is a slight difference between thelocation of the north pole and that ofmagnetic north. This is the variationangle or declination angle.
DeclinationAn angular difference betweentrue north and either magneticor grid north
True NorthA line from any position on theEarth’s surface to the geographicNorth Pole; symbolized by a linewith a star at the apex
Magnetic NorthThe direction to the northmagnetic pole, as indicated bythe north-seeking needle of amagnetic instrument
Grid NorthThe direction of north that isestablished by using thevertical grid lines on a map
Topographical Marginal InformationScale - Most topographic maps have morethan one scale (extension and primary), eachusing a different unit of measurement. Themost common units of measurement aremiles (statute and nautical), kilometers, andyards.
Statute MileA unit of measurement thatis approximately 5,280 feet
Nautical MileA unit of measurement that isapproximately 6,080 feet –which is one minute of latitude;slightly longer than a statutemile
Mapmakers divide each scale into two parts:an extension scale and a primary scale.Use the primary scale, located to the right ofthe zero, to measure full units ofmeasurement.Use the extension scale, located to the left ofthe zero, to measure tenths of a unit.
Contour Interval NoteThe contour interval note also appearsin the center of the lower margin. Itrepresents the vertical distancebetween adjacent contour lines on themap.
Colors on Topographic Map water (lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, marshes) rock features (boulders, cliffs), roads, trails, fences, buildings forest with little or no undergrowth that allows for easy passage vegetation that requires unusual effort to traverse open or unforested land land features, contours, earth banks, sandy ground
Topographical Marginal Information Legend - illustrates the symbols used on the map
Map SymbolsSymbols on topographicmaps are usually moredetailed than on othermaps. Symbols are usedto represent the positionand shape of features asviewed from above. Mapsinclude roads, trails,railroad tracks, powerlines, mines, benchmarks, and spotelevations.
Bench MarkA surveyor’s mark made onrocks or other permanentobjects to indicate knownelevations
Contour LinesBrown contourlines representvalleys, hills, andplains.Spacing betweenlines represents aconstant verticaldistance; the closerthe intervals, thegreater the slope.
When lines areclose together, theyshow a steep slope.Similarly, when theyare far apart, theyshow a gentle slope.Contour interval isthe distance (feet ormeters) betweenlines.
If the map contour interval is 10 feet, HOW HIGH IS THIS HILL?.
Contour lines indicate elevation, in feet or meters, above sea level.Contour lines tellyou the ups anddowns of the land.
Typical Magnetic Compass Silva Type 3• A must for orienteering• Contains protractor in base for reading magnetic azimuth angles on a map• Most widely used
The orienteeringcompass has aprotractor baseand a cord to hangaround the neck(optional).
Grid Reference System To keep from getting lost, you must know how to find your location. Learning to use the grid referencing system in conjunction with maps and grid coordinates will help you to pinpoint your location quickly and accurately.
Grid CoordinateA set of letters and numbersspecifying the location of apoint to the desired positionwithin a 100,000 meter square
Lines of Latitude and Longitude A set of east-west rings around the globe, and a set of north-south rings crossing the equator and converging at the poles, form reference lines from which you can locate any point on the Earth’s surface.
Lines of latitude runeast-west, but theyare used to measurenorth-southdistances.Starting with 0degrees at theequator, map-makers numberparallels to 90degrees both northand south.
Lines of longituderun north-south, butthey are used tomeasure east-westdistances.Starting with 0degrees at the primemeridian,mapmakers numbermeridians to 180degrees both eastand west.
UTM Grid SystemThe U.S. military superimposed its gridsystem on the Universal TransverseMercator Grid System, or UTM grid system.
UTM Grid SystemThe UTM grid system divides the surface ofthe Earth into 60 north-south grid zones(each six degrees wide). Mapmakers numberthese zones from west to east, 1 through 60,starting at the 180 degree meridian.
The grid is furtherdivided into 20 north-south segments. Eachgrid segment has aletter for identification(excluding ―I‖ and ―O‖).
Nineteen of these gridsegments are 8 degreeshigh, and the one row atthe extreme north is 12degrees high.This combination of zonenumber and row letterconstitutes the grid zonedesignation.
With the grid segments complete, polarregions would not be represented.Therefore, to complete your globe,extend these grid lines to 90 degrees inboth directions. Mapmakers use theremaining four letters, ―A,‖ ―B,‖ ―Y,‖ and―Z,‖ to identify the polar regions.
Military Grid SystemSuperimposed on each grid zone segmentare 100,000 meter squares. Each square isassigned two identification letters. The firstletter is the column designation, and thesecond letter is the row designation.
Each square is thendivided by parallellines (or grid lines)that are 1,000 metersor 10,000 meters apart.These parallel linescome together at rightangles to form 1,000meter or 10,000 metersquares (called gridsquares).
Locating a Point Using theMilitary Grid Reference System ALWAYS read RIGHT first, then UP. The number of digits in a grid coordinate represents the degree of precision to which you can locate and measure a point on a map—the more digits, the more precise the measurement.
To locate a 4-digit gridcoordinate, 5904within 1,000m:A 6-digit coordinatelocates a point within100 metersAn 8-digit coordinatelocates a point within10 meters.
You write gridcoordinates as onecontinuousalphanumeric symbolwithout spaces,parentheses, dashes, ordecimal points.To determine gridcoordinates withoutusing a protractor, thereader simply refers tothe grid lines numberedalong the margin of anymap.
Point Your Magnetic Compass at the Target Align Compass Bevel with the Magnetic North ArrowConvert Magnetic Heading to a Grid Heading and Place in Compass Draw Grid Azimuth on Map
During orienteering, first obtain themagnetic azimuth or bearing.• Place edge of protractor base along desired line of travel.• Turn compass housing until orienteering arrow aligns with north reference lines.• Turn your body until the red end of magnetic needle aligns with the orienteering arrow.
Distance is Important in Orienteering to:• Determine distances between control points.• Determine distances actually traveled.
Distance on a MapIf a map has a scale of 1:25000, and adistance of 2 cm were measured on themap between two locations, then theactual distance along the ground wouldbe: 2cm x 250m/cm = 500m on the ground
Distance on a MapAnother method is to lay off themeasured distance on the map alongthe graphic linear distance scale onthe map. This can then give you thedesired distance along the ground infeet, meters, miles, or kilometers.
Measure the Distance with a RulerConvert to meters / yards / miles etc. (based on map scale) Use the Bar Graph in the Map Legend
How Many Meters Between These Two Points? Use ruler and count centimeters1:50,000 scale = 1cm : 50,000cm = 1cm : 500m 8.6cm x 500m = 4300 meters
In the field, your pace is used tomeasure distance. Your pace is theaverage length, in meters, of a doublestep.
To determine your pace, count thenumber of double strides you make ona 600-meter course. This should bedone while both running and walking.
Land Navigation TechniquesSeveral methods of land navigationtechniques may be used. Depending onthe terrain, one of the following methodsmay be used:• The beeline• The steering mark• The contour route
BeelineA straight line is followed to the desiredlocation, by observing terrain features,without the use of a compass.
Steering MarkOnce the bearing (direction of travel) isdetermined, travel to easily identifiableway-points (steering marks), such astrees, rocks, or houses along the way.
Contour RouteIf you use a contour line as a trail, youwould be traveling parallel to mean sealevel.This method isless tiring andmore accuratethan the beelinemethod becauseup and down hilltravel is minimized.
Aiming Off In this example, the orienteer follows an azimuth slightly to the right of control point 3, proceeds to the stream (the catch feature), turns left, and follows the stream to the control point.
A Catching Feature• A linear feature that lies beyond the control (example: a road or fence)• Passes by, through, or near a control• "Saves" you if you should miss the control and go past it
Attack Point• A prominent feature near a control (100 - 150 meters)• Used to get you close to a control as quickly as possible• Numerous attack points on beginner courses• Few attack points on advanced courses
Before You StartFirst, stop and look around; then lookclosely at your map.Observe the lay of the land. Find somefairly distinct feature, or better yet, agroup of features, within view and onthe map.Can you see any collecting features,catching features, or handrails thatwill help you get to the first control?
Handrail• Any linear feature you can follow to where you want to go• Examples: a stream, trail, road, fence, brick or stone wall
SlopeSlope is the steepness of a hill, usuallyexpressed as a ratio, e.g., 1 to 15 or1:15, meaning 1 meter of rise for every15 meters of horizontal distance.
ProfileProfile refers to the shape of a hill.Three general profiles are:Concave - steeper as it get higherConvex - steeper at the bottomUniform - constant slope from bottom to top
Ground Cover FactorsThe effect of ground cover can beconverted to equivalent amountsof level ground travel by using aconversion formula.The formula involves multiplyingthe distance by the appropriatefactor in the following list.
Types of Cover Factor Open trail 1 Waist-high grass 1.5 Open forest 2-3 Thick brush 5 Creek-bottom tangles 7-10This indicates it would take 7-10 timeslonger to cover creek-bottom tanglesthan it would to jog along an open trail.
Rough Orienteering• Use map to get general idea of objective (how far it is and where you want to go).• Proceed at top speed to collecting features and continue to the control.
Fine Orienteering• Requires slower movement and continually checking map• Smaller features used as landmarks• Slow and inefficient for use for entire leg of course
Speeds of OrienteeringGreen light – used for rough orienteeringon the easy parts of a course where arunning pace is possible
Speeds of OrienteeringGreen light – used for rough orienteeringon the easy parts of a course where arunning pace is possibleYellow light – a slow jog orfast walk, being cautiouswhen approaching a hand-rail or an attack point
Speeds of OrienteeringGreen light – used for rough orienteeringon the easy parts of a course where arunning pace is possibleYellow light – a slow jog orfast walk, being cautiouswhen approaching a hand-rail or an attack pointRed light – a slow walk in orderto use fine orienteering to locatea control
Speeds of OrienteeringAll course legs may not lend them-selves to all three speeds.Learning when to use which speedduring rough and fine orienteeringcomes only through experience.
Course Layout Criteria• A well-wooded area (lots of trees)• Uninhabited if possible• Appropriate degree of difficulty for the orienteers who will be using it• Good map coverage of suitable scale
Course Layout Criteria Circles are control points. A triangle indicates the start. A double circle indicates the finish.
Control Marker • Should be visible from at least 10 meters away but not more than 50• Usually attached is a distinctive punch used as proof you were at that control marker
Safety Lane• Usually a linear boundary (a road) where an orienteer may go in the event of injury, fatigue, or becoming lost
Orienteering ActivitiesCross-country (point-to-point) – theclassic form of orienteering. Controlson a map must be visited in order.
Orienteering ActivitiesCross-country (point-to-point) – theclassic form of orienteering. Controlson a map must be visited in order.Score-O – Controls are visited in anyorder.
Orienteering ActivitiesCross-country (point-to-point) – theclassic form of orienteering. Controlson a map must be visited in order.Score-O – Controls are visited in anyorder.Night-O – a variation on either of theabove conducted from dusk throughdark.
Orienteering ActivitiesLong-O – Courses are 1.5 to 2 timesas long as a standard course, and havelong legs and complex route choices.
Orienteering ActivitiesLong-O – Courses are 1.5 to 2 timesas long as a standard course, and havelong legs and complex route choices.Relay-O – A variation of point-to-point.Each team member completes a leg ofa course.
Orienteering ActivitiesLong-O – Courses are 1.5 to 2 timesas long as a standard course, and havelong legs and complex route choices.Relay-O – A variation of point-to-point.Each team member completes a leg ofa course.Memory-O – The first leg of the courseis memorized. After reaching control 1,the second leg is memorized beforegoing to control 2.
Orienteering Activities Recently, a new orienteering activity has been added to the list of "O" activities. This is:Trail-O – an orienteering course laid outspecifically for handicapped individuals.Trails are either on firm ground or pavedpaths. Once a control point is reached,the individual must observe specific land-scape features and make the mostaccurate estimates of distance, time oftravel, height and other required items.
The previously shown symbols areonly a few of the many used in thesport of orienteering. A morecomprehensive listing and theirmeanings are available through linksprovided at the United StatesOrienteering Federation (USOF) Website at: http://www.us.orienteering.org
The Orienteering Event CardEnsure you fill out and punch your event card as required.
The Rules of OrienteeringLike all sports, certain rules must befollowed.Fairness – a sporting attitude and a spiritof comradeship and honestyNature of orienteering – no outside help;yet provide appropriate assistance if oneis injured or honestly lostEnvironmental protection – take care ofthe land you are on, obeying commonsense rules and following posted signs
Qualification Requirements for the NJROTC Orienteering Ribbon1. You must be a cadet in good standing.2. Point out and name five major terrain features on a map and in the field.3. Point out and name ten symbols often found on a topographic map.4. Use a compass effectively.
5. Measure distances on a map using a straight edge.6. Explain "descriptive clues," "aiming off," and "attack point."7. Determine, by length of pace and speed, both walking and running, when a distance of 100 meters has been covered over various types of terrain.
8. Successfully complete at least two 3,000- to 4,000-meter cross-country courses.After completion of each course, theNSI will debrief (critique) you on yourresults.
Subsequent Awards A star may be awarded for orienteering participation in the first and subsequent years.A maximum of two awards per year(including the initial ribbon award) areauthorized.Different orienteering courses must beused for subsequent awards.
Benefits of OrienteeringThe benefits of Orienteering are many:• Builds self confidence• Enhances team building• Improves map reading• Teaches a lifetime sport• Provides mental challenges• Provides physical challenges
Q. 1. What is orienteering?A.1. Navigating cross country over unfamiliar terrain with a map and compass in order to locate certain checkpoints called control points that have been marked by the course umpires
Q.2. What are the distinguishing features of a topographical map?
Q.2. What are the distinguishing features of a topographical map?A.2. A topographical map shows detail of elevations, water areas, depressions, vegetation and land features. It also depicts the main roads and trails through the area.
Q.3. How are the Earths relief features represented on a topographical map?
Q.3. How are the Earths relief features represented on a topographical map?A.3. Through the use of contour lines
Q.6. How are grid locations on a map read?A.6. Grid locations are stated from left to right and from bottom to top.
Q.7. An orienteering compass is designed with what type of base?
Q.7. An orienteering compass is designed with what type of base?A.7. Protractor
Q.8. How are the compass and map used together to navigate?
Q.8. How are the compass and map used together to navigate?A.8. Line up magnetic north on the compass with the maps magnetic north. Twist the compass protractor base to line up the current position with the destination printed on the map. Read the magnetic bearing. Select landmarks to follow along this bearing.
Q.9. How does one determine distance on a topographical map?
Q.9. How does one determine distance on a topographical map?A.9. Through the use of the map scale, the linear distance scale printed on the map, or the distance scales along the sides of the compass protractor base
Q.10. How are distances measured in the field during orienteering?
Q.10. How are distances measured in the field during orienteering?A.10. Distances in the field are measured by counting paces, with each pace being the average distance of a double- step at various speeds.
Q.11. Why should one use the steering mark selection technique?
Q.11. Why should one use the steering mark selection technique?A.11. Because through the use of landmarks, the orienteer is relieved of constantly checking the compass.
Q.12. What are the advantages of using a contour route?
Q.12. What are the advantages of using a contour route?A.12. A contour route is less tiring and more accurate than following a straight azimuth over uneven terrain, because it minimizes up and down climbing.
Q.14. How does one use an attack point?A.14. An attack point is a prominent feature near a control marker that can be used as an intermediate destination. Then an accurate azimuth is followed to the control marker.
Q.15. What are two characteristics that should always be taken into account when evaluating a hill on a map?
Q.15. What are two characteristics that should always be taken into account when evaluating a hill on a map?A.15. Two important characteristics of all hills are its slope or steepness and its profile or shape.
Q.16. What is the rule of thumb for the amount of energy required to climb a hill?
Q.16. What is the rule of thumb for the amount of energy required to climb a hill?A.16. The rule of thumb for estimating energy required to climb a hill is every 25 feet of climb equals 100 meters on flat ground.
Q.17. Why is navigating across flat forested country more difficult than in more hilly territory?
Q.17. Why is navigating across flat forested country more difficult than in more hilly territory?A.17. Navigating in flat country is difficult because there are usually no prominent features to use as steering marks or attack points. Also there are often marshes, swamps, and briar patches in the low places.
Q.18. About how many times more difficult is travel through thick brush than over open trail?
Q.18. About how many times more difficult is travel through thick brush than over open trail?A.18. About 5 times more energy is required.
Q.19. What is the difference between rough and fine orienteering?
Q.19. What is the difference between rough and fine orienteering?A.19. Rough orienteering means to proceed quickly from one point to another using steering marks and attack points, without much use of the compass. Fine orienteering requires slower movement while continually checking position using the map and compass.
Q.20. What elements should the orienteer consider when choosing routes?
Q.20. What elements should the orienteer consider when choosing routes?A.20. Route choices should consider distance, slope, vegetation, collecting/catching features, available handrails, attack points, and the physical and mental status of the orienteer.
Q.21. What is the standard symbology used to lay out an orienteering course on a master map of the area?
Q.21. What is the standard symbology used to lay out an orienteering course on a master map of the area?A.21. A triangle is used to indicate the start. Circles are drawn around the various control points. A double circle is used for the finish.
Q.22. What is the color scheme used on control markers?
Q.22. What is the color scheme used on control markers?A.22. The basic color scheme consists of square shapes with white upper triangles and red or orange lower triangles.
Q.23. What is a safety lane?A.23. A safety lane is a location like a perimeter road where an orienteer may go in the event of injury, excessive fatigue, or becoming lost.
Q.24. What is the form of orienteering activity most used in the NJROTC?
Q.24. What is the form of orienteering activity most used in the NJROTC?A.24. The cross-country orienteering course is most often used for NJROTC field activities.
Q.25. In addition to a map, what other materials are supplied to participants in an orienteering event?
Q.25. In addition to a map, what other materials are supplied to participants in an orienteering event?A.25. Orienteers are given written or coded descriptions called clue sheets to help locate and identify control markers.
Q.25. In addition to a map, what other materials are supplied to participants in an orienteering event?A.25. They are also given event cards upon which to record their start and finish times and punch or write in the codes found on the various control markers.
Q.26. How many orienteering courses must a cadet have completed to qualify for the NJROTC orienteering ribbon?
Q.26. How many orienteering courses must a cadet have completed to qualify for the NJROTC orienteering ribbon?A.26. Two