CHAPTER 2
    Foundations of US Government




1
The Declaration of Independence

               July 4th
         Our Country’s Birthday
     We celebrate every year with...
3
Documents from the
    First Continental Congress and the




4
    Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776
Two of history’s most remarkable
    documents




5
6
The thirteen colonies
    declare independence
    from Great Britain and
    begin self government
    as:

    “The unan...
Following a bloody war and despite a failed
first try, the Declaration of Independence
changed the way people all over the...
The Declaration of Independence was
    a document announcing America’s
    separation from what country?

    A. France
 ...
The Declaration of Independence was
 a document announcing America’s
 separation from what country?

 A. France
 B. Spain
...
The Parts of the
                         Declaration of
                         Independence

                     The D...
First Part      Preamble

                  It announces the
                  purpose of the
                  document a...
Preamble

     An introduction to a document
     such as a constitution, explaining
     its purpose




13
“[A] decent respect
     to the opinions
     of mankind
     requires that they
     [the American
     people] should
  ...
Second Part        Concept
                   God does not select
                   some people to be
                   ...
Divine Rights

     Rights and responsibilities given
     by a divine being or deity that are
     therefore beyond quest...
Unalienable

     Incapable of being taken away or
     transferred to another




17
Instead of accepting
                       the “divine right”
                       concept, Founders
                  ...
Who drafted, or selected the wording for,
 the Declaration of Independence?

 A. James Madison
 B. Thomas Jefferson
 C. Al...
Who drafted, or selected the wording for,
 the Declaration of Independence?

 A. James Madison
 B. Thomas Jefferson
 C. Al...
The first democracies of
                           ancient Greece did not
                           include the Founders...
Amendments                   Amendment
   • XIII 1865 Abolish slavery     • XlX 1920 Grant vote
  • XlV 1868 Grant citizen...
Third Part      Grievances
                  Lists grievances
                  and complaints
                  against
 ...
Fourth Part   Attempts to Resolve
                    • Outlines
                      colonies' efforts
                 ...
Fifth Part       Declares
                   Independence
                  “…appealing to
                  the world for...
Rectitude

     Righteousness as a consequence
     of being honorable and honest




26
• No assurances the
       separation would
       succeed
     • Leaders could be
       hung as traitors
     • Pledged ...
The Founders established the
 government on the brand new concept
 that “all men are created equal,” at a
 time when they ...
The Founders established the
 government on the brand new concept
 that “all men are created equal,” at a
 time when they ...
The United States Constitution




            Revolutionary War-1777
     The Articles of Confederation were the
     fir...
31
The First Continental Congress developed
 the Articles of Confederation in 1777.
 Achievements:
 • Won the Revolutionary W...
Articles appealed to
                       diverse groups of
                       separate little
                     ...
Colonies’ western
          borders:
     Some smaller colonies
     were well defined,
     others claimed vast
     trac...
What was the significance of the
 organization of the Northwest
 Territories?

 A. It discouraged exploration by the
    F...
What was the significance of the
 organization of the Northwest
 Territories?

 A. It discouraged exploration by the
    F...
Shay’s Rebellion and the Need
         for a Stronger Government




     1786-Daniel Shays—leader of
     Massachusetts f...
On January 25, 1787, to arm themselves,
     the group attacked the Continental Army
     Arsenal in Springfield, Massachu...
George Washington
                     (private citizen 1783-1787)
                      wrote to James Madison
          ...
Under the Articles of Confederation, the
     government had no:

     • real taxing authority

     • executive or judici...
It required a two-
     thirds vote by the
     delegates to pass a
     law.




                           States could ...
A constitutional convention
     convened in May 1787 to amend
     the Articles of Confederation.

     Meeting until Sep...
Constitutional Convention
     A special meeting held to
     draw up a new constitution




43
44
Which of these factors did most of the
 Founders NOT believe was a weakness
 of the Articles of Confederation?

 A. Powerl...
Which of these factors did most of the
 Founders NOT believe was a weakness
 of the Articles of Confederation?

 A. Powerl...
James Madison
     Youthful “Father of the Constitution”

                        • At 36, one of the
                    ...
• Kept most detailed
       notes of session
       proceedings

     • Attended almost
       every session


     Much o...
Virginia Plan

     • Strong central
       government

     • Three branches
        • legislative
        • executive
  ...
Empowered national
     legislature to:
     • pass laws states
       could not pass
     • strike down state
       laws...
William Paterson
     offered the
     New Jersey Plan

     The New Jersey
     Plan mainly just
     tinkered with the
 ...
New Jersey Plan—national government:
     • would have some taxing authority
     • could levy import duties/stamp tax
   ...
Levy
     To impose or collect (a tax)




53
Virginia Plan      New Jersey Plan




     • How much power should the
       national government have?

     • How would...
Under Articles of Confederation
                  All states represented
                  equally

                  • sm...
Which of the following statements is NOT
 true regarding James Madison’s role as
 the Father of the Constitution?

  A. He...
Which of the following statements is NOT
 true regarding James Madison’s role as
 the Father of the Constitution?

  A. He...
The Great Compromise
     Roger Sherman of Connecticut
     reintroduced an earlier plan

             • All states treate...
Balance between small and large
 states

 • Each state is allowed two Senators.

 • 435 Representatives are divided based
...
Other
        Constitutional Balancing Acts



     The Great Compromise was important
     but not the only compromise.

...
61
Balance between the Federal
     Government and States

     • Federal government given specific
       (enumerated) power...
Balance between House
of Representatives and the Senate

• House of Representatives originates
  all taxing laws

• Senate...
x


     Balance between the Senate and the
     President
     • Agreement needed on all treaties
       between the Unit...
Legislative            Executive




              Each branch of the
              government is
              assigned s...
• Legislative branch makes the laws
66     and levies the taxes.
• Executive branch enforces the laws.
67
U.S. Supreme Court
     • Judicial branch interprets the laws and
       assures the rights of the individual.
68
• The legislative branch passes laws.

     • The president may veto laws.

     • The legislature may over-ride the
     ...
Veto
     The right (of a President)
     to reject a piece of legislation




70
U.S. GOVERNMENT’S CHECKS AND BALANCES
                             Executive Branch

                                The P...
States preserve a say in the union by their
 collective power to approve or reject
 constitutional amendments.




72
“…whenever two thirds of both
      Houses shall deem it necessary,
      shall propose Amendments to this
     Constituti...
What was the central proposal of the Great
 Compromise?

  A. The most heavily populated states would have
     two nation...
What was the central proposal of the Great
 Compromise?

  A. The most heavily populated states would have
     two nation...
Which of these relationships is
 accurate?

 A. The legislative branch: interpreting
    laws.
 B. The judicial branch: ma...
Which of these relationships is
 accurate?

 A. The legislative branch: interpreting
    laws.
 B. The judicial branch: ma...
An Overview of the
        United States Constitution
               Preamble
     • Form a more perfect union
     • Esta...
Posterity
     Future generations




79
80
Article I - Legislative Branch
     Section 1: Legislative power vested

     Section 2: House of Representatives

     Se...
Article I - Legislative Branch

     Section 7: Passage of Bills

     Section 8: Scope of Legislative Power
             ...
Article II - Executive Branch

Section 1: Election, Installation, Removal

Section 2: Presidential Power
           Comman...
Article III - Judiciary



     Section 1: Judicial Power Vested

     Section 2: Scope of Judicial Power

     Section 3:...
Article IV - States


     Section 1: Full Faith and Credit

     Section 2: Privileges and Immunities,
                Ex...
Autonomy
     The quality or state of being
     self-governing




86
Article V - The Amendment Process



               2/3
               3/4
87
Article VI - Legal Status of the Constitution




 Supreme law of the land
88
Article VII - Ratify
             July 1788




              9 of 13
89
Ratify
     To formally confirm or approve,
     as of a treaty or a constitutional
     amendment




90
The Preamble to the Constitution states
 that the document is intended to protect
 the liberty of _______, meaning future
...
The Preamble to the Constitution states
 that the document is intended to protect
 the liberty of _______, meaning future
...
Article I deals with the duties of _______.


 A. the President
 B. the Supreme Court justices
 C. the states
 D. Congress...
Article I deals with the duties of _______.


 A. the President
 B. the Supreme Court justices
 C. the states
 D. Congress...
Bill of Rights
                           Some states
                           would not ratify
                        ...
Congress added the first ten
     amendments to the U.S. Constitution
     in 1791.

       • defines citizens’ rights

  ...
Amendment
     A formal alteration to a document
     such as a constitution or law




97
98
Constitution—large institutional matters

     Bill of Rights—ordinary individual lives

           • Worship (or not)
   ...
Judges, lawyers and officers of the court
  know the amendments governing:
        • search and seizure
        • self-inc...
Overview of the first 10 amendments




101
102
First Amendment:
      Freedom of Religion

           The right to
           exercise one's
           own religion, or
...
First Amendment:
      Freedom of Speech

                  Even unpopular
                  expression is
               ...
First Amendment:
             Freedom of the Press




      Freedom of the press gives citizens
      the right to print ...
Supreme Court Justice
      Oliver Wendell Holmes:
      Freedom of religion,
      speech, and the press
      comes with...
107
Second Amendment:
           The Right to Bear Arms




      The right to bear arms allows citizens
108   to own weapons.
109
Third Amendment:
          Quartering of Soldiers
                Citizens cannot be forced
                to house (or q...
Quartering
      Lodging, or providing living
      quarters for soldiers




111
The Bill of Rights was intended to define
  the rights of the citizens and also to
  state the _______ of the new state an...
The Bill of Rights was intended to define
  the rights of the citizens and also to
  state the _______ of the new state an...
114
Fourth Amendment:
             Search and Seizure




                  Civil Liberties
      The right to be free of unwa...
Police may search only after obtaining
      a warrant from a judge.
      Part of everyday work for police,
116   courts,...
117
Fifth Amendment:
Criminal Proceedings and Due Process




      The right to be treated fairly by the
      government whe...
Rights affecting criminal proceedings include:
      • An indictment and grand jury hearing
      • Protection against dou...
Indictment
      A written statement charging
      someone with a crime or other
      offense, drawn up by a
      prose...
Double Jeopardy means a person
      cannot be tried for the same crime twice.
121
Self-incrimination means a person is
      protected from being forced to testify
122   against himself or herself.
The last section of the amendment
      deals with preventing arbitrary
123   confiscation of private property.
What Supreme Court justice stated in
  1917 that if someone’s words “present a
  clear and present danger” to the safety
 ...
What Supreme Court justice stated in
  1917 that if someone’s words “present a
  clear and present danger” to the safety
 ...
126
Sixth Amendment:
      The Right to a Jury Trial




      Guarantees the rights to:
      • a trial by peers
      • a pr...
128
Seventh Amendment:
      The Right to a Civil Trial




      Guarantees the right to:
      • a trial in any dispute over...
130
Eighth Amendment:
          Punishment for Crimes




      Bail cannot be for an unreasonable
      amount of money.
    ...
Courts cannot impose excessive
      fines or punishments that are:

      • Cruel
132
      • Unusual
133
Ninth Amendment:
         Unenumerated Rights




    Just because other rights and freedoms
    are not mentioned in the ...
Enumerated
      To list, or to specify individually




135
136
Tenth Amendment:
       Powers Reserved to the States




      Any power not assigned to the federal
      government or ...
The Fifth Amendment states that citizens
  cannot be tried without a prosecuting
  attorney-prepared document charging
  t...
The Fifth Amendment states that citizens
  cannot be tried without a prosecuting
  attorney-prepared document charging
  t...
Other Constitutional Amendments




After the first 10, only 17 more amendments
  • 6 define a person and voting rights
  ...
AMENDMENT XI
      Passed by Congress March 4, 1794.
          Ratified February 7, 1795.




      Clarifies judicial pow...
AMENDMENT XIl
      Passed by Congress December 9, 1803.
              Ratified June 15, 1804.




         Changes proced...
AMENDMENT XIll
      Passed by Congress January 31, 1865.
           Ratified December 6, 1865.




          Ended slaver...
AMENDMENT XIV
      Passed by Congress June 13, 1866.
             Ratified July 9, 1868.




Declared newly freed slaves ...
AMENDMENT XV
      Passed by Congress February 26, 1869.
            Ratified February 3, 1870.




         Outlawed raci...
AMENDMENT XVI
      Passed by Congress July 2, 1909.
          Ratified February 3, 1913.




      Allowed federal govern...
AMENDMENT XVlI
       Passed by Congress May 13, 1912.
             Ratified April 8, 1913.




      Provided for popular...
Amendment XII changes the procedure
  of electing _______.

  A. the president
  B. the vice president
  C. senators
  D. ...
Amendment XII changes the procedure
  of electing _______.

  A. the president
  B. the vice president
  C. senators
  D. ...
AMENDMENT XVllI
      Passed by Congress December 18, 1917.
             Ratified January 16, 1919.




        Banned alc...
AMENDMENT XIX
      Passed by Congress June 4, 1919.
          Ratified August 18, 1920.




      Granted women the right...
AMENDMENT XX
      Passed by Congress March 2, 1932.
          Ratified January 23, 1933.




 • Changed presidential inau...
AMENDMENT XXI
      Passed by Congress February 20, 1933.
            Ratified December 5, 1933.




           Repealed A...
AMENDMENT XXlI
       Passed by Congress March 21, 1947.
           Ratified February 27, 1951.




      Limits President...
AMENDMENT XXllI
    Passed by Congress June 16, 1960.
         Ratified March 29, 1961.




    Granted residents of the D...
AMENDMENT XXIV
      Passed by Congress August 27, 1962.
           Ratified January 23, 1964.




      Forbade states fr...
AMENDMENT XXV
        Passed by Congress July 6, 1965.
           Ratified February 10, 1967.




      • Clarified Presid...
AMENDMENT XXVI
      Passed by Congress March 23, 1971.
             Ratified July 1, 1971.




        Granted 18-year-ol...
AMENDMENT XXVlI
      Originally proposed September 25, 1789.
                 Ratified May 7, 1992.




         Congress...
Which amendment gave women the right
  to vote?

  A. XVII
  B. XVIII
  C. XIX
  D. XX




160
Which amendment gave women the right
  to vote?

  A. XVII
  B. XVIII
  C. XIX
  D. XX




161
Conclusion
             The Declaration
             of Independence
             launched the
             United States ...
During the first years, including the
      Revolutionary War, the country was
      governed by the Articles of
163   Con...
• A stronger national government was
        needed.

      • Constitutional convention convened
        in Spring 1787 to...
• By July 1788, a majority of states
        ratified it and the Constitution took
        effect.

      • Congress and t...
The introduction to the
      Declaration of Independence,
      which announces the plan to
      separate from the Briti...
The introduction to the
      Declaration of Independence,
      which announces the plan to
      separate from the Briti...
A central idea of the Declaration
      of Independence is that “life,
      liberty, and the pursuit of
      happiness” ...
A central idea of the Declaration
      of Independence is that “life,
      liberty, and the pursuit of
      happiness” ...
The Founders felt strongly that
      the government’s power should
      come from the people, not from
      someone rul...
The Founders felt strongly that
      the government’s power should
      come from the people, not from
      someone rul...
Which of these statements is NOT accurate
      about the Declaration of Independence?

      A. One part describes the ac...
Which of these statements is NOT accurate
      about the Declaration of Independence?

      A. One part describes the ac...
During the time when the country was
      governed by the Articles of Confederation,
      all of the following events oc...
During the time when the country was
      governed by the Articles of Confederation,
      all of the following events oc...
For what original purpose did the
      Constitutional Convention assemble in
      the spring of 1787?

      A. To write...
For what original purpose did the
      Constitutional Convention assemble in
      the spring of 1787?

      A. To write...
The leaders of early America felt
      the Articles of Confederation
      lacked some important powers,
      including ...
The leaders of early America felt
      the Articles of Confederation
      lacked some important powers,
      including ...
Which of these statements is NOT
      true about James Madison, the
      Father of the Constitution?

      A. He suppor...
Which of these statements is NOT
      true about James Madison, the
      Father of the Constitution?

      A. He suppor...
What controversial problem did
      the Great Compromise solve?

      A. How the state and federal
         governments’...
What controversial problem did
      the Great Compromise solve?

      A. How the state and federal
         governments’...
Which of these groups accurately reflects the
      responsibilities of the three branches of the
      federal government...
Which of these groups accurate reflects the
      responsibilities of the three branches of the
      federal government?
...
Which of these powers belongs to
      the Supreme Court?

      A. To pass amendments to the
         Constitution
      ...
Which of these powers belongs to
      the Supreme Court?

      A. To pass amendments to the
         Constitution
      ...
The legislative branch of the federal
      government possesses all the
      following powers except which one?

      A...
The legislative branch of the federal
      government possesses all the
      following powers except which one?

      A...
What term is used to refer to the
      assigning or collecting of
      taxes?

      A. Draft
      B. Remit
      C. Le...
What term is used to refer to the
      assigning or collecting of
      taxes?

      A. Draft
      B. Remit
      C. Le...
What type of action is a veto,
      such as done by a president?

      A. Confirmation
      B. Rejection
      C. Inter...
What type of action is a veto,
      such as done by a president?

      A. Confirmation
      B. Rejection
      C. Inter...
The Constitution begins by
      asserting, among other things,
      that “We the people of the
      United States” inte...
The Constitution begins by
      asserting, among other things,
      that “We the people of the
      United States” inte...
What term is used to refer to the
      formal approval, as of a treaty
      or an amendment to the
      Constitution?

...
What term is used to refer to the
      formal approval, as of a treaty
      or an amendment to the
      Constitution?

...
What term is used to refer to the
      formal changing or altering of a
      document such as a
      constitution or a ...
What term is used to refer to the
      formal changing or altering of a
      document such as a
      constitution or a ...
Both to define the rights of the
      citizens and to state the _______
      of the new state and federal
      governme...
Both to define the rights of the
      citizens and to state the _______
      of the new state and federal
      governme...
Which of these rights is NOT
      guaranteed by the First
      Amendment?

      A. Of peaceable assembly
      B. Of fr...
Which of these rights is NOT
      guaranteed by the First
      Amendment?

      A. Of peaceable assembly
      B. Of fr...
Who made it clear that the words of
      any citizen who abused the right of
      free speech to present “a clear and
  ...
Who made it clear that the words of
      any citizen who abused the right of
      free speech to present “a clear and
  ...
The Second Amendment
      addresses which of these
      topics?

      A. Right to bear arms
      B. Quartering of sold...
The Second Amendment
      addresses which of these
      topics?

      A. Right to bear arms
      B. Quartering of sold...
The Third Amendment prevents
      citizens from being forced in
      peacetime to quarter soldiers,
      which means th...
The Third Amendment prevents
      citizens from being forced in
      peacetime to quarter soldiers,
      which means th...
The Fifth Amendment protects
      citizens from being tried without
      a/an _______, which is legal
      document pre...
The Fifth Amendment protects
      citizens from being tried without
      a/an _______, which is legal
      document pre...
The Ninth Amendment states
      that just because certain rights
      are not _______ (listed or
      specified) in the...
The Ninth Amendment states
      that just because certain rights
      are not _______ (listed or
      specified) in the...
Which amendment permits
      people to refuse to testify
      against themselves?

      A. Third
      B. Fourth
      ...
Which amendment permits
      people to refuse to testify
      against themselves?

      A. Third
      B. Fourth
      ...
How many amendments to the
      Constitution have been passed
      since the Bill of Rights?

      A. 12
      B. 13
  ...
How many amendments to the
      Constitution have been passed
      since the Bill of Rights?

      A. 12
      B. 13
  ...
In what year were 18-year-olds
      given the right to vote?

      A. 1962
      B. 1969
      C. 1971
      D. 1973



...
In what year were 18-year-olds
      given the right to vote?

      A. 1962
      B. 1969
      C. 1971
      D. 1973



...
What subject do Amendments
      XV, XIX, XXIII, XXIV, and XXVI
      have in common?

      A. Slavery
      B. Governmen...
What subject do Amendments
      XV, XIX, XXIII, XXIV, and XXVI
      have in common?

      A. Slavery
      B. Governmen...
What was banned by one
      amendment and then reinstated
      when the amendment was
      repealed?

      A. Consumpt...
What was banned by one
      amendment and then reinstated
      when the amendment was
      repealed?

      A. Consumpt...
What document is unique
      because it directly affects how
      American citizens live their
      daily lives?

     ...
What document is unique
      because it directly affects how
      American citizens live their
      daily lives?

     ...
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NS1 3.2 Foundations Of Us Government

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NS1 3.2 Foundations Of Us Government

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 Foundations of US Government 1
  2. 2. The Declaration of Independence July 4th Our Country’s Birthday We celebrate every year with parades and fireworks. 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Documents from the First Continental Congress and the 4 Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776
  5. 5. Two of history’s most remarkable documents 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. The thirteen colonies declare independence from Great Britain and begin self government as: “The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America.” Note: “united” was not capitalized 7
  8. 8. Following a bloody war and despite a failed first try, the Declaration of Independence changed the way people all over the world thought about self-government. 8
  9. 9. The Declaration of Independence was a document announcing America’s separation from what country? A. France B. Spain C. England D. Germany 9
  10. 10. The Declaration of Independence was a document announcing America’s separation from what country? A. France B. Spain C. England D. Germany 10
  11. 11. The Parts of the Declaration of Independence The Declaration has five parts: Thomas • preamble Jefferson • concept • grievances Wrote most of • attempts to resolve the • declares independence Declaration 11
  12. 12. First Part Preamble It announces the purpose of the document and explains why the signers were willing to risk charges of treason and summary execution. 12
  13. 13. Preamble An introduction to a document such as a constitution, explaining its purpose 13
  14. 14. “[A] decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they [the American people] should declare the causes which impel them to the separation” 14
  15. 15. Second Part Concept God does not select some people to be rulers by divine right: “…all men are created equal…" “…endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights…” “…among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness...” 15
  16. 16. Divine Rights Rights and responsibilities given by a divine being or deity that are therefore beyond question by human kind 16
  17. 17. Unalienable Incapable of being taken away or transferred to another 17
  18. 18. Instead of accepting the “divine right” concept, Founders concluded: • governments derive “just powers” from “consent of the governed” King George III ruled by • governments exist divine right for people, not the 18 other way around
  19. 19. Who drafted, or selected the wording for, the Declaration of Independence? A. James Madison B. Thomas Jefferson C. Alexander Hamilton D. John Adams 19
  20. 20. Who drafted, or selected the wording for, the Declaration of Independence? A. James Madison B. Thomas Jefferson C. Alexander Hamilton D. John Adams 20
  21. 21. The first democracies of ancient Greece did not include the Founders new concept: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal…” Plato’s Republic manuscript 21
  22. 22. Amendments Amendment • XIII 1865 Abolish slavery • XlX 1920 Grant vote • XlV 1868 Grant citizenship to women • XV 1870 Grant vote to citizens It would take some time to achieve 22 the promises of the Declaration.
  23. 23. Third Part Grievances Lists grievances and complaints against King George lll. In 1776, important enough for Founders to challenge one of the world’s most powerful monarchs. 23
  24. 24. Fourth Part Attempts to Resolve • Outlines colonies' efforts to resolve differences • Not just “rebels” • Law abiding citizens • Tried to make system work 24
  25. 25. Fifth Part Declares Independence “…appealing to the world for the rectitude of our intentions…” “…united colonies are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown.” 25
  26. 26. Rectitude Righteousness as a consequence of being honorable and honest 26
  27. 27. • No assurances the separation would succeed • Leaders could be hung as traitors • Pledged to each other “…our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.” 27
  28. 28. The Founders established the government on the brand new concept that “all men are created equal,” at a time when they were surrounded by _______. A. rebellions B. contentment C. republics D. monarchies 28
  29. 29. The Founders established the government on the brand new concept that “all men are created equal,” at a time when they were surrounded by _______. A. rebellions B. contentment C. republics D. monarchies 29
  30. 30. The United States Constitution Revolutionary War-1777 The Articles of Confederation were the first attempt to establish a government 30 of the United States.
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. The First Continental Congress developed the Articles of Confederation in 1777. Achievements: • Won the Revolutionary War • U. S. acknowledged as a country • Organized Northwest Territories 32
  33. 33. Articles appealed to diverse groups of separate little countries. The colonies’ individual interests varied: New England-seafarers-eastward toward Atlantic Middle and Southern-farmers-westward 33 towards more land
  34. 34. Colonies’ western borders: Some smaller colonies were well defined, others claimed vast tracts westward. No one really knew. Daniel Shays’ rebellion triggered new thinking about the national 34 government.
  35. 35. What was the significance of the organization of the Northwest Territories? A. It discouraged exploration by the French B. It blocked the British from threatening from Canada C. It later became five new states D. It alleviated the overcrowded cities of the northeastern states. 35
  36. 36. What was the significance of the organization of the Northwest Territories? A. It discouraged exploration by the French B. It blocked the British from threatening from Canada C. It later became five new states D. It alleviated the overcrowded cities of the northeastern states. 36
  37. 37. Shay’s Rebellion and the Need for a Stronger Government 1786-Daniel Shays—leader of Massachusetts farmers heavily in debt, losing homes and farms to taxes. Sympathetic mobs intervened to keep farmers’ (many Revolutionary War Veterans) properties. 37
  38. 38. On January 25, 1787, to arm themselves, the group attacked the Continental Army Arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts. Rebellion failed when fired upon but it was a warning to authorities. Articles of Confederation required unanimous consent of all states before Federal action so this was a state matter. This demonstrated the weakness of the Articles of Confederation. 38
  39. 39. George Washington (private citizen 1783-1787) wrote to James Madison (future drafter of the Constitution): “We are either a united people or we are not. If the former, let us act as a nation. If we are not, let us no longer act a farce 39 by pretending to it.”
  40. 40. Under the Articles of Confederation, the government had no: • real taxing authority • executive or judicial branch • power to regulate trade • power to regulate relations between states, or a state and 40 a foreign country
  41. 41. It required a two- thirds vote by the delegates to pass a law. States could not agree on a national currency, each state printed its own. 41
  42. 42. A constitutional convention convened in May 1787 to amend the Articles of Confederation. Meeting until September, it drew up a new constitution instead. Two plans considered: • James Madison’s Virginia Plan 42 • New Jersey Plan
  43. 43. Constitutional Convention A special meeting held to draw up a new constitution 43
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. Which of these factors did most of the Founders NOT believe was a weakness of the Articles of Confederation? A. Powerless to direct relations between states, or between states and a foreign country B. Powerless to impose a national banking system C. Powerless to regulate trade D. Powerless to tax 45
  46. 46. Which of these factors did most of the Founders NOT believe was a weakness of the Articles of Confederation? A. Powerless to direct relations between states, or between states and a foreign country B. Powerless to impose a national banking system C. Powerless to regulate trade D. Powerless to tax 46
  47. 47. James Madison Youthful “Father of the Constitution” • At 36, one of the youngest founders • Talents admired • Most influential • arrived early • brought detailed plan 47
  48. 48. • Kept most detailed notes of session proceedings • Attended almost every session Much of what we know today comes from his notes. 48
  49. 49. Virginia Plan • Strong central government • Three branches • legislative • executive • judicial 49
  50. 50. Empowered national legislature to: • pass laws states could not pass • strike down state laws conflicting with national laws • call armed forces to enforce national laws 50
  51. 51. William Paterson offered the New Jersey Plan The New Jersey Plan mainly just tinkered with the Articles of Confederation 51
  52. 52. New Jersey Plan—national government: • would have some taxing authority • could levy import duties/stamp tax • had power to collect from states • had power to regulate trade • Congress-passed laws would be supreme laws of land • included a form of executive and judicial branches 52
  53. 53. Levy To impose or collect (a tax) 53
  54. 54. Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan • How much power should the national government have? • How would states’ representation be determined? Should each state’s representation depend on population 54 or geographical size?
  55. 55. Under Articles of Confederation All states represented equally • small population states liked • large population states disliked Intense debate threatened convention 55
  56. 56. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding James Madison’s role as the Father of the Constitution? A. He arrived early to the convention with a prepared plan. B. His copious, detailed notes have allowed us to know about what happened at the convention. C. He was one of the oldest Framers of the Constitution. D. He was present at almost every 56 session of the convention.
  57. 57. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding James Madison’s role as the Father of the Constitution? A. He arrived early to the convention with a prepared plan. B. His copious, detailed notes have allowed us to know about what happened at the convention. C. He was one of the oldest Framers of the Constitution. D. He was present at almost every 57 session of the convention.
  58. 58. The Great Compromise Roger Sherman of Connecticut reintroduced an earlier plan • All states treated equal in an upper house • Lower house apportioned by population 58
  59. 59. Balance between small and large states • Each state is allowed two Senators. • 435 Representatives are divided based on state population with a minimum of 1 59
  60. 60. Other Constitutional Balancing Acts The Great Compromise was important but not the only compromise. 60
  61. 61. 61
  62. 62. Balance between the Federal Government and States • Federal government given specific (enumerated) power 62 • States retain law-making powers
  63. 63. Balance between House of Representatives and the Senate • House of Representatives originates all taxing laws • Senate approves Presidential appointments to the cabinet and 63 Supreme Court
  64. 64. x Balance between the Senate and the President • Agreement needed on all treaties between the United States and foreign 64 governments.
  65. 65. Legislative Executive Each branch of the government is assigned specific Judicial responsibilities. 65
  66. 66. • Legislative branch makes the laws 66 and levies the taxes.
  67. 67. • Executive branch enforces the laws. 67
  68. 68. U.S. Supreme Court • Judicial branch interprets the laws and assures the rights of the individual. 68
  69. 69. • The legislative branch passes laws. • The president may veto laws. • The legislature may over-ride the president's veto with a 2/3 majority vote. • The judicial branch may declare a law unconstitutional. 69
  70. 70. Veto The right (of a President) to reject a piece of legislation 70
  71. 71. U.S. GOVERNMENT’S CHECKS AND BALANCES Executive Branch The President Constitution Must approve appointments. Judicial Branch Can impeach judges. Legislative Branch Can declare a law unconstitutional Supreme Court and set it aside. The Congress Federal Courts 71
  72. 72. States preserve a say in the union by their collective power to approve or reject constitutional amendments. 72
  73. 73. “…whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution,… or two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, …shall be valid …when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, …” 73
  74. 74. What was the central proposal of the Great Compromise? A. The most heavily populated states would have two national representatives, and the less populated states one. B. National representation would be determined by the amount of taxes the states paid to the national government. C. The states would be divided into large districts, with each district being assigned one representative at the national level. D. National representation would take place in two houses, one with equal representation, 74 one with representation based on population.
  75. 75. What was the central proposal of the Great Compromise? A. The most heavily populated states would have two national representatives, and the less populated states one. B. National representation would be determined by the amount of taxes the states paid to the national government. C. The states would be divided into large districts, with each district being assigned one representative at the national level. D. National representation would take place in two houses, one with equal representation, 75 one with representation based on population.
  76. 76. Which of these relationships is accurate? A. The legislative branch: interpreting laws. B. The judicial branch: making laws. C. The executive branch: enforcing laws. D. The legislative branch: assuring individuals’ rights 76
  77. 77. Which of these relationships is accurate? A. The legislative branch: interpreting laws. B. The judicial branch: making laws. C. The executive branch: enforcing laws. D. The legislative branch: assuring individuals’ rights 77
  78. 78. An Overview of the United States Constitution Preamble • Form a more perfect union • Establish justice • Ensure domestic tranquility • Provide for the common defense • Promote general welfare • Secure the blessings of liberty 78 • To ourselves and posterity
  79. 79. Posterity Future generations 79
  80. 80. 80
  81. 81. Article I - Legislative Branch Section 1: Legislative power vested Section 2: House of Representatives Section 3: Senate Section 4: Elections of Senators and Representatives Section 5: Rules of House and Senate Section 6: Compensation and 81 Privileges of Members
  82. 82. Article I - Legislative Branch Section 7: Passage of Bills Section 8: Scope of Legislative Power • Declarewar • Raise & support armies • Provide and maintain a navy •Make rules for the forces Section 9: Limits on Legislative Power Section 10: Limits on States 82
  83. 83. Article II - Executive Branch Section 1: Election, Installation, Removal Section 2: Presidential Power Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces Section 3: State of the Union, Receive Ambassadors, Laws Faithfully Executed, Commission Officers Section 4: Impeachment 83
  84. 84. Article III - Judiciary Section 1: Judicial Power Vested Section 2: Scope of Judicial Power Section 3: Treason 84
  85. 85. Article IV - States Section 1: Full Faith and Credit Section 2: Privileges and Immunities, Extradition, Fugitive Slaves Section 3: Admission of New States Section 4: Guarantees to States for autonomy and adherence 85
  86. 86. Autonomy The quality or state of being self-governing 86
  87. 87. Article V - The Amendment Process 2/3 3/4 87
  88. 88. Article VI - Legal Status of the Constitution Supreme law of the land 88
  89. 89. Article VII - Ratify July 1788 9 of 13 89
  90. 90. Ratify To formally confirm or approve, as of a treaty or a constitutional amendment 90
  91. 91. The Preamble to the Constitution states that the document is intended to protect the liberty of _______, meaning future generations. A. posterity B. primogeniture C. predecessors D. potentiality 91
  92. 92. The Preamble to the Constitution states that the document is intended to protect the liberty of _______, meaning future generations. A. posterity B. primogeniture C. predecessors D. potentiality 92
  93. 93. Article I deals with the duties of _______. A. the President B. the Supreme Court justices C. the states D. Congress 93
  94. 94. Article I deals with the duties of _______. A. the President B. the Supreme Court justices C. the states D. Congress 94
  95. 95. Bill of Rights Some states would not ratify without a bill of rights. With ratification in jeopardy, Framers promised a bill of rights after ratification. 95 Independence Hall
  96. 96. Congress added the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution in 1791. • defines citizens’ rights • states limitations on governments 96
  97. 97. Amendment A formal alteration to a document such as a constitution or law 97
  98. 98. 98
  99. 99. Constitution—large institutional matters Bill of Rights—ordinary individual lives • Worship (or not) • Peaceable assembly • Speech and Press 99
  100. 100. Judges, lawyers and officers of the court know the amendments governing: • search and seizure • self-incrimination 100 • right to counsel
  101. 101. Overview of the first 10 amendments 101
  102. 102. 102
  103. 103. First Amendment: Freedom of Religion The right to exercise one's own religion, or no religion, free from any government influence or compulsions. 103
  104. 104. First Amendment: Freedom of Speech Even unpopular expression is protected from government suppression or censorship. 104
  105. 105. First Amendment: Freedom of the Press Freedom of the press gives citizens the right to print or publish truthful 105 thoughts, ideas, or opinions.
  106. 106. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes: Freedom of religion, speech, and the press comes with the responsibility to not “…present a clear and present danger…” to the public. Each citizen must exercise his or her freedoms responsibly. 106
  107. 107. 107
  108. 108. Second Amendment: The Right to Bear Arms The right to bear arms allows citizens 108 to own weapons.
  109. 109. 109
  110. 110. Third Amendment: Quartering of Soldiers Citizens cannot be forced to house (or quarter) soldiers in their homes during peacetime. However, during wartime soldiers can be quartered in private homes, as prescribed by law. 110
  111. 111. Quartering Lodging, or providing living quarters for soldiers 111
  112. 112. The Bill of Rights was intended to define the rights of the citizens and also to state the _______ of the new state and federal governments. A. superiority B. limitations C. ambiguities D. particulars 112
  113. 113. The Bill of Rights was intended to define the rights of the citizens and also to state the _______ of the new state and federal governments. A. superiority B. limitations C. ambiguities D. particulars 113
  114. 114. 114
  115. 115. Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure Civil Liberties The right to be free of unwarranted and unwanted government intrusion into one's personal and private affairs, 115 papers, and possessions
  116. 116. Police may search only after obtaining a warrant from a judge. Part of everyday work for police, 116 courts, and lawyers.
  117. 117. 117
  118. 118. Fifth Amendment: Criminal Proceedings and Due Process The right to be treated fairly by the government whenever the loss of 118 liberty or property is at stake.
  119. 119. Rights affecting criminal proceedings include: • An indictment and grand jury hearing • Protection against double jeopardy 119 • Protection against self-incrimination
  120. 120. Indictment A written statement charging someone with a crime or other offense, drawn up by a prosecuting attorney, and presented by a grand jury 120
  121. 121. Double Jeopardy means a person cannot be tried for the same crime twice. 121
  122. 122. Self-incrimination means a person is protected from being forced to testify 122 against himself or herself.
  123. 123. The last section of the amendment deals with preventing arbitrary 123 confiscation of private property.
  124. 124. What Supreme Court justice stated in 1917 that if someone’s words “present a clear and present danger” to the safety of the citizens, the words are not protected by the first amendment? A. Oliver Wendell Holmes B. John Marshall C. Earl Warren D. William Taft 124
  125. 125. What Supreme Court justice stated in 1917 that if someone’s words “present a clear and present danger” to the safety of the citizens, the words are not protected by the first amendment? A. Oliver Wendell Holmes B. John Marshall C. Earl Warren D. William Taft 125
  126. 126. 126
  127. 127. Sixth Amendment: The Right to a Jury Trial Guarantees the rights to: • a trial by peers • a prompt and public trial • call and question witnesses 127 • an attorney
  128. 128. 128
  129. 129. Seventh Amendment: The Right to a Civil Trial Guarantees the right to: • a trial in any dispute over 129 money or property
  130. 130. 130
  131. 131. Eighth Amendment: Punishment for Crimes Bail cannot be for an unreasonable amount of money. Bail is money or property given to a court to guarantee that an accused 131 person will appear in court.
  132. 132. Courts cannot impose excessive fines or punishments that are: • Cruel 132 • Unusual
  133. 133. 133
  134. 134. Ninth Amendment: Unenumerated Rights Just because other rights and freedoms are not mentioned in the amendments doesn’t mean the citizens do not have them. Not every right needs to be 134 enumerated.
  135. 135. Enumerated To list, or to specify individually 135
  136. 136. 136
  137. 137. Tenth Amendment: Powers Reserved to the States Any power not assigned to the federal government or forbidden to the states remains with the states or the people. Freedom, not restriction, is the 137 basis of our government.
  138. 138. The Fifth Amendment states that citizens cannot be tried without a prosecuting attorney-prepared document charging them with a crime, called a/an _______. A. warrant B. writ C. indictment D. amendment 138
  139. 139. The Fifth Amendment states that citizens cannot be tried without a prosecuting attorney-prepared document charging them with a crime, called a/an _______. A. warrant B. writ C. indictment D. amendment 139
  140. 140. Other Constitutional Amendments After the first 10, only 17 more amendments • 6 define a person and voting rights • 200 years—still growing, changing, expanding our definition of freedom 140
  141. 141. AMENDMENT XI Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795. Clarifies judicial power over foreign nationals and limits the ability of 141 citizens to sue states.
  142. 142. AMENDMENT XIl Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804. Changes procedure for electing Vice President. 142
  143. 143. AMENDMENT XIll Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865. Ended slavery throughout the United States 143
  144. 144. AMENDMENT XIV Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868. Declared newly freed slaves to be citizens. 144
  145. 145. AMENDMENT XV Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870. Outlawed racial tests for voting. 145
  146. 146. AMENDMENT XVI Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913. Allowed federal government to introduce a personal income tax. 146
  147. 147. AMENDMENT XVlI Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913. Provided for popular (direct) election of Senators. 147
  148. 148. Amendment XII changes the procedure of electing _______. A. the president B. the vice president C. senators D. Representatives to the House 148
  149. 149. Amendment XII changes the procedure of electing _______. A. the president B. the vice president C. senators D. Representatives to the House 149
  150. 150. AMENDMENT XVllI Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919. Banned alcoholic beverages in the Unites States. 150
  151. 151. AMENDMENT XIX Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920. Granted women the right to vote. 151
  152. 152. AMENDMENT XX Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933. • Changed presidential inauguration date to January 20 • Changed Congress convening date to January 3 • Clarified procedures to fill vacancies 152
  153. 153. AMENDMENT XXI Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933. Repealed Amendment XVlll. 153
  154. 154. AMENDMENT XXlI Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951. Limits Presidents to two terms of office. 154
  155. 155. AMENDMENT XXllI Passed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29, 1961. Granted residents of the District of Columbia the right to vote in presidential 155 elections.
  156. 156. AMENDMENT XXIV Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23, 1964. Forbade states from requiring taxes (head taxes) as a condition of voting. 156
  157. 157. AMENDMENT XXV Passed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10, 1967. • Clarified Presidential succession • Provided for appointment of a new Vice President • Provided for temporary transfer 157 of Presidential powers
  158. 158. AMENDMENT XXVI Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified July 1, 1971. Granted 18-year-olds the right to vote in federal elections. 158
  159. 159. AMENDMENT XXVlI Originally proposed September 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992. Congressional pay raises do not begin until after the next election. 159
  160. 160. Which amendment gave women the right to vote? A. XVII B. XVIII C. XIX D. XX 160
  161. 161. Which amendment gave women the right to vote? A. XVII B. XVIII C. XIX D. XX 161
  162. 162. Conclusion The Declaration of Independence launched the United States with a new vision—a Government deriving its “…just powers from the consent of the governed.” 162
  163. 163. During the first years, including the Revolutionary War, the country was governed by the Articles of 163 Confederation.
  164. 164. • A stronger national government was needed. • Constitutional convention convened in Spring 1787 to revise Articles of Confederation but drew up a new Constitution instead. • Stronger federal government • executive • legislative • judicial 164
  165. 165. • By July 1788, a majority of states ratified it and the Constitution took effect. • Congress and the states modified it almost immediately with Bill of Rights {Amendments 1-10} • Over the following 200 years we have added 17 more Amendments 165
  166. 166. The introduction to the Declaration of Independence, which announces the plan to separate from the British Empire, is known as the _______. A. prologue B. preface C. prelude D. preamble 166
  167. 167. The introduction to the Declaration of Independence, which announces the plan to separate from the British Empire, is known as the _______. A. prologue B. preface C. prelude D. preamble 167
  168. 168. A central idea of the Declaration of Independence is that “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” are among the _______ rights of human beings, those that cannot be taken away or given to another. A. unalterable B. indivisible C. unalienable 168 D. inevitable
  169. 169. A central idea of the Declaration of Independence is that “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” are among the _______ rights of human beings, those that cannot be taken away or given to another. A. unalterable B. indivisible C. unalienable 169 D. inevitable
  170. 170. The Founders felt strongly that the government’s power should come from the people, not from someone ruling by _______ rights believed to have come from a deity. A. divine B. regal C. unalienable D. consecrated 170
  171. 171. The Founders felt strongly that the government’s power should come from the people, not from someone ruling by _______ rights believed to have come from a deity. A. divine B. regal C. unalienable D. consecrated 171
  172. 172. Which of these statements is NOT accurate about the Declaration of Independence? A. One part describes the actions the colonists took to resolve the problems with England. B. The document was intended to explain to the world why the colonists were taking such a drastic step. C. It was signed by members of the First Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. D. The philosophy of government it stated was so unique that the new country was known as the “American experiment.” 172
  173. 173. Which of these statements is NOT accurate about the Declaration of Independence? A. One part describes the actions the colonists took to resolve the problems with England. B. The document was intended to explain to the world why the colonists were taking such a drastic step. C. It was signed by members of the First Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. D. The philosophy of government it stated was so unique that the new country was known as the “American experiment.” 173
  174. 174. During the time when the country was governed by the Articles of Confederation, all of the following events occurred except which one? A. Both the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 were fought and won. B. The United States was recognized as a real country by other countries. C. The Northwest Territories were organized, setting the stage for the addition of five new states. D. Daniel Shays led a rebellion that brought to light the weakness of the national 174 government.
  175. 175. During the time when the country was governed by the Articles of Confederation, all of the following events occurred except which one? A. Both the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 were fought and won. B. The United States was recognized as a real country by other countries. C. The Northwest Territories were organized, setting the stage for the addition of five new states. D. Daniel Shays led a rebellion that brought to light the weakness of the national 175 government.
  176. 176. For what original purpose did the Constitutional Convention assemble in the spring of 1787? A. To write a completely new constitution B. To amend the Articles of Confederation C. To debate whether or not the Articles of Confederation should be changed. D. To discuss legal means of organizing a national army to counter the threat of a second war with England 176
  177. 177. For what original purpose did the Constitutional Convention assemble in the spring of 1787? A. To write a completely new constitution B. To amend the Articles of Confederation C. To debate whether or not the Articles of Confederation should be changed. D. To discuss legal means of organizing a national army to counter the threat of a second war with England 177
  178. 178. The leaders of early America felt the Articles of Confederation lacked some important powers, including all of the following except which one? A. Method of taxation B. Trade regulations C. Federal bank D. Executive and judicial branches 178
  179. 179. The leaders of early America felt the Articles of Confederation lacked some important powers, including all of the following except which one? A. Method of taxation B. Trade regulations C. Federal bank D. Executive and judicial branches 179
  180. 180. Which of these statements is NOT true about James Madison, the Father of the Constitution? A. He supported the New Jersey Plan. B. He took detailed notes and attended nearly every meeting. C. He was one of the youngest delegates, only 36 years old. D. He arrived in Philadelphia early, bringing a plan with him. 180
  181. 181. Which of these statements is NOT true about James Madison, the Father of the Constitution? A. He supported the New Jersey Plan. B. He took detailed notes and attended nearly every meeting. C. He was one of the youngest delegates, only 36 years old. D. He arrived in Philadelphia early, bringing a plan with him. 181
  182. 182. What controversial problem did the Great Compromise solve? A. How the state and federal governments’ powers would be balanced B. How national laws would be initiated and passed C. How states’ representation would be handled D. How much power the president 182 should have
  183. 183. What controversial problem did the Great Compromise solve? A. How the state and federal governments’ powers would be balanced B. How national laws would be initiated and passed C. How states’ representation would be handled D. How much power the president 183 should have
  184. 184. Which of these groups accurately reflects the responsibilities of the three branches of the federal government? A. Judicial: makes laws Legislative: interprets laws Executive: enforces laws B. Legislative: makes laws Judicial: interprets laws Executive: enforces laws C. Legislative: enforces laws Judicial: makes laws Executive: interprets laws D. Judicial: interprets laws Executive: makes laws 184 Legislative: enforces laws
  185. 185. Which of these groups accurate reflects the responsibilities of the three branches of the federal government? A. Judicial: makes laws Legislative: interprets laws Executive: enforces laws B. Legislative: makes laws Judicial: interprets laws Executive: enforces laws C. Legislative: enforces laws Judicial: makes laws Executive: interprets laws D. Judicial: interprets laws Executive: makes laws 185 Legislative: enforces laws
  186. 186. Which of these powers belongs to the Supreme Court? A. To pass amendments to the Constitution B. To confirm presidential appointees to its own body, the Supreme Court C. To approve the constitutions of new states D. To rule that a law passed by Congress is unconstitutional 186
  187. 187. Which of these powers belongs to the Supreme Court? A. To pass amendments to the Constitution B. To confirm presidential appointees to its own body, the Supreme Court C. To approve the constitutions of new states D. To rule that a law passed by Congress is unconstitutional 187
  188. 188. The legislative branch of the federal government possesses all the following powers except which one? A. To determine the constitutionality of a law B. To confirm presidential appointees to the Supreme Court C. To override a presidential veto with a two-thirds majority vote D. To ratify all treaties the president makes with foreign powers 188
  189. 189. The legislative branch of the federal government possesses all the following powers except which one? A. To determine the constitutionality of a law B. To confirm presidential appointees to the Supreme Court C. To override a presidential veto with a two-thirds majority vote D. To ratify all treaties the president makes with foreign powers 189
  190. 190. What term is used to refer to the assigning or collecting of taxes? A. Draft B. Remit C. Levy D. Confer 190
  191. 191. What term is used to refer to the assigning or collecting of taxes? A. Draft B. Remit C. Levy D. Confer 191
  192. 192. What type of action is a veto, such as done by a president? A. Confirmation B. Rejection C. Interpretation D. Initiation 192
  193. 193. What type of action is a veto, such as done by a president? A. Confirmation B. Rejection C. Interpretation D. Initiation 193
  194. 194. The Constitution begins by asserting, among other things, that “We the people of the United States” intend to ensure freedom for “ourselves and our _______,” or future generations. A. predecessors B. posterity C. forefathers D. constituents 194
  195. 195. The Constitution begins by asserting, among other things, that “We the people of the United States” intend to ensure freedom for “ourselves and our _______,” or future generations. A. predecessors B. posterity C. forefathers D. constituents 195
  196. 196. What term is used to refer to the formal approval, as of a treaty or an amendment to the Constitution? A. Ratification B. Confirmation C. Proclamation D. Declamation 196
  197. 197. What term is used to refer to the formal approval, as of a treaty or an amendment to the Constitution? A. Ratification B. Confirmation C. Proclamation D. Declamation 197
  198. 198. What term is used to refer to the formal changing or altering of a document such as a constitution or a law? A. Ratification B. Restitution C. Amendement D. Amelioration 198
  199. 199. What term is used to refer to the formal changing or altering of a document such as a constitution or a law? A. Ratification B. Restitution C. Amendement D. Amelioration 199
  200. 200. Both to define the rights of the citizens and to state the _______ of the new state and federal governments were the reasons behind the first ten amendments to the Constitution, called the Bill of Rights. A. qualities B. limitations C. superiority 200 D. restructuring
  201. 201. Both to define the rights of the citizens and to state the _______ of the new state and federal governments were the reasons behind the first ten amendments to the Constitution, called the Bill of Rights. A. qualities B. limitations C. superiority 201 D. restructuring
  202. 202. Which of these rights is NOT guaranteed by the First Amendment? A. Of peaceable assembly B. Of free speech C. Of religion D. Of bearing arms 202
  203. 203. Which of these rights is NOT guaranteed by the First Amendment? A. Of peaceable assembly B. Of free speech C. Of religion D. Of bearing arms 203
  204. 204. Who made it clear that the words of any citizen who abused the right of free speech to present “a clear and present danger” would not be protected by the Constitution? A. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Oliver Wendell Holmes B. US President Woodrow Wilson C. Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay D. Presidential Candidate Abraham 204 Lincoln
  205. 205. Who made it clear that the words of any citizen who abused the right of free speech to present “a clear and present danger” would not be protected by the Constitution? A. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Oliver Wendell Holmes B. US President Woodrow Wilson C. Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay D. Presidential Candidate Abraham 205 Lincoln
  206. 206. The Second Amendment addresses which of these topics? A. Right to bear arms B. Quartering of soldiers in peace time C. Search and seizure D. Due process in criminal proceedings 206
  207. 207. The Second Amendment addresses which of these topics? A. Right to bear arms B. Quartering of soldiers in peace time C. Search and seizure D. Due process in criminal proceedings 207
  208. 208. The Third Amendment prevents citizens from being forced in peacetime to quarter soldiers, which means that citizens are not required to _______. A. contribute to their salaries B. provide them a place to live C. follow their orders except in national emergencies D. serve in the armed forces except in war time 208
  209. 209. The Third Amendment prevents citizens from being forced in peacetime to quarter soldiers, which means that citizens are not required to _______. A. contribute to their salaries B. provide them a place to live C. follow their orders except in national emergencies D. serve in the armed forces except in war time 209
  210. 210. The Fifth Amendment protects citizens from being tried without a/an _______, which is legal document prepared by a prosecuting attorney charging them with a crime. A. writ of habeas corpus B. warrant C. indictment D. summons 210
  211. 211. The Fifth Amendment protects citizens from being tried without a/an _______, which is legal document prepared by a prosecuting attorney charging them with a crime. A. writ of habeas corpus B. warrant C. indictment D. summons 211
  212. 212. The Ninth Amendment states that just because certain rights are not _______ (listed or specified) in the Constitution, it does not mean that citizens do not have that right. A. validated B. certified C. prioritized D. enumerated 212
  213. 213. The Ninth Amendment states that just because certain rights are not _______ (listed or specified) in the Constitution, it does not mean that citizens do not have that right. A. validated B. certified C. prioritized D. enumerated 213
  214. 214. Which amendment permits people to refuse to testify against themselves? A. Third B. Fourth C. Fifth D. Sixth 214
  215. 215. Which amendment permits people to refuse to testify against themselves? A. Third B. Fourth C. Fifth D. Sixth 215
  216. 216. How many amendments to the Constitution have been passed since the Bill of Rights? A. 12 B. 13 C. 16 D. 17 216
  217. 217. How many amendments to the Constitution have been passed since the Bill of Rights? A. 12 B. 13 C. 16 D. 17 217
  218. 218. In what year were 18-year-olds given the right to vote? A. 1962 B. 1969 C. 1971 D. 1973 218
  219. 219. In what year were 18-year-olds given the right to vote? A. 1962 B. 1969 C. 1971 D. 1973 219
  220. 220. What subject do Amendments XV, XIX, XXIII, XXIV, and XXVI have in common? A. Slavery B. Governmental structure C. Citizenship D. Voting 220
  221. 221. What subject do Amendments XV, XIX, XXIII, XXIV, and XXVI have in common? A. Slavery B. Governmental structure C. Citizenship D. Voting 221
  222. 222. What was banned by one amendment and then reinstated when the amendment was repealed? A. Consumption of alcoholic beverages B. Levying of a personal income tax C. Establishment of slavery D. Limitation of the presidential 222 term of office
  223. 223. What was banned by one amendment and then reinstated when the amendment was repealed? A. Consumption of alcoholic beverages B. Levying of a personal income tax C. Establishment of slavery D. Limitation of the presidential 223 term of office
  224. 224. What document is unique because it directly affects how American citizens live their daily lives? A. Declaration of Independence B. Bill of Rights C. US Constitution D. Articles of Confederation 224
  225. 225. What document is unique because it directly affects how American citizens live their daily lives? A. Declaration of Independence B. Bill of Rights C. US Constitution D. Articles of Confederation 225

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