UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3
        Motivation




1
The Hierarchy of
     Human Needs


    To be an effective
    leader, you need a
    basic understanding
    of human beh...
Why do people do the
    things they do?


    What motivates
    people to act or to do
    anything?


    A simple answ...
What's In It For Me?




    If you can answer that question for
    them, you have an important key to
    influencing an...
Basic Needs

                  Food




5
       Water      Safety
More-complex needs, such as a need
    for respect and acceptance, are
    sometimes much more difficult to
    satisfy.
6
Why do people behave the way they do?



                          Two things all theories of
                          hu...
Motivation

    The inner force that drives people
    to act




8
At this point in your
                            life:
                            • Good grades
                        ...
The inner force that drives people to
 action is _______.

 A. desire
 B. compulsion
 C. wish-fulfillment
 D. motivation

...
The inner force that drives people to
 action is _______.

 A. desire
 B. compulsion
 C. wish-fulfillment
 D. motivation

...
True or False: To explain human
 behavior, it is necessary to examine
 both the inside and the outside of
 human beings.

...
True or False: To explain human
 behavior, it is necessary to examine
 both the inside and the outside of
 human beings.

...
Abraham Maslow

                      Developed a
                      ―hierarchy of human
                      needs‖ t...
Hierarchy

     A ranking or series of steps that
     follows a specific order; for
     example, largest to smallest, ol...
Self-Actualization

      Esteem
               Love/Belonging

           Safety
          Physiological

16
     Priorit...
Self-Actualization – attainment of potential


                 Esteem - friendship and love


          Belonging – famil...
What psychologist described five
 different levels of human needs?

 A. Benjamin Bloom
 B. Carl Jung
 C. Abraham Maslow
 D...
What psychologist described five
 different levels of human needs?

 A. Benjamin Bloom
 B. Carl Jung
 C. Abraham Maslow
 D...
Survival needs are the most basic of human
     needs. They include those things which
     sustain life, such as food, wa...
When these needs
 are met, a person
 will then turn to
 security needs.




21
22
     Priority Of Human Needs
These needs include protection from threats,
violence, disease, or poverty.




23
     Priority Of Human Needs
24
     Priority Of Human Needs
These needs include being liked and accepted
by your family, your friends, and the members
of your community. People need ...
26
     Priority Of Human Needs
These needs are related to a person’s desire to
feel important. There are two types of esteem
needs:
• Self-esteem, the fe...
28
     Priority Of Human Needs
Self-actualization is the need to feel that you
 have reached your full potential in life. This
 need is not very often sa...
Self-Actualization

     The process of becoming what you
     are capable of becoming




30
Abraham Maslow


                      Still, as difficult as
                      self-actualization was
               ...
As a person meets the needs at each level,
     he or she becomes more flexible and has
     more options.


             ...
In Maslow’s hierarchy of human
 needs, faith, community, and group
 acceptance are classified as _______
 needs.

 A. belo...
In Maslow’s hierarchy of human
 needs, faith, community, and group
 acceptance are classified as _______
 needs.

 A. belo...
In Maslow’s hierarchy of human
 needs, friendship and love are
 classified as _______ needs.

 A. physical
 B. esteem
 C. ...
In Maslow’s hierarchy of human
 needs, friendship and love are
 classified as _______ needs.

 A. physical
 B. esteem
 C. ...
In Maslow’s hierarchy of human
 needs, attainment of personal
 fulfillment is classified as _______
 needs.

 A. safety an...
In Maslow’s hierarchy of human
 needs, attainment of personal
 fulfillment is classified as _______
 needs.

 A. safety an...
Goals and Motivation
     The things that drive people are their
     purposes―or goals.




39
Goal

     An external aim, or end, to which
     one directs one’s effort




40
The Cycle of
      Goal-directed
        Activity

     How do your goals
     relate to your
     motivation and
     beh...
You then choose a
     behavior that is
     directed toward that
     goal, and if everything
     works out, you meet
  ...
This process works
     for both tangible and
     intangible goals,
     helping you fulfill
     every goal you set.



...
Tangible

      Real or actual, rather than
      imaginary or visionary

               Intangible
     Not definite or c...
Suppose you’re
                         hungry – that’s your
                         motive.

                         Yo...
Goal-directed activities
                      and goals form a
                      cycle, the experience
              ...
Now, there are some
                     things that may affect
                     the progression of this
             ...
On the other hand, if
     you start getting
     sloppy—leaving
     butter all over the
     counter—your family
     me...
The purpose or aim to which a person
 directs his/her effort is a _______.

 A. need
 B. motive
 C. goal
 D. desire




49
The purpose or aim to which a person
 directs his/her effort is a _______.

 A. need
 B. motive
 C. goal
 D. desire




50
People’s _______ help form their
 goals, and then they select _______
 directed toward those goals.

 A. motives, behavior...
People’s _______ help form their
 goals, and then they select _______
 directed toward that goal.

 A. motives, behaviors
...
Two Types of Motivation
     Motivation is divided into two main types:




53
Intrinsic Motivation

     Common intrinsic motivations include:

     • Affiliation – wanting to belong to a group
      ...
Extrinsic Motivation

     Common extrinsic motivations include:

     •   Money
     •   Food
     •   Threats or fears
 ...
The desire to get
                              good grades is an
                              example of intrinsic
     ...
Extra-credit for   Extrinsic motivation
              anyone doing       is a force that drives
              a report on ...
What other term is used to refer to
 internal motivation?

 A. Essential
 B. Nonessential
 C. Intrinsic
 D. Extrinsic




...
What other term is used to refer to
 internal motivation?

 A. Essential
 B. Nonessential
 C. Intrinsic
 D. Extrinsic




...
What other term is used to refer to
 external motivation?

 A. Intrinsic
 B. Extrinsic
 C. Nonessential
 D. Essential




...
What other term is used to refer to
 external motivation?

 A. Intrinsic
 B. Extrinsic
 C. Nonessential
 D. Essential




...
The difference
                         between these types
                         of motivation can get
               ...
Incentives

     Something that incites or has a
     tendency to incite to determination
     or action




63
Let’s say
                                        you really
                                        want a
              ...
Your boss offers you
                           an extrinsic
                           motivation—pay—to
                ...
Which of the following statements about
 motivations is NOT true?

  A. One theory about motivation is that all
     motiv...
Which of the following statements about
 motivations is NOT true?

  A. One theory about motivation is that all
     motiv...
Positive and Negative Approaches




     An effective leader will find out what action
     can be taken to motivate a pe...
The job of every
     leader is to
     motivate people to
     accomplish their

     • tasks—jobs
     • details
     • ...
Motivation Factors:

     • Good pay is important to some people
70
• Feeling that one’s
  work is important
71
• Feeling the work
   is interesting
72
• Opportunity for
   self-development
73
   and improvement
Remember, not everyone is motivated
 by:

 • Good pay
 • Important work
 • Interesting work
 • Self-improvement.
74
Most people are motivated
individually rather than as a group.
75
When someone is not performing well, the
effective leader will try to determine which
need is not satisfied and then deter...
True or False: A leader must realize
 that people are motivated more as a
 group than individually.




77
True or False: A leader must realize
 that people are motivated more as a
 group than individually.

 False




78
This is the positive approach to good
       leadership.


     This is the positive approach to good
     leadership.
79
A negative approach to motivation is
80
     punishment or disciplinary action.
Military punishment for misconduct
     is not:




     • Personal
     • Vindictive
81
     • Revengeful.
Value of Punishment
     The lesson it teaches to wrongdoers and
     others is that offense must not be repeated.
     Th...
Punishment must
     be:

     • Consistent
     • Just
     • Recognized by
       all as just.




83
Most importantly! Disciplinary action is
the result of the offender’s behavior and
is the responsibility of the offender—n...
When using the _______ approach to
 motivate a poorly performing follower,
 a leader will try to figure out which of
 the ...
When using the _______ approach to
 motivate a poorly performing follower,
 a leader will try to figure out which of
 the ...
If a leader takes the _______ approach
 to motivating a person to improve
 poor performance, he/she uses
 disciplinary act...
If a leader takes the _______ approach
 to motivating a person to improve
 poor performance, he/she uses
 disciplinary act...
The NJROTC Rewards System
     A positive approach to motivation is a well
     thought out system of rewards for actions
...
NJROTC has a well-designed system of
     rewards, such as ribbons and medals for
     individual or group achievement. Cr...
NJROTC system of rewards include:

 • Promotions
 • Cadet of the month
 • Special privileges for service
   to the unit
 •...
Another approach to motivation, such
 as NJROTC programs use, is based
 on a system of _______.

 A. rewards for desirable...
Another approach to motivation, such
 as NJROTC programs use, is based
 on a system of _______.

 A. rewards for desirable...
Key Elements of Coaching and Mentoring




     At some point in NJROTC or later in life,
     you may find yourself servi...
Mentor

     An individual with advanced
     experience and knowledge who
     is committed to giving support
     and ca...
A coach helps people grow and improve
     their competence by providing suggestions
     and encouragement.
96
A mentor focuses on external and internal
     factors that will help people develop into
     healthy, caring, and respon...
Both mentors and coaches often lead
     by example. They help build a person’s
     self-esteem and self-confidence.
98
A mentor is someone _______ who
 gives support to another.

 A. of greater age
 B. of the same rank
 C. with advanced expe...
A mentor is someone _______ who
  gives support to another.

  A. of greater age
  B. of the same rank
  C. with advanced ...
A primary role of a mentor is to be a
      listening ear, a trusted confidant, and an
      adviser. A person who’s lucky...
Protégé


      A less experienced person who
      benefits from a mentor’s guidance
      and advice




102
Mentors realize that it takes time to
      build trust with their protégés, so they
      take great care in being patien...
Understanding the Mentor’s Role




  As a mentor, you try to understand the world
  from your protégé’s perspective. You ...
A mentor might
                          give general
                          information about:
                       ...
The Role of a Mentor
      A mentor should act as a:
      • Trusted adviser
      • Clearinghouse for questions, problems...
The Role of a Mentor

  A mentor should not:

  • ―Police‖ the protégé’s day
  • Criticize or lecture the protégé
  • Make...
What term is used to refer to a person
  who has a mentor?

  A. Peer
  B. Apprentice
  C. Trainee
  D. Protégé




108
What term is used to refer to a person
  who has a mentor?

  A. Peer
  B. Apprentice
  C. Trainee
  D. Protégé




109
Mentors must be objective.
  They do not recommend a specific course of
  action, but encourage protégés to explore
  opti...
Mentors advise their protégés on conflict
      resolution but don’t try to replace a school
      counselor, spiritual le...
If a protégé is having a family conflict, the
      mentor will not advise him or her directly.
      Instead, the mentor ...
A mentor will always keep the protégé
 relationship in the strictest confidence, not
 sharing information like:
 • address...
Mentors and coaches donate their time
      and energy, typically without the need
      for money or gifts.
      Their p...
Which of the following is acceptable behavior
  on the part of the mentor?

  A. Providing information on scholarships and...
Which of the following is acceptable behavior
  on the part of the mentor?

  A. Providing information on scholarships and...
Barriers to Mentor-Protégé Relationships




      Good mentors know that their role is to
      advise, rather than to ch...
A well-meaning mentor
      may push too hard and
      too quickly on a
      protégé’s problems and
      issues. That m...
As a good mentor, you set the agenda for the
 relationship with the protégé, not for the
 protégé. This will keep you from...
What Makes a Mentor-Protégé Relationship
                    Successful?




  The key to an effective mentor-protégé
  re...
An important way to build trust is through
 active listening. You pay full attention and think
 about what people say, ask...
Active listening actually requires active
  seeing too. You must be patient and ―read‖
  people—their motions, their faces...
Active listening skills include:
      • Avoiding distraction
      • Making good eye contact
      • Letting the other pe...
Active listeners listen for both fact and
  feelings.


                          They interpret body
                    ...
Active listening skills include all of the
  following except which one?

  A. Refraining from questions
  B. Observing bo...
Active listening skills include all of the
  following except which one?

  A. Refraining from questions
  B. Observing bo...
How to Practice Leadership


                                 You can practice
                                 leadership...
Besides those found in NJROTC, leadership
      opportunities abound in school clubs, Boy
      Scout and Girl Scout troop...
The following are some ways you can lead in
 any circumstance:
129
Lead by Example
                         The best way to lead is to
                         set a good example for
      ...
The more you lead, the better leader you will
  become, and your abilities will grow.
  Moreover, other people—teachers,
 ...
This effect will
      snowball. People will
      regard you as a leader
      and will seek your
      advice.




132
The best way to lead is to _______.

  A. volunteer
  B. help others
  C. set a good example
  D. serve in a high-ranking ...
The best way to lead is to _______.

  A. volunteer
  B. help others
  C. set a good example
  D. serve in a high-ranking ...
Lead by Imitation




          Admiral                 Admiral      Joe R. Campa
      Michael G. Mullen        Gary Roug...
Admiral            Admiral       Joe R. Campa
  Michael G. Mullen   Gary Roughead       MCPON
   Chairman JCS            C...
Lead by
                               Consensus




  As you gain experience in leadership, you’ll
  become more comforta...
The best leaders:
                              • Establish their
                                authority
              ...
Leading by consensus means sharing the
      leadership load. It gets team members to
      cooperate and pull their weigh...
Leading by _______ means sharing
  the leadership responsibilities with
  your followers.

  A. imitation
  B. example
  C...
Leading by _______ means sharing
  the leadership responsibilities with
  your followers.

  A. imitation
  B. example
  C...
Evaluate Your Leadership Behavior



                            How do you know
                            if you’re an
...
First, seek input and feedback from everyone
  around you. Ask your parents or guardian,
  teachers, coaches, boss, counse...
Second, ask your team members for honest
  and critical information feedback. Use your
  successes as a basis for refining...
Finally, have a conversation with yourself.
      What leadership experiences seem to work,
      and what experiences don...
Evaluate your
                             leadership in light
                             of your team’s
               ...
Always seek
                                opportunities to
                                practice
                    ...
In evaluating their own leadership
  effectiveness, cadets should focus on
  questions about their teams’ _______.

  A. a...
In evaluating their own leadership
  effectiveness, cadets should focus on
  questions about their teams’ _______.

  A. a...
Conclusion




You can motivate individuals to act according
to your insights, plans, and objectives if you
are aware of y...
Knowledge of motivational techniques is a
      key for the successful leader.
151
Good leadership does not rely on a simple
      system of rewards and punishment—it takes
      into careful account how y...
What term is used to refer to the
      inner force that drives people to
      action?

      A. Goals
      B. Desire
  ...
What term is used to refer to the
      inner force that drives people to
      action?

      A. Goals
      B. Desire
  ...
What term is used to refer to an
      ordered ranking, such as
      Abraham Maslow gave to the
      levels of human nee...
What term is used to refer to an
      ordered ranking, such as
      Abraham Maslow gave to the
      levels of human nee...
The purpose or aim to which a
      person directs his/her effort is a
      _______.


      A. goal
      B. need
      ...
The purpose or aim to which a
      person directs his/her effort is a
      _______.


      A. goal
      B. need
      ...
According to Abraham Maslow,
      the highest human need is for
      _______, i.e., to feel that you
      have reached ...
According to Abraham Maslow,
      the highest human need is for
      _______, i.e., to feel that you
      have reached ...
What is an incentive?

      A. Something that makes a
         person feel good inside
      B. Something that drives a
 ...
What is an incentive?

      A. Something that makes a
         person feel good inside
      B. Something that drives a
 ...
What term is used to refer to a
      person who gives support and
      advice to a person of less
      experience and k...
What term is used to refer to a
      person who gives support and
      advice to a person of less
      experience and k...
What term is used to refer to
      someone who is being supported
      and advised by a more
      experienced and knowl...
What term is used to refer to
      someone who is being supported
      and advised by a more
      experienced and knowl...
Observing body language,
      making eye contact, and banning
      distractions are evidence that
      someone is _____...
Observing body language,
      making eye contact, and banning
      distractions are evidence that
      someone is _____...
The best way to lead is by
      _______.

      A. consensus
      B. imitation
      C. example
      D. experience




...
The best way to lead is by
      _______.

      A. consensus
      B. imitation
      C. example
      D. experience




...
Which leadership method
      involves sharing the
      responsibility with team
      members, eliciting their
      coo...
Which leadership method
      involves sharing the
      responsibility with team
      members, eliciting their
      coo...
In Maslow’s hierarchy of human
      needs, what level includes the
      desire for friendship and love?

      A. Belong...
In Maslow’s hierarchy of human
      needs, what level includes the
      desire for friendship and love?

      A. Belong...
What are the most basic needs,
      according to Abraham Maslow’s
      hierarchy of human needs?

      A. Acceptance by...
What are the most basic needs,
      according to Abraham Maslow’s
      hierarchy of human needs?

      A. Acceptance by...
According to Abraham Maslow, why do most
      people fail to reach the point where the need
      for self-actualization ...
According to Abraham Maslow, why do most
      people fail to reach the point where the need
      for self-actualization ...
What term is used to refer to a
      person’s feeling that he/she is
      important and valuable?

      A. Esteem
     ...
What term is used to refer to a
      person’s feeling that he/she is
      important and valuable?

      A. Esteem
     ...
Money, food, fear, and awards
      are common _______
      motivations.

      A. positive
      B. negative
      C. ex...
Money, food, fear, and awards
      are common _______
      motivations.

      A. positive
      B. negative
      C. ex...
Which of the following is NOT
      an intrinsic motivation?

      A. Desiring success
      B. Receiving an award
      ...
Which of the following is NOT
      an intrinsic motivation?

      A. Desiring success
      B. Receiving an award
      ...
Leaders must remember that
      people are usually motivated
      _______ rather than _______.

      A. intrinsically, ...
Leaders must remember that
      people are usually motivated
      _______ rather than _______.

      A. intrinsically, ...
The theory that disciplinary
      action teaches the offender that
      his/her action is unacceptable is
      called t...
The theory that disciplinary
      action teaches the offender that
      his/her action is unacceptable is
      called t...
A leader’s disciplinary response
      to an offender’s unacceptable
      behavior must be consistent,
      fair, and __...
A leader’s disciplinary response
      to an offender’s unacceptable
      behavior must be consistent,
      fair, and __...
Promotions, increased
      responsibilities, and
      achievement awards are
      examples of how NJROTC
      _______ ...
Promotions, increased
      responsibilities, and
      achievement awards are
      examples of how NJROTC
      _______ ...
Which of these actions should
      NOT be undertaken by a
      mentor?

      A. Serving as a sounding board
         fo...
Which of these actions should
      NOT be undertaken by a
      mentor?

      A. Serving as a sounding board
         fo...
What is the key factor in an
      effective mentor-protégé
      relationship?

      A. Reform
      B. Relaxation
     ...
What is the key factor in an
      effective mentor-protégé
      relationship?

      A. Reform
      B. Relaxation
     ...
Cadet leaders can use _______
      for perfecting their leadership
      techniques, and _______ for
      making larger ...
Cadet leaders can use _______
      for perfecting their leadership
      techniques, and _______ for
      making larger ...
Which of these actions befits
      the role of a mentor?

      A. Trying to understand the
         protégé’s world
    ...
Which of these actions befits
      the role of a mentor?

      A. Trying to understand the
         protégé’s world
    ...
Which of these behaviors forms the
      basis of practicing leadership by
      example?

      A. Letting your followers...
Which of these behaviors forms the
      basis of practicing leadership by
      example?

      A. Letting your followers...
In evaluating their own
      leadership effectiveness, cadets
      should focus on questions
      about their teams’ __...
In evaluating their own
      leadership effectiveness, cadets
      should focus on questions
      about their teams’ __...
Human behaviors are the result
      of people’s attempts to satisfy
      their _______.

      A. values
      B. needs
...
Human behaviors are the result
      of people’s attempts to satisfy
      their _______.

      A. values
      B. needs
...
Which of these lists accurately reflects
      the order of Abraham Maslow’s
      hierarchy of human needs, beginning
   ...
Which of these lists accurately reflects
      the order of Abraham Maslow’s
      hierarchy of human needs, beginning
   ...
Which of these statements is NOT
      true regarding extrinsic
      motivations?

      A. They are much more powerful
 ...
Which of these statements is NOT
      true regarding extrinsic
      motivations?

      A. They are much more powerful
 ...
In using the _______ approach
      to motivate a poorly performing
      follower, a leader will try to
      figure out ...
In using the _______ approach
      to motivate a poorly performing
      follower, a leader will try to
      figure out ...
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NS1 2.3 Motivation

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NS1 2.3 Motivation

  1. 1. UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3 Motivation 1
  2. 2. The Hierarchy of Human Needs To be an effective leader, you need a basic understanding of human behavior. 2
  3. 3. Why do people do the things they do? What motivates people to act or to do anything? A simple answer is people trying to satisfy their needs. 3
  4. 4. What's In It For Me? If you can answer that question for them, you have an important key to influencing and leading others. 4
  5. 5. Basic Needs Food 5 Water Safety
  6. 6. More-complex needs, such as a need for respect and acceptance, are sometimes much more difficult to satisfy. 6
  7. 7. Why do people behave the way they do? Two things all theories of human behaviors have in common. First, they all deal with both the inside and the outside of a person. Second, they all describe a series of steps, or levels, of human motivation. 7
  8. 8. Motivation The inner force that drives people to act 8
  9. 9. At this point in your life: • Good grades • Fun with friends These two factors can drive you to: • Work hard • Study for tests • Organize special events • Try out for sports. 9
  10. 10. The inner force that drives people to action is _______. A. desire B. compulsion C. wish-fulfillment D. motivation 10
  11. 11. The inner force that drives people to action is _______. A. desire B. compulsion C. wish-fulfillment D. motivation 11
  12. 12. True or False: To explain human behavior, it is necessary to examine both the inside and the outside of human beings. 12
  13. 13. True or False: To explain human behavior, it is necessary to examine both the inside and the outside of human beings. True 13
  14. 14. Abraham Maslow Developed a ―hierarchy of human needs‖ to describe people’s motivation. His hierarchy of human needs in order of priority: 14
  15. 15. Hierarchy A ranking or series of steps that follows a specific order; for example, largest to smallest, oldest to newest, most important to least important 15
  16. 16. Self-Actualization Esteem Love/Belonging Safety Physiological 16 Priority Of Human Needs
  17. 17. Self-Actualization – attainment of potential Esteem - friendship and love Belonging – family, community, group Safety and Security – personal and community security Physical – food, water, shelter Maslow believed that people must satisfy their needs at each level before moving on to the 17 next.
  18. 18. What psychologist described five different levels of human needs? A. Benjamin Bloom B. Carl Jung C. Abraham Maslow D. Jean Piaget 18
  19. 19. What psychologist described five different levels of human needs? A. Benjamin Bloom B. Carl Jung C. Abraham Maslow D. Jean Piaget 19
  20. 20. Survival needs are the most basic of human needs. They include those things which sustain life, such as food, water, sleep, air, and relief from pain. 20 Priority Of Human Needs
  21. 21. When these needs are met, a person will then turn to security needs. 21
  22. 22. 22 Priority Of Human Needs
  23. 23. These needs include protection from threats, violence, disease, or poverty. 23 Priority Of Human Needs
  24. 24. 24 Priority Of Human Needs
  25. 25. These needs include being liked and accepted by your family, your friends, and the members of your community. People need to feel a part of some group or organization. 25 Priority Of Human Needs
  26. 26. 26 Priority Of Human Needs
  27. 27. These needs are related to a person’s desire to feel important. There are two types of esteem needs: • Self-esteem, the feeling that you are important • The feeling that other people think you are 27 important
  28. 28. 28 Priority Of Human Needs
  29. 29. Self-actualization is the need to feel that you have reached your full potential in life. This need is not very often satisfied because most people spend most of their time trying to satisfy lower-level needs. 29 Priority Of Human Needs
  30. 30. Self-Actualization The process of becoming what you are capable of becoming 30
  31. 31. Abraham Maslow Still, as difficult as self-actualization was to achieve, he still thought the drive to achieve one’s potential was inherent in every human being. 31
  32. 32. As a person meets the needs at each level, he or she becomes more flexible and has more options. People who are starving don’t really care about the opinion of others since they are the ones who need food. 32
  33. 33. In Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, faith, community, and group acceptance are classified as _______ needs. A. belonging B. safety and security C. physical D. esteem 33
  34. 34. In Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, faith, community, and group acceptance are classified as _______ needs. A. belonging B. safety and security C. physical D. esteem 34
  35. 35. In Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, friendship and love are classified as _______ needs. A. physical B. esteem C. safety and security D. belonging 35
  36. 36. In Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, friendship and love are classified as _______ needs. A. physical B. esteem C. safety and security D. belonging 36
  37. 37. In Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, attainment of personal fulfillment is classified as _______ needs. A. safety and security B. esteem C. self-actualization D. belonging 37
  38. 38. In Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, attainment of personal fulfillment is classified as _______ needs. A. safety and security B. esteem C. self-actualization D. belonging 38
  39. 39. Goals and Motivation The things that drive people are their purposes―or goals. 39
  40. 40. Goal An external aim, or end, to which one directs one’s effort 40
  41. 41. The Cycle of Goal-directed Activity How do your goals relate to your motivation and behavior? Your motive helps you form a goal. 41
  42. 42. You then choose a behavior that is directed toward that goal, and if everything works out, you meet your goal. 42
  43. 43. This process works for both tangible and intangible goals, helping you fulfill every goal you set. 43
  44. 44. Tangible Real or actual, rather than imaginary or visionary Intangible Not definite or clear to the mind 44
  45. 45. Suppose you’re hungry – that’s your motive. Your goal is to eat. You adjust your behavior to accomplish the goal by going to the kitchen and making toast. You satisfy your need and accomplish the goal by eating the toast. 45
  46. 46. Goal-directed activities and goals form a cycle, the experience of the first cycle feeding into and contributing to the second. Your experience with the toaster taught you about the toasting process and helped you learn to satisfy your hunger. 46
  47. 47. Now, there are some things that may affect the progression of this cycle, one issue being competence. For example: If you never burn the toast, other family members may start asking you to make toast for them. 47
  48. 48. On the other hand, if you start getting sloppy—leaving butter all over the counter—your family members might ask you to stop. 48
  49. 49. The purpose or aim to which a person directs his/her effort is a _______. A. need B. motive C. goal D. desire 49
  50. 50. The purpose or aim to which a person directs his/her effort is a _______. A. need B. motive C. goal D. desire 50
  51. 51. People’s _______ help form their goals, and then they select _______ directed toward those goals. A. motives, behaviors B. intentions, motives C. needs, motives D. behaviors, needs 51
  52. 52. People’s _______ help form their goals, and then they select _______ directed toward that goal. A. motives, behaviors B. intentions, motives C. needs, motives D. behaviors, needs 52
  53. 53. Two Types of Motivation Motivation is divided into two main types: 53
  54. 54. Intrinsic Motivation Common intrinsic motivations include: • Affiliation – wanting to belong to a group or to have friends • Achievement – wanting to succeed, good grades for example • Power – desiring to have control of your time, other people, situations, or things • Wisdom – desiring to understand • Security – wanting to be safe. 54
  55. 55. Extrinsic Motivation Common extrinsic motivations include: • Money • Food • Threats or fears • Status or promotion • Awards and recognition. 55
  56. 56. The desire to get good grades is an example of intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is a drive people feel that is based on internal factors such as the need for friendship, affiliation, achievement, power, wisdom, and security. 56
  57. 57. Extra-credit for Extrinsic motivation anyone doing is a force that drives a report on the people to act based two types of on factors outside motivation: the individual. Extrinsic motivations are beyond your control, but they still have an influence on you. It’s the teacher’s choice to suggest an extra credit project, but you still get to decide whether or not you want to do it. 57
  58. 58. What other term is used to refer to internal motivation? A. Essential B. Nonessential C. Intrinsic D. Extrinsic 58
  59. 59. What other term is used to refer to internal motivation? A. Essential B. Nonessential C. Intrinsic D. Extrinsic 59
  60. 60. What other term is used to refer to external motivation? A. Intrinsic B. Extrinsic C. Nonessential D. Essential 60
  61. 61. What other term is used to refer to external motivation? A. Intrinsic B. Extrinsic C. Nonessential D. Essential 61
  62. 62. The difference between these types of motivation can get fuzzy. One theory proposes that all motivation is intrinsic. Other theories hold that you can use external factors, or incentives, to motivate by linking them to people’s 62 intrinsic motivations.
  63. 63. Incentives Something that incites or has a tendency to incite to determination or action 63
  64. 64. Let’s say you really want a 10-speed bike but have no money. You get a job to earn the money to buy one. Your intrinsic motivation to get a job is a desire for the independence and mobility that a new bike will provide. 64
  65. 65. Your boss offers you an extrinsic motivation—pay—to keep you showing up for work. Together, the two motivating factors shape your perspective—or work ethic: ―Working is good because it will help me earn the money I need to buy a bike, which will help me get around faster.‖ 65
  66. 66. Which of the following statements about motivations is NOT true? A. One theory about motivation is that all motivation is intrinsic. B. One theory about motivation is that external factors can be used to motivate people by linking them to their intrinsic motivations. C. The differences between internal and external motivations are very clear cut. D. Another way of thinking about external 66 motivations is as incentives.
  67. 67. Which of the following statements about motivations is NOT true? A. One theory about motivation is that all motivation is intrinsic. B. One theory about motivation is that external factors can be used to motivate people by linking them to their intrinsic motivations. C. The differences between internal and external motivations are very clear cut. D. Another way of thinking about external 67 motivations is as incentives.
  68. 68. Positive and Negative Approaches An effective leader will find out what action can be taken to motivate a person to do a better job. 68
  69. 69. The job of every leader is to motivate people to accomplish their • tasks—jobs • details • projects • missions. 69
  70. 70. Motivation Factors: • Good pay is important to some people 70
  71. 71. • Feeling that one’s work is important 71
  72. 72. • Feeling the work is interesting 72
  73. 73. • Opportunity for self-development 73 and improvement
  74. 74. Remember, not everyone is motivated by: • Good pay • Important work • Interesting work • Self-improvement. 74
  75. 75. Most people are motivated individually rather than as a group. 75
  76. 76. When someone is not performing well, the effective leader will try to determine which need is not satisfied and then determine what will motivate that person to do a better job. 76
  77. 77. True or False: A leader must realize that people are motivated more as a group than individually. 77
  78. 78. True or False: A leader must realize that people are motivated more as a group than individually. False 78
  79. 79. This is the positive approach to good leadership. This is the positive approach to good leadership. 79
  80. 80. A negative approach to motivation is 80 punishment or disciplinary action.
  81. 81. Military punishment for misconduct is not: • Personal • Vindictive 81 • Revengeful.
  82. 82. Value of Punishment The lesson it teaches to wrongdoers and others is that offense must not be repeated. This is often called the deterrent theory of discipline. 82
  83. 83. Punishment must be: • Consistent • Just • Recognized by all as just. 83
  84. 84. Most importantly! Disciplinary action is the result of the offender’s behavior and is the responsibility of the offender—not the leader who must take the appropriate action. 84
  85. 85. When using the _______ approach to motivate a poorly performing follower, a leader will try to figure out which of the person’s needs are not being satisfied, then what will motivate the person to do a better job. A. intrinsic B. optimistic C. positive D. assessment 85
  86. 86. When using the _______ approach to motivate a poorly performing follower, a leader will try to figure out which of the person’s needs are not being satisfied, then what will motivate the person to do a better job. A. intrinsic B. optimistic C. positive D. assessment 86
  87. 87. If a leader takes the _______ approach to motivating a person to improve poor performance, he/she uses disciplinary action or punishment. A. negative B. extrinsic C. incentive D. sanctions 87
  88. 88. If a leader takes the _______ approach to motivating a person to improve poor performance, he/she uses disciplinary action or punishment. A. negative B. extrinsic C. incentive D. sanctions 88
  89. 89. The NJROTC Rewards System A positive approach to motivation is a well thought out system of rewards for actions or behaviors that are desirable. 89
  90. 90. NJROTC has a well-designed system of rewards, such as ribbons and medals for individual or group achievement. Criteria for these rewards are prescribed by each unit and the NJROTC field manual. 90
  91. 91. NJROTC system of rewards include: • Promotions • Cadet of the month • Special privileges for service to the unit • Attendance awards • Academic achievement. All of these are designed to motivate you and your NJROTC peers to achieve. 91
  92. 92. Another approach to motivation, such as NJROTC programs use, is based on a system of _______. A. rewards for desirable behaviors B. individual improvement contracts for poor behaviors C. automatic gradual improvements incentives D. social deprivations for unacceptable behavior 92
  93. 93. Another approach to motivation, such as NJROTC programs use, is based on a system of _______. A. rewards for desirable behaviors B. individual improvement contracts for poor behaviors C. automatic gradual improvements incentives D. social deprivations for unacceptable behavior 93
  94. 94. Key Elements of Coaching and Mentoring At some point in NJROTC or later in life, you may find yourself serving as a coach or mentor—helping others develop their individual talents and skills. 94
  95. 95. Mentor An individual with advanced experience and knowledge who is committed to giving support and career advice to a less experienced person 95
  96. 96. A coach helps people grow and improve their competence by providing suggestions and encouragement. 96
  97. 97. A mentor focuses on external and internal factors that will help people develop into healthy, caring, and responsible leaders. 97
  98. 98. Both mentors and coaches often lead by example. They help build a person’s self-esteem and self-confidence. 98
  99. 99. A mentor is someone _______ who gives support to another. A. of greater age B. of the same rank C. with advanced experience D. with counseling training 99
  100. 100. A mentor is someone _______ who gives support to another. A. of greater age B. of the same rank C. with advanced experience D. with counseling training 100
  101. 101. A primary role of a mentor is to be a listening ear, a trusted confidant, and an adviser. A person who’s lucky enough to have a mentor is called a protégé. 101
  102. 102. Protégé A less experienced person who benefits from a mentor’s guidance and advice 102
  103. 103. Mentors realize that it takes time to build trust with their protégés, so they take great care in being patient and developing the relationship. 103
  104. 104. Understanding the Mentor’s Role As a mentor, you try to understand the world from your protégé’s perspective. You never impose your values on a protégé, but encourage them to discover their own values and why they believe in them. 104
  105. 105. A mentor might give general information about: • Grants • Scholarships • Contests • Competitions • Special programs. This would help a protégé further his or her education and career, but the mentor doesn’t tell him or her which to choose. 105
  106. 106. The Role of a Mentor A mentor should act as a: • Trusted adviser • Clearinghouse for questions, problems, and leadership-related issues • Sounding board for decision making and problem solving • Leadership role model • Resource provider 106 • Patient, caring, listening guide.
  107. 107. The Role of a Mentor A mentor should not: • ―Police‖ the protégé’s day • Criticize or lecture the protégé • Make decisions for the protégé • Try to transform the protégé • Be judgmental • Try to ―fix‖ the protégé, the protégé’s problems, or the protégé’s environment. 107
  108. 108. What term is used to refer to a person who has a mentor? A. Peer B. Apprentice C. Trainee D. Protégé 108
  109. 109. What term is used to refer to a person who has a mentor? A. Peer B. Apprentice C. Trainee D. Protégé 109
  110. 110. Mentors must be objective. They do not recommend a specific course of action, but encourage protégés to explore options for themselves. 110
  111. 111. Mentors advise their protégés on conflict resolution but don’t try to replace a school counselor, spiritual leader, social worker, or team leader. 111
  112. 112. If a protégé is having a family conflict, the mentor will not advise him or her directly. Instead, the mentor will suggest that the protégé consult a guidance counselor, leader, or another trustworthy and experienced adult. 112
  113. 113. A mentor will always keep the protégé relationship in the strictest confidence, not sharing information like: • address • phone number • e-mail address • photos • files unless the safety and well-being of either the protégé or others is at risk. 113
  114. 114. Mentors and coaches donate their time and energy, typically without the need for money or gifts. Their protégés’ heartfelt thanks—and successful careers as students and leaders—are their reward. 114
  115. 115. Which of the following is acceptable behavior on the part of the mentor? A. Providing information on scholarships and competitions then helping the protégé choose one to apply for or enter B. Taking sides with the protégé when he/she has a problem with family or co-workers C. Encouraging the protégé to explore options for himself/herself D. Advising the protégé on conflict resolution in place of a counselor, spiritual leader, or team leader 115
  116. 116. Which of the following is acceptable behavior on the part of the mentor? A. Providing information on scholarships and competitions then helping the protégé choose one to apply for or enter B. Taking sides with the protégé when he/she has a problem with family or co-workers C. Encouraging the protégé to explore options for himself/herself D. Advising the protégé on conflict resolution in place of a counselor, spiritual leader, or team leader 116
  117. 117. Barriers to Mentor-Protégé Relationships Good mentors know that their role is to advise, rather than to change or reform; they must keep in mind both the potential and limitations of their role. 117
  118. 118. A well-meaning mentor may push too hard and too quickly on a protégé’s problems and issues. That makes the protégé feel ill at ease. A good mentor will not press the protégé to talk about issues before he or she is ready. 118
  119. 119. As a good mentor, you set the agenda for the relationship with the protégé, not for the protégé. This will keep you from failing. 119
  120. 120. What Makes a Mentor-Protégé Relationship Successful? The key to an effective mentor-protégé relationship is trust. Building trust requires time and is not always easy since ongoing and open communication is a must. 120
  121. 121. An important way to build trust is through active listening. You pay full attention and think about what people say, asking questions if you don’t understand. 121
  122. 122. Active listening actually requires active seeing too. You must be patient and ―read‖ people—their motions, their faces, their eyes, and their body language. 122
  123. 123. Active listening skills include: • Avoiding distraction • Making good eye contact • Letting the other person speak. 123
  124. 124. Active listeners listen for both fact and feelings. They interpret body language effectively and acknowledge what’s said. They ask good questions and smile appropriately. 124
  125. 125. Active listening skills include all of the following except which one? A. Refraining from questions B. Observing body language C. Making eye contact D. Banning distractions 125
  126. 126. Active listening skills include all of the following except which one? A. Refraining from questions B. Observing body language C. Making eye contact D. Banning distractions 126
  127. 127. How to Practice Leadership You can practice leadership every day and in many situations. You can volunteer to serve on a committee at school, in your place of worship, or in a civic organization. 127
  128. 128. Besides those found in NJROTC, leadership opportunities abound in school clubs, Boy Scout and Girl Scout troops, Boys and Girls Clubs—and even at home, where you can take the lead in helping with household chores and responsibilities. 128
  129. 129. The following are some ways you can lead in any circumstance: 129
  130. 130. Lead by Example The best way to lead is to set a good example for others. Live the Navy core values. Always do what is right. Practice the leadership traits and characteristics you have learned by: • Being a good follower and supporting the people who are leading you • Being faithful to your religious values or philosophy of life. 130
  131. 131. The more you lead, the better leader you will become, and your abilities will grow. Moreover, other people—teachers, supervisors, and other adults, as well as your followers—will gain confidence in you. 131
  132. 132. This effect will snowball. People will regard you as a leader and will seek your advice. 132
  133. 133. The best way to lead is to _______. A. volunteer B. help others C. set a good example D. serve in a high-ranking position 133
  134. 134. The best way to lead is to _______. A. volunteer B. help others C. set a good example D. serve in a high-ranking position 134
  135. 135. Lead by Imitation Admiral Admiral Joe R. Campa Michael G. Mullen Gary Roughead MCPON Chairman JCS CNO As an NJROTC leader in training, you wear two hats. You serve as an example for others while you imitate leadership behaviors you admire in others. Watch and study other leaders then put into practice what you learn. 135
  136. 136. Admiral Admiral Joe R. Campa Michael G. Mullen Gary Roughead MCPON Chairman JCS CNO Try to be like successful leaders and to lead as they do, but don’t forget your own leadership style. Although all successful leaders share certain traits, each leader expresses them in a unique way. 136
  137. 137. Lead by Consensus As you gain experience in leadership, you’ll become more comfortable in leading by consensus. You’ll let your followers help you lead. When you ask them for their input , they will be flattered, and their productivity and interest will increase. 137
  138. 138. The best leaders: • Establish their authority • Define the mission • Allow followers to do their assigned jobs. They intervene only when asked or when the project or mission goes off course. 138
  139. 139. Leading by consensus means sharing the leadership load. It gets team members to cooperate and pull their weight. The entire team benefits—including the leader. 139
  140. 140. Leading by _______ means sharing the leadership responsibilities with your followers. A. imitation B. example C. incentive D. consensus 140
  141. 141. Leading by _______ means sharing the leadership responsibilities with your followers. A. imitation B. example C. incentive D. consensus 141
  142. 142. Evaluate Your Leadership Behavior How do you know if you’re an effective leader? You need to evaluate your leadership skills. The following techniques can help evaluate whether you are leading effectively or not. 142
  143. 143. First, seek input and feedback from everyone around you. Ask your parents or guardian, teachers, coaches, boss, counselor, unit leader, and other adults how you can improve your approach to leadership. 143
  144. 144. Second, ask your team members for honest and critical information feedback. Use your successes as a basis for refining your leadership techniques. Use your mistakes and failures as a means for addressing larger areas for improvement. 144
  145. 145. Finally, have a conversation with yourself. What leadership experiences seem to work, and what experiences don’t? 145
  146. 146. Evaluate your leadership in light of your team’s goals: • How far along is the team in achieving its goals? • What obstacles stand in the way? • What can you do to help the team overcome these obstacles? • Is your leadership style one of the obstacles? 146
  147. 147. Always seek opportunities to practice leadership. Look for opportunities to measure yourself—against Navy standards, against other leaders, and against yourself. You will not always succeed, but you can learn to become a better leader by evaluating your failures as well as your successes. 147
  148. 148. In evaluating their own leadership effectiveness, cadets should focus on questions about their teams’ _______. A. achievements and improvement B. cooperation and morale C. goals and obstacles D. readiness and abilities 148
  149. 149. In evaluating their own leadership effectiveness, cadets should focus on questions about their teams’ _______. A. achievements and improvement B. cooperation and morale C. goals and obstacles D. readiness and abilities 149
  150. 150. Conclusion You can motivate individuals to act according to your insights, plans, and objectives if you are aware of your followers’ needs. 150
  151. 151. Knowledge of motivational techniques is a key for the successful leader. 151
  152. 152. Good leadership does not rely on a simple system of rewards and punishment—it takes into careful account how your team members are performing, how their needs are being met, and how you can motivate them to do even better. 152
  153. 153. What term is used to refer to the inner force that drives people to action? A. Goals B. Desire C. Values D. Motivation 153
  154. 154. What term is used to refer to the inner force that drives people to action? A. Goals B. Desire C. Values D. Motivation 154
  155. 155. What term is used to refer to an ordered ranking, such as Abraham Maslow gave to the levels of human needs? A. Grid B. Matrix C. Hierarchy D. Apex 155
  156. 156. What term is used to refer to an ordered ranking, such as Abraham Maslow gave to the levels of human needs? A. Grid B. Matrix C. Hierarchy D. Apex 156
  157. 157. The purpose or aim to which a person directs his/her effort is a _______. A. goal B. need C. motive D. desire 157
  158. 158. The purpose or aim to which a person directs his/her effort is a _______. A. goal B. need C. motive D. desire 158
  159. 159. According to Abraham Maslow, the highest human need is for _______, i.e., to feel that you have reached your full potential. A. esteem B. self-actualization C. security D. belonging 159
  160. 160. According to Abraham Maslow, the highest human need is for _______, i.e., to feel that you have reached your full potential. A. esteem B. self-actualization C. security D. belonging 160
  161. 161. What is an incentive? A. Something that makes a person feel good inside B. Something that drives a person to avoid some action C. Something that stimulates a person to an action or a determination D. Something that causes a person to help others 161
  162. 162. What is an incentive? A. Something that makes a person feel good inside B. Something that drives a person to avoid some action C. Something that stimulates a person to an action or a determination D. Something that causes a person to help others 162
  163. 163. What term is used to refer to a person who gives support and advice to a person of less experience and knowledge? A. Manager B. Protégé C. Peer D. Mentor 163
  164. 164. What term is used to refer to a person who gives support and advice to a person of less experience and knowledge? A. Manager B. Protégé C. Peer D. Mentor 164
  165. 165. What term is used to refer to someone who is being supported and advised by a more experienced and knowledgeable person? A. Mentor B. Protégé C. Peer D. Apprentice 165
  166. 166. What term is used to refer to someone who is being supported and advised by a more experienced and knowledgeable person? A. Mentor B. Protégé C. Peer D. Apprentice 166
  167. 167. Observing body language, making eye contact, and banning distractions are evidence that someone is _______. A. engaged in active listening B. being a mentor C. leading by consensus D. imitating good leadership 167
  168. 168. Observing body language, making eye contact, and banning distractions are evidence that someone is _______. A. engaged in active listening B. being a mentor C. leading by consensus D. imitating good leadership 168
  169. 169. The best way to lead is by _______. A. consensus B. imitation C. example D. experience 169
  170. 170. The best way to lead is by _______. A. consensus B. imitation C. example D. experience 170
  171. 171. Which leadership method involves sharing the responsibility with team members, eliciting their cooperation, and letting them do their jobs? A. Example B. Imitation C. Mentor D. Consensus 171
  172. 172. Which leadership method involves sharing the responsibility with team members, eliciting their cooperation, and letting them do their jobs? A. Example B. Imitation C. Mentor D. Consensus 172
  173. 173. In Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, what level includes the desire for friendship and love? A. Belonging B. Esteem C. Safety D. Physical 173
  174. 174. In Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, what level includes the desire for friendship and love? A. Belonging B. Esteem C. Safety D. Physical 174
  175. 175. What are the most basic needs, according to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs? A. Acceptance by family, friends, and groups B. Friendship and love C. Food, water, shelter D. Safety from poverty, violence, and disease 175
  176. 176. What are the most basic needs, according to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs? A. Acceptance by family, friends, and groups B. Friendship and love C. Food, water, shelter D. Safety from poverty, violence, and disease 176
  177. 177. According to Abraham Maslow, why do most people fail to reach the point where the need for self-actualization is their main motivation? A. Society operates at a natural balance when a small percentage of people are functioning at such a high level. B. They spend most of their time attempting to satisfy their lower level needs. C. Achieving self-actualization is not achievable for all except a small percentage of intelligent, talented people. D. They are satisfied with meeting the lower level needs. 177
  178. 178. According to Abraham Maslow, why do most people fail to reach the point where the need for self-actualization is their main motivation? A. Society operates at a natural balance when a small percentage of people are functioning at such a high level. B. They spend most of their time attempting to satisfy their lower level needs. C. Achieving self-actualization is not achievable for all except a small percentage of intelligent, talented people. D. They are satisfied with meeting the lower level needs. 178
  179. 179. What term is used to refer to a person’s feeling that he/she is important and valuable? A. Esteem B. Self-actualization C. Belonging D. Security 179
  180. 180. What term is used to refer to a person’s feeling that he/she is important and valuable? A. Esteem B. Self-actualization C. Belonging D. Security 180
  181. 181. Money, food, fear, and awards are common _______ motivations. A. positive B. negative C. extrinsic D. intrinsic 181
  182. 182. Money, food, fear, and awards are common _______ motivations. A. positive B. negative C. extrinsic D. intrinsic 182
  183. 183. Which of the following is NOT an intrinsic motivation? A. Desiring success B. Receiving an award C. Wanting power D. Needing safety 183
  184. 184. Which of the following is NOT an intrinsic motivation? A. Desiring success B. Receiving an award C. Wanting power D. Needing safety 184
  185. 185. Leaders must remember that people are usually motivated _______ rather than _______. A. intrinsically, extrinsically B. extrinsically, intrinsically C. as a group, individually D. individually, as a group 185
  186. 186. Leaders must remember that people are usually motivated _______ rather than _______. A. intrinsically, extrinsically B. extrinsically, intrinsically C. as a group, individually D. individually, as a group 186
  187. 187. The theory that disciplinary action teaches the offender that his/her action is unacceptable is called the _______ theory. A. deprivation B. obstacle C. deterrent D. management 187
  188. 188. The theory that disciplinary action teaches the offender that his/her action is unacceptable is called the _______ theory. A. deprivation B. obstacle C. deterrent D. management 188
  189. 189. A leader’s disciplinary response to an offender’s unacceptable behavior must be consistent, fair, and _______ by all parties. A. recognized as just B. developed C. agreed upon D. held in confidence 189
  190. 190. A leader’s disciplinary response to an offender’s unacceptable behavior must be consistent, fair, and _______ by all parties. A. recognized as just B. developed C. agreed upon D. held in confidence 190
  191. 191. Promotions, increased responsibilities, and achievement awards are examples of how NJROTC _______ cadets. A. motivates B. mentors C. provides deterrents for D. supplies security needs for 191
  192. 192. Promotions, increased responsibilities, and achievement awards are examples of how NJROTC _______ cadets. A. motivates B. mentors C. provides deterrents for D. supplies security needs for 192
  193. 193. Which of these actions should NOT be undertaken by a mentor? A. Serving as a sounding board for problem solving B. Providing resources C. Criticizing or lecturing D. Being a leadership role model 193
  194. 194. Which of these actions should NOT be undertaken by a mentor? A. Serving as a sounding board for problem solving B. Providing resources C. Criticizing or lecturing D. Being a leadership role model 194
  195. 195. What is the key factor in an effective mentor-protégé relationship? A. Reform B. Relaxation C. Good advice D. Trust 195
  196. 196. What is the key factor in an effective mentor-protégé relationship? A. Reform B. Relaxation C. Good advice D. Trust 196
  197. 197. Cadet leaders can use _______ for perfecting their leadership techniques, and _______ for making larger improvements. A. failures, successes B. successes, failures C. themselves, team members D. team members, themselves 197
  198. 198. Cadet leaders can use _______ for perfecting their leadership techniques, and _______ for making larger improvements. A. failures, successes B. successes, failures C. themselves, team members D. team members, themselves 198
  199. 199. Which of these actions befits the role of a mentor? A. Trying to understand the protégé’s world B. Pushing the protégé to talk about issues C. Keeping the focus on their own agenda for the protégé D. Taking sides with the protégé against family or friends 199
  200. 200. Which of these actions befits the role of a mentor? A. Trying to understand the protégé’s world B. Pushing the protégé to talk about issues C. Keeping the focus on their own agenda for the protégé D. Taking sides with the protégé against family or friends 200
  201. 201. Which of these behaviors forms the basis of practicing leadership by example? A. Letting your followers help you lead B. Trying to be change your style to imitate other successful leaders C. Living in accordance with Navy Core Values D. Working hard to maintain control over your followers 201
  202. 202. Which of these behaviors forms the basis of practicing leadership by example? A. Letting your followers help you lead B. Trying to be change your style to imitate other successful leaders C. Living in accordance with Navy Core Values D. Working hard to maintain control over your followers 202
  203. 203. In evaluating their own leadership effectiveness, cadets should focus on questions about their teams’ _______. A. cooperation and morale B. achievements and improvement C. readiness and abilities D. goals and obstacles 203
  204. 204. In evaluating their own leadership effectiveness, cadets should focus on questions about their teams’ _______. A. cooperation and morale B. achievements and improvement C. readiness and abilities D. goals and obstacles 204
  205. 205. Human behaviors are the result of people’s attempts to satisfy their _______. A. values B. needs C. desires D. priorities 205
  206. 206. Human behaviors are the result of people’s attempts to satisfy their _______. A. values B. needs C. desires D. priorities 206
  207. 207. Which of these lists accurately reflects the order of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, beginning with the lowest level? A. Safety, belonging, physical, esteem, self-actualization B. Physical, belonging, safety, self- actualization, esteem C. Safety, physical, self-actualization, esteem, belonging D. Physical, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization 207
  208. 208. Which of these lists accurately reflects the order of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, beginning with the lowest level? A. Safety, belonging, physical, esteem, self-actualization B. Physical, belonging, safety, self- actualization, esteem C. Safety, physical, self-actualization, esteem, belonging D. Physical, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization 208
  209. 209. Which of these statements is NOT true regarding extrinsic motivations? A. They are much more powerful than intrinsic motivations. B. They are beyond an individual’s control. C. They are based on factors outside an individual. D. They have an influence on an individual, but the individual has choice over his/her actions. 209
  210. 210. Which of these statements is NOT true regarding extrinsic motivations? A. They are much more powerful than intrinsic motivations. B. They are beyond an individual’s control. C. They are based on factors outside an individual. D. They have an influence on an individual, but the individual has choice over his/her actions. 210
  211. 211. In using the _______ approach to motivate a poorly performing follower, a leader will try to figure out which of the person’s needs are not being satisfied, then ways to motivate the person to do a better job. A. assessment B. deterrent C. positive 211 D. intrinsic
  212. 212. In using the _______ approach to motivate a poorly performing follower, a leader will try to figure out which of the person’s needs are not being satisfied, then ways to motivate the person to do a better job. A. assessment B. deterrent C. positive 212 D. intrinsic

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