CHAPTER 3
LEADERSHIP SKILLS
People behave in ways that will best
satisfy their needs.
                         Air



                               W...
• Food and safety seldom bring
  happiness or sense of
  accomplishment.




 • The satisfaction of higher needs brings
  ...
Survival needs are
similar for all people.
Higher needs vary
greatly mainly because
of the environment in
which the indivi...
This chapter covers those things
that influence the behavior of people.




  Knowledge of human nature, and
  what makes ...
Everyone understands
the basic needs for food,
water, and shelter.
Once basic needs are satisfied,
desire for job approval, recognition,
and achievement will quickly take over.
Higher needs may never be completely
satisfied. That is probably good for it
might stop new ideas and initiatives.
Abraham Maslow
was one of the
foremost writers
on people’s
needs as
motivators.
His theory was that needs are arranged from
lowest (physiological) to highest (self-
fulfillment) in a hierarchy of needs ...
Individuals will try to satisfy all or nearly all
of the lowest level needs before they are
motivated to try those at high...
Motivation

The psychological feature that
arouses an individual to action
toward a desired goal

The reason for the actio...
Two of Napoleon’s
                    many quotes
                    addressed the
                    concept long
     ...
A leader must be sure that the basic
needs of subordinates are satisfied,
then try to satisfy their higher needs.
Leaders can satisfy higher needs by:




• ensuring subordinates’ work gives
  them the rewards of
  ~ belonging ~ status ...
Most people seek growth in their
work. They want:
• job responsibilities that use their
  technical knowledge and ability
...
Mastery of a job adds to a sense of
achievement.
Doing a “good job” in itself must be
personally rewarding.
People also desire proper recognition
for doing a job well.

This increases the drive to succeed.
Calling attention to mistakes is
necessary, but recognition of mistakes
alone will decrease the desire to achieve.
After inspecting a job, give deserved
compliments first, then follow with
constructive criticism, if needed.
Constructive Criticism
The process of offering valid and
well-reasoned opinions about the
work of others, usually involvin...
Most people want to contribute to the success
of the unit and organization, but they generally
need a boost or reward for ...
Sometimes a leader needs to impose
discipline when necessary to improve
attitude or performance:
~ additional physical tra...
However, punishment alone cannot
motivate. Motivation is an inner force.




The motivated person is self-starting
and sel...
What makes people want to do a better job?
In the civilian world, people doing a
better job directly affect production,
relationships with unions, and profits.
In the Navy, these things directly affect
morale, readiness, and reenlistments.
Surveys indicate there are nine main factors
motivating people to do a better job. In order
of importance:

1. Feeling tha...
Motivating People To Do A Better Job




 1. Feeling that one’s work is important
Motivating People To Do A Better Job




  2. Opportunity to do interesting work
Motivating People To Do A Better Job




  3. Opportunity for self-development
     and improvement
Motivating People To Do A Better Job




            4. Good pay
Motivating People To Do A Better Job




      5. Chance for advancement
Motivating People To Do A Better Job




      6. Respect as an individual
Motivating People To Do A Better Job




   7. Chance to produce work of high
      quality
Motivating People To Do A Better Job




             8. Knowing what is going
                on in the organization
Motivating People To Do A Better Job




  9. High degree of freedom on the job
Motivating People To Do A Better Job
  Items most often put at the bottom of
  any such “motivations” listing are:
  • the...
Supervision

Management by overseeing the
performance or operation of a
person or group
To help motivate,
a leader must:

• give each the
  chance to develop
  abilities and talents

• allow initiative
  and ju...
Talent

A marked innate ability, as
for artistic accomplishment

Natural endowment or ability
of a superior quality
High morale is the result of effective
leadership.
High Morale




No direction of human activity is
possible without it.

No failure is final until morale is
destroyed.
Morale is based on the belief of the
leader in the follower.
Morale is based on the belief of the
leader in the follower, of the follower
in the leader.
Morale is based on the belief of the
leader in the follower, of the follower
in the leader, of each in themselves.
Morale is based on the belief of the
leader in the follower, of the follower
in the leader, of each in themselves,
and bot...
Morale
The state of mind of an individual
affected by:
~ living conditions
~ food
~ quarters
~ pay
~ duties
~ how importan...
Everything that makes a person feel
well and satisfied builds up morale.
Everything that bothers a
person lowers morale.
To have high morale, an individual
must first have standards and goals
that make daily life meaningful.
Second, they need to know what must
be completed or solved in order to
reach those goals.
Third, a person’s basic goals must be
in line with other members of the group
who provide support in times of stress.
The leader must realize that high
morale is present only in groups
that are disciplined and efficient.
Morale can be measured by inspections
of personnel and their equipment.
Interviews can help determine if unit
morale is high or low.
Remember, nothing will destroy morale
so surely as inactivity and boredom.

A leader must plan a mix of work and
play to b...
Following are some general rules for
building high morale in a unit. The
leader should:
1. Make people confident in his or...
Following are some general rules for
building high morale in a unit. The
leader should:
5. Keep well informed of attitudes...
Following are some general rules for
building high morale in a unit. The
leader should:
10. Always be friendly, courteous ...
It is “good business” for leaders to stay
in touch with each of their subordinates.
It is one of the most effective ways o...
A leader must believe that each person
has something of value to say and may
know something the leader does not.
Starting a Conversation

A leader should begin a conversation
with a subject of interest to the
subordinate.




“Break th...
Starting a Conversation
A leader should remember three things
when starting a conversation:
• No one wants their private a...
Starting a Conversation
A leader should remember three things
when starting a conversation:
• No one wants their private a...
Starting a Conversation
A leader should remember three things
when starting a conversation:
• No one wants their private a...
Starting a
Conversation
 Probably the
 best opening
 subject is
 something
 about their
 work, which
 will be of
 interest...
Starting a Conversation
The following are some conversation
starters that may be helpful:
• A question about what they are...
Starting a Conversation
The following are some conversation
starters that may be helpful:
• A question about what they are...
Starting a Conversation
The following are some conversation
starters that may be helpful:
• A question about what they are...
Starting a Conversation
The following are some conversation
starters that may be helpful:
• An explanation of the importan...
Starting a Conversation
The following are some conversation
starters that may be helpful:
• An explanation of the importan...
Starting a Conversation
The following are some conversation
starters that may be helpful:
• An explanation of the importan...
Starting a Conversation
The following are some conversation
starters that may be helpful:
• An explanation of the importan...
Starting a Conversation




Any of these conversation starters can
lead into other topics, if the leader is
sincerely inte...
Listening




Listening is a skill the effective leader
must have.
Listening




Few things make a person feel so
important or so good about themselves
as really being listened to by
someon...
Listening




It simply is not possible to listen to a person
while thinking about something else and
fool the speaker.

D...
Listening




To become a good listener:
• Stop working when someone is talking
  to you.
Listening




To become a good listener:
• Accept the speaker as a fellow human
  being with an interesting personality.
Listening




To become a good listener:
• Do not interrupt continually with
  insignificant corrections or arguments.
Listening




To become a good listener:
• Do not belittle the speaker’s
  experiences, plans, accomplishments,
  or posse...
Listening




To become a good listener:
• Probably the worst thing a listener can
  do is to tell the other people what t...
Ending a Conversation




Thoughtfully ending a conversation
is almost as important as starting or
keeping one going.
Ending a Conversation




The leader should not abruptly end a
conversation he or she started.
Ending a conversation witho...
Ending a Conversation




Consideration and good listening
are the keys to this art.
Ending a Conversation




Once a leader becomes known for
being willing to listen:
• the person who may be inclined to
  t...
Ending a Conversation




Attentive, patient, open-minded listening
is one of the biggest skills in leadership.
A Leader Must Be And Do Many Things.


              Understand-Guide-Teach

            Manage-Administer-Supervise

  De...
Summary




To be a leader, one must:
• understand, guide, and teach
Summary




To be a leader, one must:
• manage, administer, and supervise
Summary




To be a leader, one must:
• have a dedication and sense of
  responsibility that inspires others
Summary




To be a leader, one must:
• set a good example at all times
Summary




To be a leader, one must:
• know people’s needs and understand
  how these needs affect human behavior
Summary




To be a leader, one must:
• know how to deal with people and how
  best to use resources
Summary




To be a leader, one must:
• listen effectively and give counsel
  wisely
Summary




To be a leader, one must:
• plan ahead
Summary

This sounds like a monumental task
for anyone, but leadership (like any
other skill) is learned with patient
stud...
Summary




The NJROTC cadet leader must keep
in mind that promotion depends a lot
upon the effort and preparation put
int...
After the basic human needs
are satisfied, what higher needs
will influence human behavior?
After the basic human needs
are satisfied, what higher needs
will influence human behavior?


The person’s job and desire ...
What are the basic needs of
man?
What are the basic needs of
man?


a. Food
b. Water
c. Air
Name three higher needs of
man.
Name three higher needs of
man.


a. Approval
b. Recognition
c. Achievement
What is a good "rule of thumb"
when making an inspection of a
job?
What is a good "rule of thumb"
when making an inspection of a
job?


To give the deserved
 compliments then follow with
 c...
Who was Dr. Abraham Maslow?
Who was Dr. Abraham Maslow?


He was one of the foremost
writers on the topic of people’s
needs as motivators.
What elements make up
Maslow's hierarchy, starting
with the basic needs?
What elements make up
Maslow's hierarchy, starting
with the basic needs?


a.   Physiological needs
b.   Safety needs
c.  ...
What must the leader do to
motivate followers?
What must the leader do to
motivate followers?


Give each one the chance to
develop his or her abilities and
talents.
What things are sure to destroy
good morale?
What things are sure to destroy
good morale?


Inactivity and boredom
What are three helpful rules to
consider when starting a
conversation?
What are three helpful rules to
consider when starting a
conversation?


1. No one wants their private
    affairs pried i...
What are three helpful rules to
consider when starting a
conversation?


3. The key to getting acquainted
   is a sincere ...
Why is listening an essential
skill for an effective leader?
Why is listening an essential
skill for an effective leader?


Few things make a person feel
so important or so good about...
What is morale?
What is morale?



It refers to the state of mind of
 an individual or group
TRUE or FALSE. Leaders show
their subordinates that they are
important to the total
organization through
work-related conv...
TRUE or FALSE. Leaders show
their subordinates that they are
important to the total
organization through
work-related conv...
What are some negative
factors that can affect morale?
What are some negative
factors that can affect morale?


a. Threats of disciplinary action
b. Not having to work too hard
...
TRUE or FALSE. Leadership
can affect morale.
TRUE or FALSE. Leadership
can affect morale.


TRUE.
To have high morale, an
 individual must first have
 what?
To have high morale, an
 individual must first have
 what?


a. Positive standards and goals
b. A sense of what goals need...
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2 3 Leadership Skills

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 LEADERSHIP SKILLS
  2. 2. People behave in ways that will best satisfy their needs. Air Water • Survival is the most basic human need. Food • Higher needs are felt only after basic needs are satisfied.
  3. 3. • Food and safety seldom bring happiness or sense of accomplishment. • The satisfaction of higher needs brings a sense of well-being and pride.
  4. 4. Survival needs are similar for all people. Higher needs vary greatly mainly because of the environment in which the individual has grown up.
  5. 5. This chapter covers those things that influence the behavior of people. Knowledge of human nature, and what makes people behave as they do, is important for a leader.
  6. 6. Everyone understands the basic needs for food, water, and shelter.
  7. 7. Once basic needs are satisfied, desire for job approval, recognition, and achievement will quickly take over.
  8. 8. Higher needs may never be completely satisfied. That is probably good for it might stop new ideas and initiatives.
  9. 9. Abraham Maslow was one of the foremost writers on people’s needs as motivators.
  10. 10. His theory was that needs are arranged from lowest (physiological) to highest (self- fulfillment) in a hierarchy of needs order.
  11. 11. Individuals will try to satisfy all or nearly all of the lowest level needs before they are motivated to try those at higher levels.
  12. 12. Motivation The psychological feature that arouses an individual to action toward a desired goal The reason for the action That which gives purpose and direction to behavior
  13. 13. Two of Napoleon’s many quotes addressed the concept long before Maslow’s theory. “An army marches on its stomach.” “A soldier will fight long and hard for a bit of colored ribbon.”
  14. 14. A leader must be sure that the basic needs of subordinates are satisfied, then try to satisfy their higher needs.
  15. 15. Leaders can satisfy higher needs by: • ensuring subordinates’ work gives them the rewards of ~ belonging ~ status ~ advancement • assigning jobs in a way that each person does their part well and all work toward the unit’s goal
  16. 16. Most people seek growth in their work. They want: • job responsibilities that use their technical knowledge and ability • to become skilled in their trade
  17. 17. Mastery of a job adds to a sense of achievement. Doing a “good job” in itself must be personally rewarding.
  18. 18. People also desire proper recognition for doing a job well. This increases the drive to succeed.
  19. 19. Calling attention to mistakes is necessary, but recognition of mistakes alone will decrease the desire to achieve.
  20. 20. After inspecting a job, give deserved compliments first, then follow with constructive criticism, if needed.
  21. 21. Constructive Criticism The process of offering valid and well-reasoned opinions about the work of others, usually involving both positive and negative comments, in a friendly manner rather than an oppositional one Criticism or advice that is useful and intended to help or improve something, often with an offer of possible solutions
  22. 22. Most people want to contribute to the success of the unit and organization, but they generally need a boost or reward for doing a good job. Leaders must remember this human nature factor.
  23. 23. Sometimes a leader needs to impose discipline when necessary to improve attitude or performance: ~ additional physical training ~ verbal reprimand ~ written report ~ withhold advancement recommendation
  24. 24. However, punishment alone cannot motivate. Motivation is an inner force. The motivated person is self-starting and self-controlled.
  25. 25. What makes people want to do a better job?
  26. 26. In the civilian world, people doing a better job directly affect production, relationships with unions, and profits.
  27. 27. In the Navy, these things directly affect morale, readiness, and reenlistments.
  28. 28. Surveys indicate there are nine main factors motivating people to do a better job. In order of importance: 1. Feeling that one’s work is important 2. Opportunity to do interesting work 3. Opportunity for self-development and improvement 4. Good pay 5. Chance for advancement 6. Respect as an individual 7. Chance to produce work of high quality 8. Knowing what is going on in the organization 9. High degree of freedom on the job
  29. 29. Motivating People To Do A Better Job 1. Feeling that one’s work is important
  30. 30. Motivating People To Do A Better Job 2. Opportunity to do interesting work
  31. 31. Motivating People To Do A Better Job 3. Opportunity for self-development and improvement
  32. 32. Motivating People To Do A Better Job 4. Good pay
  33. 33. Motivating People To Do A Better Job 5. Chance for advancement
  34. 34. Motivating People To Do A Better Job 6. Respect as an individual
  35. 35. Motivating People To Do A Better Job 7. Chance to produce work of high quality
  36. 36. Motivating People To Do A Better Job 8. Knowing what is going on in the organization
  37. 37. Motivating People To Do A Better Job 9. High degree of freedom on the job
  38. 38. Motivating People To Do A Better Job Items most often put at the bottom of any such “motivations” listing are: • the threat of disciplinary action • not having to work too hard • working under close supervision Note that these three factors are negative, whereas the previous nine factors were all positive.
  39. 39. Supervision Management by overseeing the performance or operation of a person or group
  40. 40. To help motivate, a leader must: • give each the chance to develop abilities and talents • allow initiative and judgment within constraints
  41. 41. Talent A marked innate ability, as for artistic accomplishment Natural endowment or ability of a superior quality
  42. 42. High morale is the result of effective leadership.
  43. 43. High Morale No direction of human activity is possible without it. No failure is final until morale is destroyed.
  44. 44. Morale is based on the belief of the leader in the follower.
  45. 45. Morale is based on the belief of the leader in the follower, of the follower in the leader.
  46. 46. Morale is based on the belief of the leader in the follower, of the follower in the leader, of each in themselves.
  47. 47. Morale is based on the belief of the leader in the follower, of the follower in the leader, of each in themselves, and both in the cause.
  48. 48. Morale The state of mind of an individual affected by: ~ living conditions ~ food ~ quarters ~ pay ~ duties ~ how important a person feels within the group
  49. 49. Everything that makes a person feel well and satisfied builds up morale.
  50. 50. Everything that bothers a person lowers morale.
  51. 51. To have high morale, an individual must first have standards and goals that make daily life meaningful.
  52. 52. Second, they need to know what must be completed or solved in order to reach those goals.
  53. 53. Third, a person’s basic goals must be in line with other members of the group who provide support in times of stress.
  54. 54. The leader must realize that high morale is present only in groups that are disciplined and efficient.
  55. 55. Morale can be measured by inspections of personnel and their equipment.
  56. 56. Interviews can help determine if unit morale is high or low.
  57. 57. Remember, nothing will destroy morale so surely as inactivity and boredom. A leader must plan a mix of work and play to build and maintain high morale.
  58. 58. Following are some general rules for building high morale in a unit. The leader should: 1. Make people confident in his or her ability. 2. Stay in touch with individuals’ problems and wishes. 3. Be consistent and fair in assigning duties and in giving rewards and punishments. 4. Show people that he or she respects them and is proud to be with them.
  59. 59. Following are some general rules for building high morale in a unit. The leader should: 5. Keep well informed of attitudes. 6. Be accessible. 7. Participate in planning and carrying out unit activities. 8. Actively supervise lower-ranking leaders to be sure that they do their jobs with the unit’s welfare in mind. 9. See that people have plenty of opportunity for further education.
  60. 60. Following are some general rules for building high morale in a unit. The leader should: 10. Always be friendly, courteous and tactful. 11. Know each individual by name.
  61. 61. It is “good business” for leaders to stay in touch with each of their subordinates. It is one of the most effective ways of letting people know they are important.
  62. 62. A leader must believe that each person has something of value to say and may know something the leader does not.
  63. 63. Starting a Conversation A leader should begin a conversation with a subject of interest to the subordinate. “Break the ice” about unit activity, school athletics, clubs, etc., not about health, finances, family, or hobbies.
  64. 64. Starting a Conversation A leader should remember three things when starting a conversation: • No one wants their private affairs pried into.
  65. 65. Starting a Conversation A leader should remember three things when starting a conversation: • No one wants their private affairs pried into. • Many people like to talk about themselves to someone they can trust.
  66. 66. Starting a Conversation A leader should remember three things when starting a conversation: • No one wants their private affairs pried into. • Many people like to talk about themselves to someone they can trust. • The key to getting acquainted is a sincere and unselfish interest in the people being approached.
  67. 67. Starting a Conversation Probably the best opening subject is something about their work, which will be of interest to both.
  68. 68. Starting a Conversation The following are some conversation starters that may be helpful: • A question about what they are doing or planning to do
  69. 69. Starting a Conversation The following are some conversation starters that may be helpful: • A question about what they are doing or planning to do • A comment on their skill or speed in doing the work
  70. 70. Starting a Conversation The following are some conversation starters that may be helpful: • A question about what they are doing or planning to do • A comment on their skill or speed in doing the work • A suggestion for improvement, if this seems needed
  71. 71. Starting a Conversation The following are some conversation starters that may be helpful: • An explanation of the importance of the work
  72. 72. Starting a Conversation The following are some conversation starters that may be helpful: • An explanation of the importance of the work • A question about how the activity can be improved
  73. 73. Starting a Conversation The following are some conversation starters that may be helpful: • An explanation of the importance of the work • A question about how the activity can be improved • A remark regarding similar activities
  74. 74. Starting a Conversation The following are some conversation starters that may be helpful: • An explanation of the importance of the work • A question about how the activity can be improved • A remark regarding similar activities • A question about their earlier experience with similar work
  75. 75. Starting a Conversation Any of these conversation starters can lead into other topics, if the leader is sincerely interested and will listen well.
  76. 76. Listening Listening is a skill the effective leader must have.
  77. 77. Listening Few things make a person feel so important or so good about themselves as really being listened to by someone they admire or respect.
  78. 78. Listening It simply is not possible to listen to a person while thinking about something else and fool the speaker. Despite trying to follow with smiles, frowns or other signs, thinking about other things is bound to show through.
  79. 79. Listening To become a good listener: • Stop working when someone is talking to you.
  80. 80. Listening To become a good listener: • Accept the speaker as a fellow human being with an interesting personality.
  81. 81. Listening To become a good listener: • Do not interrupt continually with insignificant corrections or arguments.
  82. 82. Listening To become a good listener: • Do not belittle the speaker’s experiences, plans, accomplishments, or possessions with greater ones of your own.
  83. 83. Listening To become a good listener: • Probably the worst thing a listener can do is to tell the other people what they mean, or to anticipate the point of their story when they have scarcely begun. It is discourteous and may interrupt vital facts. Give the speaker a chance.
  84. 84. Ending a Conversation Thoughtfully ending a conversation is almost as important as starting or keeping one going.
  85. 85. Ending a Conversation The leader should not abruptly end a conversation he or she started. Ending a conversation without damaging the pride or feelings of others is an art every leader should develop.
  86. 86. Ending a Conversation Consideration and good listening are the keys to this art.
  87. 87. Ending a Conversation Once a leader becomes known for being willing to listen: • the person who may be inclined to talk too much will shorten his or her chatter • others will respect the leader’s time, make their pitch, and depart
  88. 88. Ending a Conversation Attentive, patient, open-minded listening is one of the biggest skills in leadership.
  89. 89. A Leader Must Be And Do Many Things. Understand-Guide-Teach Manage-Administer-Supervise Dedicated and Responsible Set Example Know Needs Know Human Behavior Know Resources Listen Counsel Plan
  90. 90. Summary To be a leader, one must: • understand, guide, and teach
  91. 91. Summary To be a leader, one must: • manage, administer, and supervise
  92. 92. Summary To be a leader, one must: • have a dedication and sense of responsibility that inspires others
  93. 93. Summary To be a leader, one must: • set a good example at all times
  94. 94. Summary To be a leader, one must: • know people’s needs and understand how these needs affect human behavior
  95. 95. Summary To be a leader, one must: • know how to deal with people and how best to use resources
  96. 96. Summary To be a leader, one must: • listen effectively and give counsel wisely
  97. 97. Summary To be a leader, one must: • plan ahead
  98. 98. Summary This sounds like a monumental task for anyone, but leadership (like any other skill) is learned with patient study and practice.
  99. 99. Summary The NJROTC cadet leader must keep in mind that promotion depends a lot upon the effort and preparation put into each task assigned.
  100. 100. After the basic human needs are satisfied, what higher needs will influence human behavior?
  101. 101. After the basic human needs are satisfied, what higher needs will influence human behavior? The person’s job and desire for approval, recognition, and achievement will take over quickly.
  102. 102. What are the basic needs of man?
  103. 103. What are the basic needs of man? a. Food b. Water c. Air
  104. 104. Name three higher needs of man.
  105. 105. Name three higher needs of man. a. Approval b. Recognition c. Achievement
  106. 106. What is a good "rule of thumb" when making an inspection of a job?
  107. 107. What is a good "rule of thumb" when making an inspection of a job? To give the deserved compliments then follow with constructive criticism, if needed.
  108. 108. Who was Dr. Abraham Maslow?
  109. 109. Who was Dr. Abraham Maslow? He was one of the foremost writers on the topic of people’s needs as motivators.
  110. 110. What elements make up Maslow's hierarchy, starting with the basic needs?
  111. 111. What elements make up Maslow's hierarchy, starting with the basic needs? a. Physiological needs b. Safety needs c. Belonging and love needs d. Esteem needs e. Cognitive needs f. Aesthetic needs g. Self-actualization
  112. 112. What must the leader do to motivate followers?
  113. 113. What must the leader do to motivate followers? Give each one the chance to develop his or her abilities and talents.
  114. 114. What things are sure to destroy good morale?
  115. 115. What things are sure to destroy good morale? Inactivity and boredom
  116. 116. What are three helpful rules to consider when starting a conversation?
  117. 117. What are three helpful rules to consider when starting a conversation? 1. No one wants their private affairs pried into. 2. Many people like to talk about themselves to someone they can trust, who will listen and understand.
  118. 118. What are three helpful rules to consider when starting a conversation? 3. The key to getting acquainted is a sincere and unselfish interest in the people being approached.
  119. 119. Why is listening an essential skill for an effective leader?
  120. 120. Why is listening an essential skill for an effective leader? Few things make a person feel so important or so good about themselves as really being listened to by someone they admire or respect.
  121. 121. What is morale?
  122. 122. What is morale? It refers to the state of mind of an individual or group
  123. 123. TRUE or FALSE. Leaders show their subordinates that they are important to the total organization through work-related conversations.
  124. 124. TRUE or FALSE. Leaders show their subordinates that they are important to the total organization through work-related conversations. TRUE.
  125. 125. What are some negative factors that can affect morale?
  126. 126. What are some negative factors that can affect morale? a. Threats of disciplinary action b. Not having to work too hard c. Working under close supervision
  127. 127. TRUE or FALSE. Leadership can affect morale.
  128. 128. TRUE or FALSE. Leadership can affect morale. TRUE.
  129. 129. To have high morale, an individual must first have what?
  130. 130. To have high morale, an individual must first have what? a. Positive standards and goals b. A sense of what goals need to be accomplished c. Convictions and aims that are in agreement with those of other members of the group

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