2 2 Approaches To Leadership

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Bishop Kenny NJROTC Naval Science Two

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2 2 Approaches To Leadership

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
  2. 2. Leadership Traits Approaches to Leadership How to apply one’s abilities Ways to achieve best results
  3. 3. Webster’s dictionary: Authority is ~ “The power or right to give commands, enforce obedience, take action, or make final decisions.”
  4. 4. U.S. Navy: The person in authority is the person in charge.
  5. 5. Burdens on a Leader To be in charge is an exciting thought. However, with authority goes responsibility, and accountability.
  6. 6. Responsibility The social force that binds you to your obligations and the courses of action demanded by that force
  7. 7. Accountability Responsibility to someone or for some activity
  8. 8. Commanding Officer Authority in charge. Totally responsible and accountable for all things within his or her command. Cannot delegate this responsibility.
  9. 9. Officer in Charge (OIC) Squad Leader (SL) Commanding Officer (CO) Platoon Leader (PL) Division Officer (DIVO) Petty Officer in Charge (POIC) Whoever has authority of a unit is also accountable for what occurs in the unit, both the good and the bad. A naval leader is accountable for deeds and results—not good intentions. It must be this way for confidence and trust.
  10. 10. AUTHORITY IN CIVILIAN LIFE Authority in civilian life does not carry the same amount of accountability. In many cases, civilian leaders may be held accountable only if they break the law.
  11. 11. AUTHORITY IN CIVILIAN LIFE Nevertheless, they should accept the responsibility of carrying out their acts in a highly professional manner. Parents have authority because they have responsibility until you are of legal age.
  12. 12. AUTHORITY IN CIVILIAN LIFE Teachers are responsible for teaching you, and are accountable to the principal and superintendent.
  13. 13. AUTHORITY IN CIVILIAN LIFE Police, civil, and school authorities are responsible to maintain law and order. They get their authority from the people through the laws people enact.
  14. 14. AUTHORITY IN CIVILIAN LIFE From the school district and the Navy, naval science instructors have authority over you and your fellow cadets from the agreement each makes when becoming a member of the cadet corps.
  15. 15. These authorities require your instructors to present the NJROTC course in the best way possible.
  16. 16. Discipline is not something to fear. It is an orderly way of doing things. In both military and civilian life, discipline is a way of guiding people toward the right actions.
  17. 17. Discipline Training to act in accordance with rules; drill To bring to a state of order and obedience by training and control
  18. 18. Self-Discipline is control of yourself. It is an inner strength coming from your experiences and training. Go to class Clean up room Get home on time Homework Wear uniform It’s what makes you do what you know needs to be done instead of only doing what you would rather do.
  19. 19. Self-Discipline Training and control of oneself and one's conduct, usually for personal improvement
  20. 20. The NJROTC program is designed to teach self-discipline. Self-discipline helps cadets learn how to manage their time, take and follow directions, and make decisions. Leaders need these skills whether they are in the military or civilian worlds.
  21. 21. Manage To direct or control the use of To make submissive to one’s authority, discipline, or persuasion
  22. 22. SELF-DISCIPLINED PEOPLE • Make the military, and all society, work, • Are dependable, • Take care of their responsibilities on their own.
  23. 23. Dependable Worthy of reliance or trust Consistent in performance or behavior
  24. 24. Self-discipline begins with self-control. Practicing self-control builds better habits. A self-controlled person can stand up to hardships and danger.
  25. 25. United States Navy UNIFORM REGULATIONS NAVPERS 15665I With high morale, self-disciplined people follow regulations cheerfully and well.
  26. 26. Regulations A principle, rule, or law designed to control or govern conduct
  27. 27. DRILL AND DISCIPLINE Drill teaches self-discipline, because it requires the unit to act as one person. Good drill units must practice regularly until each individual knows the routine perfectly and can move in unison.
  28. 28. DRILL AND DISCIPLINE Drilling is not punishment, or endless routine. It is a leadership tool to build a sense of belonging and pride in each member of a unit. Wearing uniforms correctly and moving in unison looks good and feels good.
  29. 29. LEADERSHIP STYLES Most leaders’ styles fall somewhere in between the two extremes.
  30. 30. AUTOCRATIC STYLE The autocratic or authoritarian style of leadership is centered on the leader. It is direct, often impersonal, and demanding as quick response is in drill.
  31. 31. Autocratic Characteristic of an absolute ruler or absolute rule; having absolute sovereignty
  32. 32. Authoritarian Characterized by or favoring absolute obedience to authority, as against individual freedom Of, relating to, or expecting unquestioning obedience
  33. 33. AUTOCRATIC STYLE The autocratic leader is responsible to direct a group effort. Subordinates do not question this leader’s commands. The emphasis is on carrying out orders.
  34. 34. AUTOCRATIC STYLE Unconcerned about relationships with subordinates, the autocratic leader uses position as the leadership basis. This won’t build a close-knit group.
  35. 35. AUTOCRATIC STYLE • Gets the job done quickly • Produces well for short periods only • Followers can’t act independently without leader
  36. 36. AUTOCRATIC STYLE Autocratic approach has its place. Under normal conditions though, leaders should refrain from overuse in order to get better results when actually needed.
  37. 37. DEMOCRATIC STYLE • Includes participation of followers, as well as leader • Requires democratic skills with people • Time consuming but better long term
  38. 38. Democratic Characterized by or advocating or based upon the principles of social equality Representing or appealing to or adapted for the benefit of the people at large
  39. 39. DEMOCRATIC STYLE Encourages group members to help set procedures, make decisions, and discuss problems. Group is more willing to work together to get the job done.
  40. 40. DEMOCRATIC STYLE Allows people some leeway to carry out tasks, as long as the job gets done. Group takes responsibility and pride. Leader trains group in decision-making.
  41. 41. DEMOCRATIC STYLE • Produce better over longer periods • Keep producing when the leader is not present • Members can exercise initiative/pride
  42. 42. RANGE OF LEADERSHIP STYLES Effective leadership is based on results , not effort. Authority alone may not produce the best results. Democratic style alone may not be the best either. With each new opportunity, a successful leader will find the most effective blend to achieve the best results.
  43. 43. RANGE OF LEADERSHIP STYLES
  44. 44. The leader keeps all authority and gives the group little freedom. The leader decides, and the group follows.
  45. 45. The leader makes the decision, then persuades the group that this decision is the “best” for the group.
  46. 46. The leader states the problem, picks a possible solution, and lets the group react to this solution. Possibly accepting suggestions, the leader makes a final decision and informs the group.
  47. 47. The leader presents the problem and asks for ideas from the group members. The group recommends solutions; the leader selects one, and informs the group.
  48. 48. The group decides and the leader follows. Here the leader is just another member of the group and agrees to carry out the group’s decision.
  49. 49. RANGE OF LEADERSHIP STYLES No matter what leadership style they use, leaders cannot be everywhere all the time, nor can they—or should they—try to do everything themselves. Frequently it is necessary for leaders to delegate (give) authority to individuals and groups in order to get the job done. Remember though, that delegating authority does not relieve a leader of responsibility or accountability.
  50. 50. Delegate To commit or entrust to another To authorize and send (another person) as one's representative
  51. 51. When delegating authority, it is important to set: ~ clear and concise limits to operate ~ specific goals ~ time constraints If the individual or group finds it necessary to exceed the limits set, the leader must be advised in all but emergency cases. Alternatives and requests for further directions are appropriate.
  52. 52. Goal The purpose toward which an endeavor is directed; an objective
  53. 53. LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNICATION To become a good leader, one has to be able to communicate.
  54. 54. COMMUNICATION The four skills necessary for communication are: • Reading • Writing • Listening • Speaking
  55. 55. READING In order to “pass the word” to followers and carry out instructions, a good leader must be able to read directives and understand them.
  56. 56. READING When reading longer articles, books, or instructions, save time, effort, and get a better understanding by: ~ scanning the material first to pick out the main ideas ~ then reread for details
  57. 57. WRITING Often, leaders must give written orders and instructions. The second skill is to be able to write in a way others can clearly understand.
  58. 58. WRITING There are four important steps to follow for effective writing: 1. Clarify your purpose. 2. Limit the subject. 3. List your ideas. 4. Organize your ideas into groups.
  59. 59. WRITING There are four important steps to follow for effective writing: 1. Clarify your purpose. Be able to say why you are writing, who will read it, and what you expect the reader to do after reading it.
  60. 60. WRITING There are four important steps to follow for effective writing: 1. Clarify your purpose. 2. Limit the subject. Material should be limited to what suits your purpose as stated in Step 1. Do not waste the readers’ time with extra material.
  61. 61. WRITING There are four important steps to follow for effective writing: 1. Clarify your purpose. 2. Limit the subject. 3. List your ideas. You want to list ideas that will get across to your reader. As you read and research, write down ideas and change them later if necessary.
  62. 62. WRITING There are four important steps to follow for effective writing: 1. Clarify your purpose. 2. Limit the subject. 3. List your ideas. 4. Organize your ideas into groups. Main ideas are followed by important subheadings, then supporting information. An outline will help keep you on course and save time when you actually start writing.
  63. 63. WRITING There are four important steps to follow for effective writing: 1. Clarify your purpose. 2. Limit the subject. 3. List your ideas. 4. Organize your ideas into groups. your leadership and organizational skills will be evident in the text.
  64. 64. LISTENING The art of listening effectively is picked up through practice and hard work. Poor listeners often try to place the entire burden on the speaker. There are some people who only want to hear themselves speak, but that is not the way to effectively manage people or build respect.
  65. 65. LISTENING Practicing the following rules, anyone can become a better listener. A good listener will be a better leader.
  66. 66. LISTENING Four rules to becoming a better listener: 1. Get ready to listen. 2. Take responsibility for understanding. 3. Listen to understand rather than to disagree. 4. Listen for the main ideas.
  67. 67. LISTENING Four rules to becoming a better listener: 1. Get ready to listen. Do not place all the responsibility on the speaker. You must be alert!
  68. 68. LISTENING Four rules to becoming a better listener: 1. Get ready to listen. 2. Take responsibility for understanding. Do some thinking as you listen. If you just listen to words, you will miss the purpose of the speech. In your mind put the speaker’s ideas in your own words. Repeat what you thought you heard to be sure. Do not go away in doubt.
  69. 69. LISTENING Four rules to becoming a better listener: 1. Get ready to listen. 2. Take responsibility for understanding. 3. Listen to understand rather than to disagree. Listen and wait; try to understand first and evaluate second. Emotions should not cloud the matter. Question only after a speech or lesson is finished.
  70. 70. LISTENING Four rules to becoming a better listener: 1. Get ready to listen. 2. Take responsibility for understanding. 3. Listen to understand rather than to disagree. 4. Listen for the main ideas. If you are listening to a teacher or other speaker, take notes. Come to classes and lectures prepared to do so. Taking notes will make you more alert for the main ideas.
  71. 71. LISTENING If you use these four rules, 1. Get ready to listen. 2. Take responsibility for understanding. 3. Listen to understand rather than to disagree. 4. Listen for the main ideas. you will gain more knowledge and understanding. It is still the best way.
  72. 72. SPEAKING Everyone speaks, but not everyone effectively communicates. A speaker must be able to speak on a level that the audience will understand.
  73. 73. SPEAKING You have probably listened to someone give directions, and been even more confused by what they said. That person did not communicate effectively.
  74. 74. SPEAKING A speaker needs to know the audience and should use words the listeners will understand. Otherwise, listeners will “turn off” and “tune out” the speaker’s voice.
  75. 75. SPEAKING Since leadership means getting things done through other people, a leader must be able to speak well. Although giving orders and instructions...
  76. 76. SPEAKING ...is not the same as giving a speech, the same rules apply in either case.
  77. 77. SPEAKING To speak well, you must organize your materials.
  78. 78. SPEAKING Five basic steps for an effective speech: 1. Determine the purpose of the speech. 2. Narrow the scope of your topic. 3. Choose a subject of interest to you and your audience. 4. Make an outline to organize your speech. 5. Practice your speech.
  79. 79. SPEAKING Five basic steps for an effective speech: 1. Determine the purpose of the speech. Having “zeroed in” on your purpose, stick to it. Do not wander in your research or your writing.
  80. 80. SPEAKING Five basic steps for an effective speech: 1. Determine the purpose of the speech. 2. Narrow the scope of your topic. Do not try to cover too much in one speech. You will bore your listeners if you do. Most good speeches can be given in 15 minutes or less.
  81. 81. SPEAKING Five basic steps for an effective speech: 1. Determine the purpose of the speech. 2. Narrow the scope of your topic. 3. Choose a subject of interest to you and your audience. Keep in mind the maturity of your audience. Do not rely just on what you know about the subject. Do some research. Be sure your information is correct.
  82. 82. SPEAKING Five basic steps for an effective speech: 1. Determine the purpose of the speech. 2. Narrow the scope of your topic. 3. Choose a subject of interest to you and your audience. 4. Make an outline to organize your speech. Note facts and figures so you don’t make mistakes.
  83. 83. SPEAKING Five basic steps for an effective speech: 1. Determine the purpose of the speech. 2. Narrow the scope of your topic. 3. Choose a subject of interest to you and your audience. 4. Make an outline to organize your speech. 5. Practice your speech. Say it in front of a mirror or use a tape recorder. Time it. Listen to yourself. Plan to use gestures. “Running through” your speech will give you confidence.
  84. 84. SPEAKING Preparing with these five basic steps, 1. Determine the purpose of the speech. 2. Narrow the scope of your topic. 3. Choose a subject of interest to you and your audience. 4. Make an outline to organize your speech. 5. Practice your speech. will give you additional confidence to deliver an effective speech as a leader.
  85. 85. SPEAKING The best speeches use what is called three part communication or: 3 Part Comm. As the name implies, there are three separate parts to guide your audience’s attention during your presentation. Introduction Body Close
  86. 86. SPEAKING 3 Part Comm. Introduction Tell your audience what you are going to tell them. This prepares them to listen for key points or Body phrases and helps keep their attention in anticipation. It is easily prepared from Close your outline.
  87. 87. SPEAKING 3 Part Comm. Introduction Tell them. In other words, present your speech. Hit the key points or phrases Body in the same order you offered in the introduction. This is a “road map” they can follow. Close
  88. 88. SPEAKING 3 Part Comm. Introduction Tell your audience what you told them. This reinforces the key points you were making in the body of your speech and Body refreshes their memory. It also offers an excellent method of wrapping up and ending a speech with Close a “Thank You!”
  89. 89. SPEAKING Using these proven methods, 3 Part Comm. Introduction Tell your audience what you are going to tell them. Body Tell them. Tell them what you told Close Them. you will find speeches easier to prepare, deliver, and close, with your leadership persona enhanced.
  90. 90. What does authority mean in the Navy?
  91. 91. What does authority mean in the Navy? The person in charge
  92. 92. What is the definition of "authority?"
  93. 93. What is the definition of "authority?" The power or right to give commands, enforce obedience, take action, or make final decisions
  94. 94. In the Navy, authority comes with what?
  95. 95. In the Navy, authority comes with what? Responsibility and accountability
  96. 96. What is the difference between civilian authority and naval authority?
  97. 97. What is the difference between civilian authority and naval authority? Civilian leaders may be held accountable in many cases only if they break the law. Naval authority is held accountable for all that occurs in that command.
  98. 98. Who has authority over all the cadets in this program?
  99. 99. Who has authority over all the cadets in this program? Naval Science Instructor(s)
  100. 100. What is discipline?
  101. 101. What is discipline? Doing things in an orderly way
  102. 102. Why do parents have authority over their children?
  103. 103. Why do parents have authority over their children? They are responsible for your actions.
  104. 104. Where does self-discipline begin?
  105. 105. Where does self-discipline begin? Self-control
  106. 106. Who gives authority to law-enforcement and school officials to carry out their responsibilities?
  107. 107. Who gives authority to law-enforcement and school officials to carry out their responsibilities? They get their authority from the people, through laws.
  108. 108. What is one way to learn self-discipline?
  109. 109. What is one way to learn self-discipline? Through drill
  110. 110. Where do the NSIs get authority to teach and manage the NJROTC unit?
  111. 111. Where do the NSIs get authority to teach and manage the NJROTC unit? That authority rises from the agreement each cadet makes when he or she becomes a member of the cadet corps.
  112. 112. What is the first step toward developing self-discipline?
  113. 113. What is the first step toward developing self-discipline? Control of yourself
  114. 114. Describe an autocratic leader.
  115. 115. Describe an autocratic leader. The autocratic leader does not allow input or discussion.
  116. 116. Why does military drill help in learning self-discipline?
  117. 117. Why does military drill help in learning self-discipline? It requires the unit to act as one person.
  118. 118. Describe a democratic leader.
  119. 119. Describe a democratic leader. The democratic leader allows the unit to have input.
  120. 120. What are the two extreme styles of leadership, and what are the features of each?
  121. 121. What are the two extreme styles of leadership, and what are the features of each? Autocratic is centered on the leader and Democratic means participation of followers, as well as the leader, in the leadership process.
  122. 122. Upon what is effective leadership based?
  123. 123. Upon what is effective leadership based? Results
  124. 124. What are the five approaches to leadership?
  125. 125. What are the five approaches to leadership? a. Telling b. Selling c. Testing d. Consulting e. Joining
  126. 126. Which style of leadership is better, autocratic or democratic?
  127. 127. Which style of leadership is better, autocratic or democratic? Each one has a purpose, and it is necessary to use the one that will suit the situation.
  128. 128. TRUE or FALSE. A good leader must be able to effectively communicate.
  129. 129. TRUE or FALSE. A good leader must be able to effectively communicate. TRUE.
  130. 130. What are the four skills necessary for effective communication?
  131. 131. What are the four skills necessary for effective communication? 1. Reading 2. Writing 3. Listening 4. Speaking
  132. 132. What are the four important steps for effective writing?
  133. 133. What are the four important steps for effective writing? 1. Clarify your purpose 2. Limit the subject 3. List ideas 4. Organize ideas
  134. 134. What are the four rules for being a good listener?
  135. 135. What are the four rules for being a good listener? 1. Get ready to listen 2. Take the responsibility for understanding 3. Listen to understand 4. Listen for the main ideas
  136. 136. What are the five basic steps to follow in preparing a speech?
  137. 137. What are the five basic steps to follow in preparing a speech? 1. Determine the purpose 2. Narrow the scope of your topic 3. Choose a subject of interest 4. Make an outline 5. Practice your speech
  138. 138. Why is it important to know the audience that you are addressing?
  139. 139. Why is it important to know the audience that you are addressing? So that you can speak on their level

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