1.1 Sea Power And Early Western Civilization

6,720 views

Published on

Bishop Kenny NJROTC Naval Science 2

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
6,720
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
170
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

1.1 Sea Power And Early Western Civilization

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 SEA POWER AND EARLY WESTERN CIVILIZATION
  2. 2. Early Western Civilization
  3. 3. Sea Power The ability to use the sea to meet a nation’s needs
  4. 4. Sea Power • Being able to defend a nation’s own sea-lanes • The ability to deny an enemy the use of the sea in time of war
  5. 5. Early Fear of the Sea
  6. 6. Early people learned to use the sea for: • Fishing • Traveling • Trading
  7. 7. Travel by sea was: • Fast • Cheap • Safe
  8. 8. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea became the richest and most powerful.
  9. 9. CRETE (2500-1200 B.C.) • First to use sea power • Dominated its neighbors • Controlled major sea routes
  10. 10. Phoenicians (2000-300 B.C.)
  11. 11. • Tin from Britain
  12. 12. • Amber from the Baltic Sea
  13. 13. Italy Atlantic Ocean Spain West Africa • Slaves and ivory from western Africa
  14. 14. Mediterranean Sea • Established ports in Tyre and Sidon (modern Lebanon) Sidon Tyre
  15. 15. Phoenician ships carried the wealth of the Orient to coastal trading cities around the Mediterranean and to northern Europe.
  16. 16. Phoenician’s Alphabet • Written language of traders • Basis for our alphabet
  17. 17. Carthage • Greatest Phoenician colony • Main opponent of Rome Rome Carthage
  18. 18. Q. Which of the following countries was the first to use sea power to dominate its neighbors and control major sea routes? a. Greece b. Italy c. Crete d. Phoenicia
  19. 19. Q. Which of the following countries was the first to use sea power to dominate its neighbors and control major sea routes? a. Greece b. Italy c. Crete d. Phoenicia
  20. 20. Greeks Wrote semi-fictional accounts of early sea power
  21. 21. Greece
  22. 22. Greeks • Trojan War • TROY
  23. 23. Hellespont (1200-1190 B.C.)
  24. 24. Prosperous Greek colonies in Asia Minor, Sicily, Italy, France, and Spain
  25. 25. Early Trading Vessels Clumsy and easy prey for swifter craft
  26. 26. Merchants began crewing their galleys with trained fighting men.
  27. 27. Galley A seagoing vessel propelled mainly by oars, used in ancient and medieval times, sometimes with the aid of sails
  28. 28. Greeks vs. Persians (492 B.C.)
  29. 29. The Greeks were able to hold off two Persian invasions in the next 12 years.
  30. 30. Invasion Entering another country by force
  31. 31. The Greeks withdrew from Thrace and Macedonia. Macedonia Thrace
  32. 32. King Xerxes Invades Greece (480 B.C.) • 1,300 galley navy • 180,000 man army • Fleet guards army's flank
  33. 33. Flank Extreme right or left side of the fleet or army
  34. 34. Greek Commander Themistocles: • Breaks Persian sea line of communications • Builds naval force of 380 triremes
  35. 35. Trireme A galley, used chiefly as a warship, with three rows or tiers of oars on each side, one above another
  36. 36. Sea Line of Communications Control of the highways of the sea
  37. 37. Greek strategy was to hold the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae.
  38. 38. Persians destroyed Greek defenders at Thermopylae.
  39. 39. Xerxes’ army moved south to plunder Athens.
  40. 40. Plunder To rob goods or valuables by open force
  41. 41. Gulf of Attica Corinth Megaris Athens Corinth Isthmus of Corinth Argolis Aegina Mycenae Argos Saronic Gulf The Greeks took up a new position at the Isthmus of Corinth.
  42. 42. The Greek fleet sailed to waters around the island of Salamis.
  43. 43. The Greek fleet used hit-and-run attacks.
  44. 44. • In the narrow straits, the Persians lost the advantage of numbers. • The Greeks prevailed with half the Persian fleet sunk.
  45. 45. Battle of Salamis • Persian fleet reduced to 800 vessels • Only 300 Greek triremes left
  46. 46. With his fleet destroyed, Xerxes ordered his army to retreat.
  47. 47. Golden Age of Athens
  48. 48. Sculpture Theater Philosophy (Aristotle) Writing (Sophocles)
  49. 49. Democracy was born, and the foundations of Western civilization were laid in Athens.
  50. 50. The Battle of Salamis was the turning point.
  51. 51. Greek Conquests Macedonia Thrace Greece Asia Minor Armenia Babylon Egypt India
  52. 52. • Greek civilization moved eastward • Conquered most of Persian Empire
  53. 53. Greek culture spread throughout the entire eastern Mediterranean by Alexander the Great of Macedonia.
  54. 54. He established the great port of Alexandria. MACEDONIA Alexandria
  55. 55. Persia was driven from the seas, and the Phoenician reign ended. MACEDONIA Alexandria
  56. 56. Q. In which of the following battles did the Greeks destroy the Persian fleet? a. Corinth b. Salamis c. Thermopylae d. Actium
  57. 57. Q. In which of the following battles did the Greeks destroy the Persian fleet? a. Corinth b. Salamis c. Thermopylae d. Actium
  58. 58. Macedonia • Became the world’s greatest sea power • Conquered most of the Western and Middle Eastern world
  59. 59. The Greeks controlled the eastern Mediterranean for the next two centuries.
  60. 60. Carthage • Rising sea power in Western Mediterranean • Kept the Greeks in check CARTHAGE
  61. 61. Carthage (265 B.C.) CORSICA • ROME MACEDONIA SARDINIA NEW CARTHAGE CARTHAGE SICILY CRETE NUMIDIA LIBYA
  62. 62. Rome (275 B.C.) • ROME • Conquered Italy and southern Greek colonies • Absorbed Greek culture • Advanced Western civilization
  63. 63. First Punic War (265 B.C.) Carthage vs. Rome • ROME CARTHAGE
  64. 64. Carthaginian Navy • Protected Carthage from attack • Harassed Roman sea lines of communications • Plundered Roman coast
  65. 65. First Punic War (265 - 241 B.C.) • Rome acquired Sicily. SICILY
  66. 66. Second Punic War (218 - 201 B.C.) • Rome acquired Spain. SPAIN
  67. 67. Third Punic War (149 - 146 B.C.) • Rome invaded North Africa. • Carthage was burned and destroyed.
  68. 68. Q. In which Punic War was Carthage finally burned and destroyed? a. First b. Second c. Third d. Fourth
  69. 69. Q. In which Punic War was Carthage finally burned and destroyed? a. First b. Second c. Third d. Fourth
  70. 70. The Roman Empire spread throughout the Mediterranean. Spain • Rome Italy Greece Africa Libya
  71. 71. Roman Navy • Cleared Mediterranean of pirates Spain • Rome Italy Greece Africa Libya
  72. 72. Roman Navy • Supported Roman armies Spain • Rome Greece Libya
  73. 73. Roman Navy • Defeated hostile fleets Spain • Rome Italy Africa Libya
  74. 74. Rebellion of Romans and Egyptian Allies Mark Antony Cleopatra
  75. 75. Rebellion Open, organized, and armed resistance to one’s government or ruler
  76. 76. Death of Julius Caesar (44 B.C.)
  77. 77. Tried to Overthrow the Roman Empire Mark Antony Cleopatra
  78. 78. Battle of Actium (31 B.C.) • Roman Admiral Agrippa destroyed the Egyptian fleet.
  79. 79. Agrippa defeated Pompey earlier at the Battle of Naulochus. Agrippa Pompey
  80. 80. Actium
  81. 81. The Battle of Actium put the whole eastern Mediterranean in the Roman empire.
  82. 82. Roman Empire (117 A.D.) • Rome
  83. 83. Mare Nostrum Latin for “Our Sea” - all Mediterranean coasts, ports, and naval bases controlled by Rome
  84. 84. On land and sea the PAX ROMANA (Roman Peace) prevailed for over five centuries, the longest period of peace in world history. • Rome
  85. 85. Roman Legacy • Law • Government • Art • Language • Religion
  86. 86. Roman Empire • Rome • Constantinople Eventually, Rome’s greatness began to decline due to social, political, and economic breakdowns.
  87. 87. Roman Empire (about 395 A.D.) • Rome • Constantinople Western Empire Eastern Empire (Byzantine)
  88. 88. Barbarians from northern and central Europe conquered Rome and deposed the last emperor in 476 A.D. Romulus Augustulus (last Emperor)
  89. 89. Dark Ages (476 - 1050 A.D.) The period of Western European history from the fall of Rome until about the eleventh century. Reasons for the Dark Ages include: • Numerous invasions by barbaric tribes • Incursions by North African Moors • Religious bigotry • General lack of education among the masses of people
  90. 90. Only the region around Constantinople preserved much of the Roman tradition. There was a general advance of culture. The Crusades began to hasten a reawakening of culture and education. This movement flourished in the 13th through the 16th centuries.
  91. 91. The Renaissance (the rebirth) movement flourished in the thirteenth through sixteenth centuries.
  92. 92. Byzantine Empire Constantinople
  93. 93. The Byzantine Empire, centered in Turkey, defeated the Muslims at Constantinople in 717 A.D.
  94. 94. The Muslims became largely content with: • Piracy on the Mediterranean • Controlling and strengthening their huge North African and Middle Eastern territories
  95. 95. Piracy Robbery or illegal violence at sea
  96. 96. By the eleventh century, Christendom was ready to contest Muslim control.
  97. 97. Crusades King Richard I (The Lion Heart)
  98. 98. Crusades - Religious-military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims
  99. 99. First Crusades • Initiated by Pope Urban II in 1095 A.D. • Recaptured Jerusalem • Nearly swept the Arabs from the Mediterranean
  100. 100. The Italian states turned to commercial expansion.
  101. 101. • Venice Biggest center of commerce between the Orient and Europe
  102. 102. Venice Venice • Profited from the Crusades Rome • Acquired Crete and Cyprus during the Crusades • Reached the height of its power by 1400 A.D. Crete Cyprus
  103. 103. The Hanseatic League • Formed by north German port cities on the far end of the Venitian trade route Riga Bruges Lubeck Rostock Danzig Hamburg
  104. 104. The Hanseatic League • Dominated the north and west European economy Riga Bruges Lubeck Rostock Danzig Hamburg
  105. 105. The Hanseatic League • Turned the Baltic and North seas into the Mediterranean of the north Riga Bruges Lubeck Rostock Danzig Hamburg
  106. 106. Mediterranean Sea Ottoman Turks
  107. 107. Ottoman Turks • Captured Constantinople in 1453 A.D. • Swept to the gates of Vienna, Austria • Sought domination of the Mediterranean and east-west trade
  108. 108. Lepanto Battle of Lepanto (1571 A.D.)
  109. 109. GREECE Lepanto Turkish Christian Fleet Fleet Battle of Lepanto (1571 A.D.) Ionian Sea
  110. 110. Spain and the Italian states agreed to combine their fleets for a conclusive battle with the Turks.
  111. 111. The winner of this battle would determine the course of Western civilization.
  112. 112. Don John of Ali Austria Pasha Christian Fleet Ottoman Fleet Commander Commander
  113. 113. Comparison of Forces CHRISTIANS TURKS Navy Navy 200 galleys 250 galleys Army Army Armed with Armed with bows arquebus and arrows
  114. 114. Christian soldier armed with early musket called the arquebus
  115. 115. Outcome of Battle of Lepanto The Christians defeated the Turks. • 30,000 Turks killed • 192 of the Turkish ships destroyed or captured • 15,000 Christians used as slaves freed
  116. 116. The Turks never again seriously challenged control of the Mediterranean, but Muslim pirates continued to harass merchant shipping for the next 250 years.
  117. 117. The Battle of Lepanto ended: • Muslim attempts to move further into Europe • Muslim control of the Mediterranean • The age of the galley
  118. 118. Age of Discovery The age of discovery was an age of sea power.
  119. 119. Early Explorers • Portuguese • Spanish • English • French • Dutch
  120. 120. Brave men in wooden ships explored the world and founded colonies while seeking fortunes for king and country. Jacques Cartier (French explorer)
  121. 121. Prince Henry the Navigator hired explorers to try and find a new sea route to the Indies and Orient. PORTUGAL Prince Henry
  122. 122. Bartholomeu Dias travels to Cape of Good Hope in 1487.
  123. 123. Europe Asia Africa Vasco da Gama travels to India in 1498.
  124. 124. Portugal’s leadership was short-lived because neighboring Spain soon overwhelmed it.
  125. 125. Q. Which country led the way to the Age of Discovery with early explorations around Africa? a. England b. Spain c. Italy d. Portugal
  126. 126. Q. Which country led the way to the Age of Discovery with early explorations around Africa? a. England b. Spain c. Italy d. Portugal
  127. 127. Queen Isabella of Spain contributes $5,000 in royal jewels and finances Columbus’ first voyage of discovery.
  128. 128. Discovery of America Santa Nina Maria Pinta Christopher Columbus
  129. 129. First Voyage of Columbus (1492)
  130. 130. Second Voyage of Columbus (1493)
  131. 131. Third Voyage of Columbus (1498)
  132. 132. Fourth Voyage of Columbus (1502)
  133. 133. Through sea power, Spain established a huge empire.
  134. 134. Convoy Warships protecting merchant shipping from hostile action
  135. 135. Convoy Examples • Spain used warships to protect treasure-laden ships from the new world. • During World War II, Allied warships protected Allied merchant shipping from submarines.
  136. 136. Mercantilism A system of economic organization based on the theory that total wealth is a fixed quantity. To become richer and more powerful, a nation had to make some other nation poorer through capture of its trade and colonies.
  137. 137. Mercantile Theory Kept the world in almost continuous conflict well into the 1800s
  138. 138. Pope Pius V In 1570, Pope Pius V called upon King Philip II of Spain to drive the Muslims from Europe and the Mediterranean. King Philip II
  139. 139. Pope Pius V also wanted King Philip II to crusade against the “heretic and usurper,” Queen Elizabeth I in Protestant England.
  140. 140. Queen Elizabeth I wanted to protect her throne against the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots. Queen Elizabeth I Catholic Mary Queen of Scots
  141. 141. Elizabeth knew that an attack would soon come from Spain, so she: • secured England’s flank with an alliance with France. • secretly released her fortune-seeking seamen to raid the treasure ships of Spain. • began rebuilding her navy with the money Queen from the treasure ships. Elizabeth I
  142. 142. Privateering English ships raiding Spanish treasure ships
  143. 143. Privateers Privately owned ships commissioned by a government to fight or harass enemy ships
  144. 144. English Privateering Seadogs Sir Martin Frobisher Sir Francis Sir John Drake Hawkins
  145. 145. Sir Francis Drake was the most famous of the English raiders.
  146. 146. Uruguay Argentina Drake sailed his ship, the Golden Strait of Hind, into the Magellan Pacific through the Strait of Cape Horn Magellan.
  147. 147. Drake raided Spanish cities and shipping along the west coast of South America.
  148. 148. Drake returned to England with gold, silver, and jewels worth half a million pounds sterling (many millions in today’s dollars).
  149. 149. Drake was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I on the quarterdeck of the Golden Hind. Queen Elizabeth I Sir Francis Drake
  150. 150. England had a big advantage over Spain in her superb seamen.
  151. 151. With the seadogs in command of the world’s best sailors, England prepared to meet Spain in a great contest for supremacy on the seas.
  152. 152. In 1588, King Philip II of Spain believed he had an unbeatable naval armada. King Philip II Spanish Armada
  153. 153. Armada A large fleet of warships
  154. 154. The Men in Command Charles Howard, Duke of Lord Admiral of England Medina Sidonia
  155. 155. The Forces Spain 124 galleons 1,100 guns 8,000 sailors 19,000 soldiers England 34 men-of-war 163 armed merchantmen 2,000 guns 16,000 men
  156. 156. The Spanish Armada had fewer guns but superior total firepower. The English had maneuverable smaller ships and long-range culverins.
  157. 157. The Culverin A light cannon that could fire a 17-pound cannonball 1¼ miles - more than a ¼-mile farther than heavier cannons
  158. 158. Maneuver Planned and regulated movement of troops or warships
  159. 159. The Strategies • King Philip's orders were to “grapple and board and engage hand-to-hand.” • The English intended to fight with guns alone because they had fewer soldiers.
  160. 160. Grapple A hook by which one ship fastens onto another for boarding and combat
  161. 161. First Encounters • Each side used 100,000 rounds of shot. • Spanish fire had little effect on English ships. • English ships pounded Spanish ships.
  162. 162. English Fireships • Medina Sidonia enters French port of Calais to rest and resupply. • Howard forces Spanish out of port with eight fireships. • English and Dutch allies attack Spanish without fear.
  163. 163. English Supply System • It proved to be inadequate like the Spanish system. • Howard ran out of ammunition. • The defeated Spanish sailed to the North Sea.
  164. 164. Route of Spanish Scotland Armada • 35-40 ships Ireland (Fleet Rest and Resupply) sank at sea England Calais • 20 ships were wrecked off France Scotland and Ireland • Only half the Armada returned Spain to Spain • Cadiz
  165. 165. Results of Spanish Armada Defeat • The decline of Spain as a world power began. • Other seafaring nations (England, France, Holland) began expanding their overseas colonies and trade routes (sea lines of communications). • Pirates and privateers plundered the Spanish Main.
  166. 166. Q. What city was used by the Spanish Armada to rest and resupply during the battle? a. Lisbon b. Cadiz c. Dublin d. Calais
  167. 167. Q. What city was used by the Spanish Armada to rest and resupply during the battle? a. Lisbon b. Cadiz c. Dublin d. Calais
  168. 168. Colonization Funding Queen Elizabeth I John Smith Private groups and individuals who received charters (licenses) paid for England’s efforts at colonization.
  169. 169. Jamestown, Virginia The first successful British colony in North America, 1607 John Smith
  170. 170. Jamestown nearly failed because most of the settlers were “gentlemen” who thought they were too good to work.
  171. 171. Later American Colonies These colonies included Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Maryland started by groups seeking freedom to practice their own religion. The last colony on the East Coast was Georgia started by volunteers in 1732, trying to stay out of debtors’ prison.
  172. 172. Massachusetts, Maryland, John Winthrop George Calvert (1630) (1632)
  173. 173. Pennsylvania, Georgia, William Penn James Oglethorpe (1682) (1733)
  174. 174. English and Dutch Wars (1652-1674) First Dutch and English Naval War Battle of Livorno (1653)
  175. 175. English and Dutch Wars (1652-1674) Second Dutch and English Naval War Battle of Lowestoft (1665)
  176. 176. English and Dutch Wars (1652-1674) Third Dutch and English Naval War Battle of Kijkdium (1673)
  177. 177. English and Dutch Wars (1652-1674) England was the winner and gained the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam which the English renamed New York. Dutch English
  178. 178. Q. The ______ were the first to challenge England after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. a. French b. Dutch c. Italians d. Germans
  179. 179. Q. The ______ were the first to challenge England after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. a. French b. Dutch c. Italians d. Germans
  180. 180. French and English Wars The English fought a series of wars with France between 1689 and 1763. French English
  181. 181. The French were England’s only serious rival at sea.
  182. 182. Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) Known in America as the French and Indian War. • England fought land and sea battles all over the world. • England gained many new possessions including Canada.
  183. 183. The colonies existed on the East Coast of North America because of the sea.
  184. 184. Sea’s Influence The sea provided New England with some of the world's richest fishing.
  185. 185. Sea’s Influence Virginians used the sea to send large quantities of tobacco to the Old World.
  186. 186. The inland rivers and coastal waters became highways for products to be moved to larger coastal communities and then overseas to England.
  187. 187. England’s American colonies were: • Born of the sea • Maintained by the sea • Enriched by the sea
  188. 188. Colony Enrichment American seamen and American-built ships made up about one-third of the English merchant marine.
  189. 189. With the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, England was supreme. Its navy and merchant fleets controlled the world’s seas.
  190. 190. Q. What was the result of the French and Indian War in America?
  191. 191. Q. What was the result of the French and Indian War in America? A. England acquired many new possessions, mainly Canada, and its navy and merchant fleets now controlled the world's seas.
  192. 192. Sea Power and Early Western Civilization 2500 - 1200 B.C. ~ Crete dominated Mediterranean 1200 B.C. ~ Trojan War 480 B.C. ~ Battle of Salamis 275 B.C. ~ Rome conquered Italy 31 B.C. ~ Battle of Actium 476 ~ Last Roman emperor deposed 1095 ~ First Crusade
  193. 193. Sea Power and Early Western Civilization 1492 ~ Columbus discovered America 1571 ~ Battle of Lepanto 1588 ~ Spanish Armada defeated 1607 ~ Jamestown colony established 1756-63 ~ French and Indian War
  194. 194. What is sea power?
  195. 195. What is sea power? A nation's ability to use the sea to meet a nation’s needs
  196. 196. Sea control means two things. What are they?
  197. 197. Sea control means two things. What are they? a. The ability to defend one's own sea lanes b. The ability to deny an enemy the use of the sea in time of war
  198. 198. Who were the first people known to use sea power?
  199. 199. Who were the first people known to use sea power? The Cretans
  200. 200. Who defeated the Phoenicians to take control of the sea trade?
  201. 201. Who defeated the Phoenicians to take control of the sea trade? The Greeks
  202. 202. What are galleys?
  203. 203. What are galleys? Small fast fighting ships
  204. 204. What war began at Thermoplye Pass and ended with the defeat of the Persians at Salamis?
  205. 205. What war began at Thermoplye Pass and ended with the defeat of the Persians at Salamis? Greek-Persian conflict
  206. 206. What city is considered the birthplace of democracy?
  207. 207. What city is considered the birthplace of democracy? Athens
  208. 208. Whom did Rome fight in the Punic Wars?
  209. 209. Whom did Rome fight in the Punic Wars? Carthage
  210. 210. What was the longest period of peace in world history called?
  211. 211. What was the longest period of peace in world history called? Pax Romana
  212. 212. What was the name of the Eastern Roman Empire, and where was its capital?
  213. 213. What was the name of the Eastern Roman Empire, and where was its capital? a. Byzantine Empire b. Constantinople
  214. 214. What effect did Turkish control of the Middle East have on trade?
  215. 215. What effect did Turkish control of the Middle East have on trade? It caused seafaring nations to look for sea routes to the Orient.
  216. 216. Whom did the Christian forces defeat at the Battle of Lepanto?
  217. 217. Whom did the Christian forces defeat at the Battle of Lepanto? The Ottoman Turks
  218. 218. Who were the first to discover new trade routes to the Indies and the Orient?
  219. 219. Who were the first to discover new trade routes to the Indies and the Orient? The Portuguese
  220. 220. How did trade influence the spread of civilization?
  221. 221. How did trade influence the spread of civilization? Port cities, colonies, and trading stations were established which grew into new centers of civilization.
  222. 222. Before the Age of Discovery, the wealth of the world was considered to be limited. Competition for control of this wealth was known as what?
  223. 223. Before the Age of Discovery, the wealth of the world was considered to be limited. Competition for control of this wealth was known as what? The Mercantile Theory
  224. 224. The shift of wealth and power in Europe caused the development of what class of people?
  225. 225. The shift of wealth and power in Europe caused the development of what class of people? The middle class
  226. 226. With what country did England align itself when preparing to battle Spain?
  227. 227. With what country did England align itself when preparing to battle Spain? France
  228. 228. What is a privateer?
  229. 229. What is a privateer? Privately owned ships commissioned by a government to fight or harass enemy ships
  230. 230. What were seadogs?
  231. 231. What were seadogs? English privateers
  232. 232. King Philip II of Spain fought the English for two reasons. What were they?
  233. 233. King Philip II of Spain fought the English for two reasons. What were they? a. To stop raids on his ships and ports by the English seadogs b. To bring England back into the Catholic church
  234. 234. In the battle between Spain and England, what advantage did the English fleet have?
  235. 235. In the battle between Spain and England, what advantage did the English fleet have? The English had an advantage in maneuverability, clear decks, and range.
  236. 236. Where did England defeat Spain?
  237. 237. Where did England defeat Spain? In the English Channel
  238. 238. How were England’s colonies financed?
  239. 239. How were England’s colonies financed? By private groups who received charters (licenses) for that purpose from the crown
  240. 240. Why did the settlement at Jamestown almost fail?
  241. 241. Why did the settlement at Jamestown almost fail? Because most of the settlers were "gentlemen" who thought they were too good to work
  242. 242. What is another name for the French and Indian War?
  243. 243. What is another name for the French and Indian War? The Seven Years’ War

×