Focal Length Focal length = distance from the optical center of the lens to the focal plane (target or "chip") when the lens is focused at infinity. It is generally measured in millimeters.
Angle of View It is directly associated with lens focal length. Longer focal length (in mm), narrower the angle of view (in degrees). When you double the focal length of a lens, you double the size of an image on the target; and vice versa.
Classification of Lenses Lenses Telephoto Normal Like binoculars Wide 45 to 55 85 to 300 mm 20 mm to 3513 to 18 mm 400 to 1000Super wide Extreme/super tele 8 mm fish eye
Telephoto Taking pictures through it is like using a telescope - it magnifies & makes everything look larger. They are having narrower angle of view and a longer focal length than standard lens. For 35mm cameras: – 70-120mm are short telephotos (often called portrait lenses) – 135-210mm are moderate telephotos – 400mm or more as extreme telephoto lenses.
Telephoto Lens - Uses The main use of telephoto lenses is enabling you to select a small part of the subject - to pick a detail. To give greater emphasis to the subject To create artistic impact by getting the background blurred.
Telephoto Lens – Word of Caution Telephotos magnify camera shake as well as the subject, so one needs to use fast shutter speeds. The slowest speed that is recommended for use is 1/focal length. With a 500mm lens, 1/500 or faster, with a 135mm, 1/125 or faster. Tripod use is very imp if you need slower speeds
Portraits (70-120 mm ) Short telephoto lenses are especially useful for impressive. The working distance you need with them gives a natural looking perspective & makes whole of the persons face sharp. 105 mm pic
Moderates (135mm to 210 mm) Moderate telephoto lenses are great for picking out details and Isolating Subject from distracting material. You need to focus with care. Limited depth of field
Extreme Tele (400 mm onwards) They are used for specialist purposes such as sports & wild- life. With 35mm, a 400mm lens lets you stand on the boundary of a pitch and photograph action in the centre. Extreme telephotos are much easier to use when the action will occur in a predictable place .
Wide Angle Lens A short focal length lens. For a common 35 mm format, a common wide angle is 28 mm. Wide angle lens have considerable depth of field. Show expanse Are useful when space in limited Are useful when one doesn’t have time to focus every time Wide Angle Super Wide Fish Eye 20 – 35 mm 13 – 18 mm 8 mm
Wide Angle Lens Wide angle is easier are easier to work with due to: Less Camera Shake More Depth of Field Everything comes in reasonable focus Wide angle lens is ideal for Landscapes & Architectural photography For achieving distortion For a newness in perspective To catch a glimpse of interiors
Effect of Changing LensPhotos below were taken by 35 mm camera at constant distance from subject. 28 mm lens 50 mm lens 70 mm lens 210 mm lens
Classification of Lenses Prime Lens & Zoom Lens With Prime Lens, focal length of lens cannot be varied. Prime lenses are more predictable in their results. Prime lenses also come in more specialized forms, like, super wide angle, super telephoto, etc. They also give lesser distortion.
Classification of Lenses Zoom Lenses came into common use in the early 1960s. Before then, cameras used lenses of different focal lengths mounted on a turret on the front of the camera, as shown on the right.
Classification of Lenses Zoom lenses use numerous glass elements, each of which is precisely ground, polished, & positioned & can be repositioned to change magnification of lens. On zoom, these lens elements move independently at precise speeds.
Zoom Ratio Zoom ratio is conventionally used to define focal length range for a zoom lens. If the maximum range through which a particular lens can be zoomed is 10mm to 100mm, its said to have a 10:1 (ten-to-one) zoom ratio. But this does not shows that what is the minimum and maximum focal length of lens. A 10:1 zoom lens could have a 10 to 100mm, or a 100 to 1,000mm lens, & the difference would be quite dramatic.
Lens Care Sloppy lens changing and storage is a primary factor that helps dust to invade camera and pictures. Cleaning of lens - occasional thorough scrub‘ apart from regular cleaning with a dry cotton piece of cloth of a requirement. Using a specially developed brush for the same is not a bad idea. Using a UV or skylight filter. For as long as possible, the lens should be kept away from dust, smoke and moisture.