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Bamboo Construction

Bamboo (Bambuseae) is a tribe of flowering perennial evergreen plants in the grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae; although, the forestry services and departments of many countries where bamboo is utilized as a building material consider bamboo to be a forestry product, and it is specifically harvested as a tree exclusively for the wood it produces, which in many ways is a wood superior in strength and resilience to other natural, fibrous building materials.In fact it is often referred to as a tree by cultures who harvest it as wood. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family. In bamboos, the internodal regions of the stem are hollow and the vascular bundles in the cross section are scattered throughout the stem instead of in a cylindrical arrangement. The dicotyledonous woody xylem is also absent. The absence of secondary growth wood causes the stems of monocots, even of palms and large bamboos, to be columnar rather than tapering.Bamboos are some of the fastest-growing plants in the world,due to a unique rhizome-dependent system. Certain species of bamboo can grow 35 inches within a 24-hour period, at a rate of 3 cm/h (a growth of approximately 1 millimeter (or 0.02 inches) every 2 minutes). Bamboos are of notable economic and cultural significance in South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, being used for building materials, as a food source, and as a versatile raw product. Bamboo has a higher compressive strength than wood, brick or concrete and a tensile strength that rivals steel.
The word bamboo comes from the Kannada term bambu, which was introduced to English through Malay.


Further information: Bamboo construction
Bamboo, like true wood, is a natural composite material with a high strength-to-weight ratio useful for structures.

In its natural form, bamboo as a construction material is traditionally associated with the cultures of South Asia, East Asia and the South Pacific, to some extent in Central and South America, and by extension in the aesthetic of Tiki culture. In China and India, bamboo was used to hold up simple suspension bridges, either by making cables of split bamboo or twisting whole culms of sufficiently pliable bamboo together. One such bridge in the area of Qian-Xian is referenced in writings dating back to 960 AD and may have stood since as far back as the third century BC, due largely to continuous maintenance.
Bamboo has also long been used as scaffolding; the practice has been banned in China for buildings over six stories, but is still in continuous use for skyscrapers in Hong Kong.In the Philippines, the nipa hut is a fairly typical example of the most basic sort of housing where bamboo is used; the walls are split and woven bamboo, and bamboo slats and poles may be used as its support.

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Bamboo Construction

  1. 1. BAMBOO
  2. 2. INTRO •Bamboo is a woody grass. It is the fastest-growing woody plant •Some species of bamboo grow so fast you can almost see them growing. • They are capable of growing 60 cm or more per day. •However, the growth rate is dependent on local soil and climatic conditions.
  3. 3. WHY BAMBOO USED FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS? • High strength to weight ratio and its flexibility. • It is particularly appealing, in seismic areas, as complement to relatively non rigid wall systems such as straw-bale. • Extremely strong fiber - twice the compressive strength of concrete. • - roughly same strength to weight ratio of steel in tension. • Uses - in residential and commercial building applications • Wall systems • Floor systems • Finishes
  4. 4. USE OF BAMBOO IN CONSTRUCTION •Reinforcement •Roofing •Walling •Flooring •Scaffolding •Doors & Windows •Decoration
  6. 6. BAMBOO FOUNDATIONS BAMBOO PILES • Bamboo compacts soft soil, thus increasing the bearing capacity of soil. • The friction provided by the construction-grade bamboo increases its load-bearing capacity. •Treated split bamboo piles 8m long and 80 to 90mm in diameter were filled with coconut coir strands wrapped with jute.
  7. 7. ROOFING 1.Bamboo trusses 2.Bamboo tile roofing 3.Thatch roofing
  8. 8. WALLING/CEILING • Bajareque wall: This wall-building technique is very well- known in Latin America. Bamboo strips are tied on either side of timber and then intermediate space is filled with mortar. • Bamboo board wall: This is a common method of construction in Indonesia.
  9. 9. WALLING
  10. 10. FLOORING Bamboo can be used as flooring material due to its better wear and tear resistance and its resilience properties. Modern construction: apartment unit utilizing bamboo flooring
  11. 11. SCAFFOLDING REED BOARDS Reed boards are made by flat pressing the reed at high temperatures. These reed boards are used in elements like flooring, walls, ceiling and roofing. They can also be used for partitions, doors, windows etc. Bamboo poles lashed together have been used as scaffolding in high rise structures due to their strength and resilience. The timber planks can be replaced with bamboo culms and these can be lashed to the vertical culms. The working platforms for masons can also be built of bamboo
  12. 12. DOORS & WINDOWS Bamboo frames can replace timber frames appropriate to function. Bamboo mat shutters fixed to bamboo frame or a panel of bamboo board fixed to the frame which is hinged to the wall can be used as door. Small framed openings hinged to the top in the wall can serve as windows.
  13. 13. JOINERY TECHNIQUES BASICS PRINCIPLES •Do not use green, fresh cut bamboo. Bamboo has to be completely dry before using it in construction (preferable air dried). •Do not use bamboo when it is less then 3 years of age. Only use mature bamboo of 4-6 years. •Do not use bamboo poles with profound vertical cracks. •Do not use bamboo that has flourished. Rest assured bamboo only flourishes once in a lifetime (60-120 years). •Use appropriate cuts and joints when building with bamboo. •Use bamboo with the right diameter and wall thickness for your project. •Do not use conventional wood nails in bamboo joinery, they will cause the bamboo to split.
  14. 14. •Instead use nylon, steel or vegetal cord of the appropriate diameter. •When using bamboo as a column make sure that the lower part connecting with the surface ends with a node. If not the bamboo will splinter when struck (for example to position the column). •When connecting bamboo poles with bolts, make sure to bolt them together in between 2 nodes, otherwise the bamboo may crush. More about utilizing the nodes below.. •In construction, using bamboo nodes is very important. Bamboo columns or beams need to have a node at both ends (or as close as possible towards the ends), if not the pressure of a structure on the joint may crush the bamboo.
  15. 15. BAMBOO CUTS These are the most common cuts to use when making bamboo joints: one ear / two ear / beveled / flute mouth / fish mouth •As you can see in the illustration below, making basic cuts in bamboo doesn't require expensive or heavy power tools, just a few traditional hand tools will work fine.
  16. 16. JOINING HORIZONTAL WITH VERTICAL ELEMENTS •Joint with one or two ears. Is used to join bamboo rafters, logs or lumber. •Flap joint. Is used when there is no lashing wire available. The flap can be secured with bamboo strips. •Fish mouth joint. Use of dowels and anchors in bamboo joinery
  17. 17. •Joining bamboo with dowels and lashing. The peg should be placed in the column parallel to the rafter. •Fish mouth joint with pegs. •Bamboo joint with wooden anchor. Is also used inverted. •Bamboo joint with metal anchor. This technique Is used in various positions.
  18. 18. DOUBLE AND QUADRUPLE BAMBOO RAFTER SUPPORT • Beams formed by 4 or 6 members. The top row is separated from the bottom with bamboo or wood slats so that the upper bamboos do not slide over the lower. • Central double rafter. It has a wide range of applications in the construction of bridges and structures for rural facilities. • Lateral double rafter. Each of the rafters is secured independently at the side support and each other. It is often used in the construction of bridges and structures for rural facilities.   • Lateral double rafters. Is often used as a central support for bridge structures or sheds.
  19. 19. JOINING AND FIXATION OF BAMBOO POLES • Joint with double wooden wedge • Joint with dowels and clamping fitters •Cross joint with dowel •Lateral joint with dowel •Corner joint
  20. 20. SPLICING BAMBOO POLES •Top splicing.   •Bevel splicing.   •Ray splicing   •Half bamboo splicing.   •Splicing with internal union.   •Splicing with external union.   •Telescope splicing.
  21. 21. THANK YOU