A<br />Summer Training Report<br />ON<br />“Effectiveness of promotional campaign for fertilizers in Jubilant Agribusiness”<br />At<br />Jubilant Organosys Ltd.<br />SUBMITTED TO<br />Punjab College of Technical Education<br />245745083185<br /> <br /> In Partial fulfillment of the<br />Requirement of the award for the degree of<br />MBA<br />Under the supervision of Under the guidance of<br />Dr. Arvind Gautam Ms.Sheenu Gupta<br />DGM-Agrovet (Faculty, PCTE)<br />Jubilant Organosys Ltd.<br /> Submitted By<br /> Bhawana Chawla<br /> (MBA 2C) <br />Acknowledgement<br />Summer training is the important part of fulfillment of MBA course. It is the stage where a student gets practical knowledge of working in an organization. Such a opportunity researcher got in Jubilant Organosys Ltd. Noida.<br />I convey my profound gratitude to the Jubilant Organosys Ltd.,Noida for giving me a chance to work in their esteemed organization in order to carry out this strategic project.<br /> It is my proud privilege to express my true and deep sense of gratitude and heartfelt in debt to my mentor, Dr. Arvind Gautam, Jubilant Organosys for his sustained interest, valuable guidance and constant encouragement provided during the course of this study. <br /> With profound sense of gratitude, I express my sincere thanks to Mr. Rajiv Kapoor, Mr.V. K. Sirohi, Mr. Dixit, Mr. J P Singh, Mr. Bali and Mr. Sanjeev Madan for their inspiring support, constructive suggestions and timely help in finalizing this manuscript.<br />This acknowledgement will not be complete without a special thanks to Ms.Sheenu Gupta whose expert guidance in this respective area of management helped me in successful completion of this project and without it would have been impossible for me to apply tools and knowledge in synchronized and systematic way.<br />Last but not the least researcher like to express her thanks to friends and family members without whose support this project have not been a reality.<br /> Bhawana Chawla <br /> MBA 2C <br /> <br /> CERTIFICATE-I<br />This is to certify that the thesis/dissertation entitled, “Effectiveness of promotional campaign for fertilizers in Jubilant Agribusiness” submitted for the degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA), in the Major specialization in Marketing from Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar, is a bonafide research work carried out by Bhawana Chawla of MBA, under my supervision and that no part of this thesis has been submitted for another degree.<br />The assistance and help received during the course of investigation have been fully acknowledged.<br /> Ms. Sheenu Gupta<br />(Major Advisor)<br />Abstract<br />Fertilizers play a vital role in increasing agricultural production. Among the several crop yield increasing components, the use of fertilizers with high yielding varities and other inputs play a pivotal role in agricultural development. The direct as well as indirect economic and social benefits from the use of fertilizers in crop production activities have been duly recognized all over the world.<br />Fertilizer market in India is a growing market as the demand is constantly increasing and still there is a significant gap in potential and realised demnd.Fertilizer industry has been passing through very critical times during last few years. While the industry has been affected due to several changes in the government policies and market environment, it cannot afford to resign to fate. The industry will have to be resilient to change and demonstrate its resolve to rise like a phoenix.<br />From time to time there have been suggestions from various quarters that the subsidy on fertilizers should be directly disbursed to farmers and not paid to the fertilizer companies which manufacture and or distribute fertilizers. The underlying assumption behind this suggestion presumably is that the subsidy benefits the industry and not the farmers. Nothing could be farther from the truth.<br />So keeping all this in mind the Hon’able Finance Minister in his budget speech (2009-2010) stated nutrient based subsidy with total decontrol in due course.<br />To be in line with above Jubilant organosys put up a manufacturing plant in Chittorgarh to cater the biggest markets for SSP in MP and Rajasthan, and decide to run the promotional campaign to increase the market share which was onlt 1.6% prviously. The campaign was successful which can be seen from the results below.<br />ProductQ1 08-09Q1 09-10Q1 10-11G -Q1 09/10G - Q2 10/11MPSSP (Mt)6766663712946-1.9%95%Agrochem (Rs.L)24.1124.3645.81.0%88%RajasthanSSP (Mt)339915602383-54.1%53%Agrochem (Rs.L)03.3615.98N/A376%<br /> Contents<br />Sr.noTopicPage no.1.Introduction to Corporate and briefing about group companies1-152.Introduction to particular Firm/Division16-233.Organization Chart244.Study of functional department255.SWOT analysis266.Financial Analysis26-417Part-B42-83<br />CONTENTS<br />Sr.no.ContentsPage no.1.Introduction42-502.Review of Literature51-583.Research Methodology59-614.Data analysis & Interpretation62-785.Results & Findings79-816.Recommendation & Suggestions82-83<br />List of Tables<br />Table no. HeadingPage no.4.1No. of responses for use of fertilizers.624.2Responses for different kind of fertilizers used634.3Types of phosphatic fertilizers used644.4Brand preference of different farmers654.5Sources from where the farmer came to know about RAMBAN664.6Promotional material through which farmers came to know about RAMBAN674.7Ranking of the promotional activities according to the farmers684.8Awareness of other products of RAMBAN among farmer694.9Importance of various factors704.10Satisfaction of parameters regarding RAMBAN714.11Improvements suggested by the farmers724.12Allocation of points among different attributes734.13Rating of Quality of RAMBAN744.14Benefit derived by farmers from Promotional campaign754.15Effect of promotional campaign on buying decision764.16How promotional campaign affected774.17Purchase of other products of RAMBAN78<br />List of Figures<br />Figure no. Heading Page no.4.1Percentage624.2Average634.3Percentage644.4Total of ranks654.5Percentage664.6Percentage674.7Toatal of ranks684.8Percentage694.9Mean704.10Percentage714.11Percentage724.12Total of responses734.13Responses744.14Percentage754.15Percentage764.16Percentage774.17Percentage78<br />Introduction to Corporate and briefing about group companies:<br />What does Jubilant mean?<br />Jubilant represents the joy of life. It is a positive sign of dynamism, triumph and happiness, all of which guide and shape society’s collective experience and efforts. <br />Jubilant will always care for the human need, share its expertise to help provide a better life, help upgrade the stakeholders by making them partners in company’s growth and ensure company’s sustainable growth by continuously moving up the value chain within the corporation. <br />Jubilant Values<br />They carefully select, train and develop people to be creative, empower them to take decisions, so that they respond to all customers with agility, confidence and teamwork.<br />They stretch themselves to be cost effective and efficient in all aspects of their operations and focus on flawless delivery to create and provide the best value to their customers.<br />By sharing their knowledge and learning from each other and and from the markets they serve, they will continue to surprise customers with innovative solutions.<br />With utmost care for the environment and safety, they always strive to excel in the quality of processes, products and services.<br />Jubilant Vision<br />History<br />The Jubilant Bhartia Group embarked on a journey to create leadership in its chosen areas of business over two decades ago. The Group has a strong presence in Pharma, life sciences and healthcare sector through its flagship company Jubilant Organosys and has the fastest growing Dominos pizza chain in India through Jubilant FoodWorks. The group is a leading Indian private sector player in oil and gas exploration and production business through Jubilant Energy. Through a clutch of independent Companies the group has a significant presence in Retail segment including Hypermarkets and Automobiles. The Group also offers a wide range of marketing and technical services for international companies in the area of aviation, oil & gas services and power and infrastructure services. <br />Company History - Jubilant OrganosysYEAR EVENTS1978 - The Company was incorporated on 21st June, in Uttar Pradesh. The Company manufacture Vinyl Acetate Monomer (VAM). The Company was promoted by A.B. Bofors (Swedish Multinational),HindustanWires Ltd., and Mr. M.L. Bhartia. The Company entered into a technical collaboration agreement with Noble Chematur Division of A.B. Bofors, Sweden for the supply of know-how and basic engineering for the manufacture of vinyl acetate monomer.1981 - 1,200 No. of equity shares subscribed for by the signatories to the Memorandum of Association. 34,63,800 No. of equity and38,500 Pref. shares issued through a prospectus During Mar./Apr. 1982, 19,250 Pref. shares each reserved and allotted to UPSIDCand PICUP. 6,08,370 No. of equity shares reserved and allotted to Indian private promoters and their associates, 6,55,430 No. of equity shares reserved and allotted to AB Brothers of Sweden and 22,00,000 No. of equity shares offered at par for publicsubscription.Pref. shares redeemable during 28.5.1993/96.1982 - 6,93,000 Rights Equity shares issued at par in prop. 1:5(only 5,52,043 shares taken up). The remaining 1,40,357 shares allotted on private placement basis (including 96,800 shares To non-residents).1983 - Another technical collaboration agreement was signed with Crown Decorative Products Ltd., U.K., and Reed International Company for the manufacture of high pressure emulsions i.e., Polyvinyl Acetate Emulsions. This project was commissioned in 1985-86. During November, the Company promoted `India Glycols Ltd.' To take up the implementation of a project to manufacture Mono Ethylene Glyco (MEG) at Kashipur, U.P., in technical collaboration with Scientific Design Co. Int., U.S.A.Commercial production commenced on 1st January, 1990.1984 - A technical collaboration agreement was signed with Technimont Spa of Italy for the manufacture of polyvinyl alcohol with an installed capacity of 2,000 tonnes per annum. The unit was commissioned in July 1991, with an installed capacity of 650 MT per annum. During 1991, the capacity was doubled to 1,400 tonnes per annum. The Company proposed to enhance the capacity of 2,000 MT per annum by installing additional equipment.1985 - Vam Leasing Ltd., and Vam Investments Ltd., were incorporated as wholly owned subsidiaries of the Company.1986 - 10,06,180 No. of equity shares issued at par to financial institutions on conversion of loans.1987 - The Company decided to set up a plant to recover carbon dioxide in collaboration with Hydrogas Denmart a.s. of Denmark and manufacture to dry ice.The plant was commissioned in 1989. A biogas plant was also set up in collaboration with Biotim N.V.of Belgium as a part of energy conservation programme. The Company also promoted `Insilco Ltd.' jointly with Degussa AG of West Germany for the manufacture of spray dried silica. The project was expected to go on stream by the middle of 1991. Applications were also submitted to Government for increasing the production capacity of vinyl acetate monomer from 10,000 tonnes to 20,000 tonnes per annum. In order to part finance the vinyl acetate monomer project, during January, the company privately placed with financial institutions, 15% non-convertible debentures worth Rs 1.00 crores.These debentures are redeemable at a premium of 5% in three equal annual instalments commencing on 27th April,1993. The Company privately placed with financial institutions 14% non-convertible debentures worth Rs 1.50 crores.These debentures are redeemable in full at a premium of 5% on 29th December, 1994.1989 - A synthetic wood adhesive Vamicol was launched in January and liquid and dry carbon dioxide (dryice) were launched in March. The company installed another new boiler of capacity 25 tonnes steam/hour based on the fluidised bed technology to eliminate air pollution. The Company privately placed with financial institutions 14% non-convertible debentures Worth Rs 10 crores.These debentures are redeemable in full at a premium of 5% on 25th June, 1996.1990 - The Company commissioned a plant with an installed capacity of 500 tonnes per annum for the manufacture of pyridine and picoline. The Company undertook to expand the production capacities of vinyl acetate monomer and its intermediaries i.e., acetic anhydride and acetic acid. The expanded capacities were commissioned in October 1990. The Company privately placed 14% redeemable non-convertible debentures of Rs 100 each aggregating Rs 5.00 crores. These debentures are redeemable at a premium of 5% in three equal annual instalments commencing on 11th September, 1996. During the year, another 5,00,000-14% redeemable non-convertible debentures of Rs 100 Each were privately placed with a provision to redeem at a premium of 5% in three equal instalments commencing on 29th March, 1997.1992 - Ramganga Fertilizers Ltd. (RFL) was amalgamated with the company effective 1st April, as Per BIFR Scheme. As per the scheme of amalgamation 2,56,522 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were issued at par to the shareholders of erstwhile RFL in the ratio of one equity share of the company for every 10.35 No. of equity share of Rs 10 each fully paid-up of the erstwhile RFL.1995 - A technical collaboration agreement was signed with Kemira Coatings Ltd., U.K., to manufacture wood finishes a polymer based product. Another agreement was also signed with M/s. Teutoburg,Germany to manufacture construction chemicals in its plant at Gajraula. The company proposed to install an additional turbine generator with a capacity of 5.5 MW in view of high and frequently incidence of power failure and fluctuation. The company also proposed to increase the installed capacity of Pyridine & Picolines by 4,000 tonnes per annum to meet the increasing demand for the products. 2,56,522 No. of equity shares issued to the shareholders of erstwhile RFL on merger of the said company with company.1996 - The Company proposed to open offices in Singapore to cater to the need of S.E. Asia & China & European markets. With a view to tackling the power failure and fluctuations, the company proposed to instal a turbine generator with a capacity of 5.5 MW. The company made a capital expenditure of Rs 26.40 crores for taking up projects such as Pyridene & Picolines, wood furnisher, construction chemicals with the intention of saving valuable foreign Exchange. It was also proposed to modernise its sulphuric acid plant.With a view to saving energy the company proposed to instal biogas fired boiler.1997 - The Company faced a sharp decline in sales realisation of Acetic Acid and VAM, due to a combination of the South East Asian financial debacle and the large capacity build up of Acetic Acid and VAM in South Korean and Singapore. The company has embarked on a substantial capital expenditure programme to enhance capacitie of existing products and also manufacture new products. Vam Organic Chemicals Ltd has registered a 8.97 per cent increase in net profit for the year ended March 31, 1997 at Rs.23.07 crores as compared to Rs.21.17 crores in the previous year.1998 - Vam Organics Chemicals has introduced a specialist adhesive Vam Bond 2001. The dry silica venture, jointly promoted by Vam Organics and Degussa AG of Germany with a 34 per cent stake each has not been doing too well. The company's performance has been affected due to low international prices, steady increase in prices of major raw materials and sluggish growth in the overall market. VAM Organic Chemicals Ltd (VOCL) proposes to merge group companies Anichem India Ltd (AIL) and Enpro Speciality Chemicals Ltd (ESCL) with itself. A planned shut-down of the fertiliser plant was undertaken for 72 days in the quarter for revamping. It also increased its installed capacity from 125 tonnes per day to 175 tonnes per day for sulphuric acid. A captive power plant of 12.45 MW was commissioned in July this year. VAM Organic Chemicals Ltd is exploring the possibility of entering into areas such as sugar, speciality chemicals and bulk drugs. The non-convertible debenture programme of Vam Organic Chemicals Ltd has been downgraded by ICRA to LA- LAA-. Vam was the largest player in the alcohol-based organic chemical industry with the largest capacities in the country for most of its products including acetic acid, acetic anhydride, etc.1999 - VAM Organic Chemicals Ltd (VOCL) has proposed to consolidate and improve its existing position in the chemical industry in the current fiscal. VOCL has also commissioned the units of Polychem Ltd, manufacturing alcohol-based chemicals in May. The Company's 22,500 tonnes per annum formaldehyde plant has been commissioned, permitting it to export greater quantities of picolines and pyridines.It has also installed new boilers and increased the capacities of existing plants.2000- Enters the Bio / chemo informatics arena by setting up Jubilant Biosys Ltd.2001- New corporate identity: Jubilant Organosys Ltd. reflecting changed corporate and business profile2002- Acquires the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients business2003- Trading symbol of Jubilant Organosys Limited is changed from 'VAMORGANIC ' to 'JUBILANT' Jubliant Securites Pvt. Ltd. & Jubliant Capital Pvt. Ltd has acquired 4,38,068 (2.99% of total paid up capital) equity shares. Mr. H K Khan (Retd. IAS) has been appointed as additional director with effect from November 05, 2003 on the Board.2004- Jubilant Organosys Limited has informed that the Board of Directors at their meeting held on January 9, 2004 have approved for voluntary delisting of equity shares of the Company from The Delhi Stock Exchange Association Limited, The Calcutta Stock Exchange Association Limited, Kolkata and the Uttar Pradesh Stock Exchange Association Limited subject to the approval of shareholders by special resolution. Jubilant Organosys acquires generic pharma Companies in Europe. Jubilant Organosys signs international contracts worth US$ 60 million in CRAMS for the year 2007.2005- Acquired pharmaceutical company in USA involved in off patent drug development and supply, and owns US FDA approved manufacturing facility for solid dosage forms. Acquires full service Clinical Research Organization in USA involved in providing clinical research services, data management, biostatistics and contract staffing. Acquires Target Research Associates, Inc., renamed Clinsys Inc.; a US based Clinical Research Organisation (CRO) Acquires Trinity Laboratories, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiary, Trigen Laboratories, Inc., renamed Jubilant Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a generic pharmaceutical company in USA having a US FDA approved formulations manufacturing facility Enters Clinsys Clinical Research Ltd. business by setting up wholly owned subsidiary Jubilant Clinsys Ltd.2006- Selected as one of the top 25 companies for Institute of Company Secretaries of India National Award for Excellence in Corporate Governance Finalist in Golden Peacock Award for Excellence in Corporate Governance2007- Jubilant Organosys Ltd has acquired 100% equity stake in Hollister-Stier Laboratories LLC, USA, engaged in high growth injectable contract manufacturing and well established and stable Allergy Immunotherapy businesses. Acquires Hollister Stier Laboratories in USA, a contract manufacturer of Sterile injectable vials and allergenic extracts.2008- Acquires DRAXIS Specialty Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Canada, a contract manufacturer of sterile & non-sterile products and radiopharmaceuticals Acquires Speciality Molecules Pvt. Ltd. Engaged in the manufacturing of Fine Chemicals used by Life Science Industry including pharma, agro & cosmetic industry. Jubilant Organosys and Lilly form Drug development joint venture Uttar Pradesh-based pharma major Jubilant Organosys Ltd (JOL) has secured new contracts worth million (Rs.3.7 billion). The contracts have been signed under Customs Research and Manufacturing Services (CRAMS). Besides marketing its products in the regulated markets of the US, Europe and Japan, the company has managed to make forays into China, said a statement of JOL.2009- Jubilant enters into multiple Drug discovery partnerships with leading pharma and biotech -companies such as AstraZeneca, Orion, Endo pharmaceuticals & BioLeap and also extends its collaboration with Lilly for five years. Jubilant enters into drug development collaborations with academia,University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Research Institute (USA) and Duke University (Singapore). Jubilant Kalpataru – 120 bed super specialty hospital at Barasat, Kolkata, India inaugurated by Hon’ble Minister of Finance Shri Pranab Mukherjee2010- ET – IMEA 2009 Platinum Award by Frost & Sullivan, in the Pharmaceutical category for the API facility at Nanjangud Best CFO (FMCG, Health and Retail Sector) to Mr. R. Sankaraiah by Institute of Chartered Accountants of India in January, 2010 Jubilant Organosys Ltd has appointed Mr. Shardul S. Shroff as Additional Director of the Company with effect from March 15, 2010.<br />Business Profile<br /><ul><li>Pharmaceuticals, Life Sciences & Speciality ChemicalsJubilant Organosys Ltd.Oil & Gas (Exploration & Production)Jubilant Enpro – Oil & Gas (Exploration and Production), Jubilant Energy Ltd.FOODDomino’s Pizza, Total & M2SServicesJubilant Enpro – Transportation (Air and Ground), Oil & Gas Services, Power & Infrastructure ServicesFinancial Advisory Services, IT services</li></ul>The four core segments of Jubilant Bhartia Group are: <br />Pharmaceutical, Life sciences and HealthcareJubilant Organosys is an integrated pharmaceuticals and Life Sciences Company.It is the largest Custom Research and Manufacturing Services player and one of the leading drug discovery and development solution provider from India It is well positioned as an outsourcing partner for the global pharma and life sciences companies. Oil and Gas Exploration and ProductionJubilant Energy is one of the leading companies in private sector engaged in Oil & Gas exploration and production (E&P) in India and overseas. It has collaborations with leading global companies and currently operates 12 blocks - 8 in India, 3 in Yemen and 1 in Australia. Food & RetailJubilant FoodWorks Limited holds the Master Franchisee Rights for the Domino's Pizza, for India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. The company has been listed on the Indian Bourses recently and is the fastest growing dominos pizza country in the world with 300 stores in India. The brand, Domino's Pizza, was founded in the US in 1960 by Thomas and James Monaghan. Since then, it has grown into a global network of 9000 pizza stores in more than 60 countries around the world. <br />Jubilant is present in two formats in retail: hypermarkets (Total) and supermarkets. Jubilant Retail is a Bangalore-based retail chain running state-of-the-art hypermarkets and malls. Its hypermarket branded as 'Total' is designed on the lines of international shopping malls and is a single-point food store carrying packaged, processed as well as fresh food and beverage items. It also stocks non-food items like apparel, sports goods, bed and linen, furniture, etc.<br />Jubilant Motorworks The Group through Jubilant Motors is engaged in sales and servicing of Audi Cars through state of art showrooms in Bangalore and Chennai. Audi has been well recognized globally as a manufacturer of high-quality and innovative luxury cars, it is one of the world's leading premium brands which is among the most admired car brands across the world. Audi has a presence in over 110 countries and it set up shop in India in 2004.<br />ServicesJubilant Enpro, through its alliances with international companies, provides business, marketing and technical support related to Oil & Gas services, Power & Infrastructure services, and Aviation related services (sales/maintenance of aircrafts & helicopters). A shared vision and a common set of values bind all diverse businesses of the Jubilant Group. So far, Jubilant has created a strong global presence in the pharmaceutical and life sciences sector and in the other areas the group is moving ahead steadfastly gaining remarkable experience and growth. Over the years Jubilant has successfully established itself as a partner of choice in an ever-changing environment that presents both opportunities and challenges for its various businesses. The focus on servicing customers and building partnerships to create value has generated significant stakeholder return and aptly reflects the group's promise of Caring, Sharing and Growing. MARKETS<br />Management - Jubilant Org<br />Shyam S Bhartia Chairman & Managing Director Hari S Bhartia Co-Chairman & Managing Director Dr. J M KhannaExecutive Director & President - Life Sciences S Bang Executive Director - Manufacturing & Supply Chain Surendra Singh Director H K Khan Director Abhay Havaldar DirectorArabinda RayDirector Dr. Naresh TrehanDirector Dr. Inder Mohan VermaDirectorShardul S ShroffDirector<br />Turnover<br />For the year 2009, the company’s turnover is Rs. 2551.46 crores.<br />Introduction to particular Firm/Division:<br />Objectives<br /><ul><li>Attain leadership position in SSP industry.
To be an acknowledged, integrated farm nutrition provider under RAMBAN banner.
To become Rs.5,00 Cr. turnover business unit by 2012-13 with PBIDT of 10% and ROCE of 32% with existing product range.
To carefully select, train and develop our people to be creative, empower them to take decisions, so that they respond to all customers with agility, confidence and teamwork.
To focus on flawless delivery to create and provide the best value to our customers.
The company will with utmost care for the environment, continue to enhance value for their customers by providing innovative products and economically efficient solutions; and for our shareholders through sales growth, cost effectiveness and wise investment of resources.
Jubilant Organosys Limited’s top management ensures that the quality policy always:
Is appropriate to the purpose of our organization.
Communicates our commitment to meeting all the requirements.
Provides a focus for continual improvement through establishing, tracking, reviewing and maintaining quality objectives.
Is reviewed for continuing suitability on an annual basis in the management review.
Agrovet is a part of Jubilant organosys ltd. It can be further divided as:</li></ul>2AGROVETAgribusiness (Crop Nutrition)Animal Nutrition Straight Phosphatic Fertilizer (SSP)Organic FertilizerSpecialty NutritionAgrochemicalsSulphuric AcidPoultry NutritionDairy Nutrition - Vitamins, Feed PremixesBiosentry productsProbioticsEctoparasiticidesBackground - Agribusiness<br />The Agribusiness division of Jubilant Organosys Ltd. came into being in 1986 with a manufacturing facility of straight phosphatic fertilizer - Single Super Phosphate (SSP) under the name of Ramganga Fertilisers Ltd. at Gajraula with an annual manufacturing capacity of 66000 Mt of SSP and today is one of the largest producers of Single Super Phosphate (SSP) fertilizers in India. <br />Since 1986, Agribusiness has grown substantially to three manufacturing facilities with a combined manufacturing capacity of 4.70 lac Mt/year for SSP and two manufacturing sites for over 40,000 Mt/yr of organic manure (Biocompost). Ramganga Fertilisers was later merged into Jubilant Organosys Limited in 1994. The division also trades in a range of Specialty Agri Nutrition, Plant growth Regulators (PGRs) and agrochemical crop protection products (Insecticides, pesticides, fungicides) under marketing agreement with reputed manufactures like Bharat Rasayan Agro Ltd along with tolling arrangements.<br />Agribusiness division operates in Northern India, Central India, Western India and part of Eastern India (Bihar). The division has a strong market presence, directly touching the farming population of the country, through its 40 strong and ethical field force that includes technical and product managers as well.<br />Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Agribusiness Manufacturing Locations, Products & Capacities<br />BIOCOMPOST– (Presently not having this product under production as the Distillery is not operational at Gajraula)<br />Manufacturing Process:<br />RAW MATERIAL MANUFACTURING PROCESS FG<br /> Window framing on Ground<br />Press Mud<br />(Sugar Mills) Mixing of Press Mud & Spent Drying Biocompost <br /> &<br />R.O Spent <br />(Jubilant) Churning<br /> 90-105 days 15 days<br /> 120 days <br />Distribution<br />Dealers <br /> LooseFarmer<br />BIOCOMPOSTWarehouse<br />Packed DealerRetailer Farmer<br />SINGLE SUPER PHOSPHATE<br />Manufacturing Process :<br />RAW MATERIAL MANUFACTURINGPROCESS FG<br /> <br />Rock Phosphate(RSMML or Imported)+Sulphuric Acid(Jubilant or Hind Zinc)+Water<br /> + Water + Sulphuric Acid<br /> Rock Phosphate Grinded Fine Rock Slurry Green SSP<br /> (Grinding) Pre-Mixing (WIP)<br /> <br /> Feed for Granulation Cured Green Curing & Reshuffling<br /> Of Heaps (WIP)<br /> Packing as Powdered SSP Powdered SSP<br /> (50 Kg Pack)<br /> Packing as Granulated SSP<br /> <br /> Heat Drying of Granulated WIP Cooling <br /> Granulated SSP <br /> (50 Kg Pack)<br />Distribution<br />PSSP<br />Dealers RetailersFarmers<br />GSSP<br /> Warehouse<br />Turnover<br />This year’s turnover for the business unit is 14797.30 lakhs.<br />Markets<br />YearMilestones1986Ram Ganga Fertilizer Ltd- SSP Mfd. Commenced with a capacity of 66,000 Mt at Gajraula1994Ram Ganga Fertilizer Ltd merged with VAM Organic Chemical Ltd.1995ISO Certification – First SSP Company in India2000Diversified into Crop Protection business thru agrochemicals2005Diversified into manufacturing and marketing of Organic Fertiliser (Biocompost)2008Kapasan SSP manufacturing plant gets commissioned with a capacity of 264,000 Mt2008-09Achieved No.1 position in SSP selling in India.<br />The field force is operating at regional, area & territory levels with 4 RSM-Regional Sales Manager (West UP, East/Cent UP, PJB & HAR, MP & RAJ), 7 STL- Sales Team Leader and 29 Sr. TE/TE.<br /> <br />All field personnel have engaged themselves in sales and marketing of SSP, Biocompost & Specialty Nutrition products. In addition, dedicated Business Manager for Biocompost & Specialty Nutrition products along with commercial manager coordinate the efforts in the field.<br />Brands<br />Jubilant Agribusiness markets its products under the umbrella brand of “Ramban” – the brand under which it sells its SSP – both powder and granulated forms. It leverages this brand for marketing its organic manure (Bhoo sanjeevani khad) and other specialty nutrition products that have its own product specific brand names like Vam-C, Power Plus, Bentosulph, Sulphagold, Nutra plus etc.<br />Competition<br />Since SSP pricing and quality gets controlled by Govt. (now pricing is free), it is mandatory that the final product complies with the specifications laid out by the Govt. of India through FCO 1985.<br />Name of the company2008-09 PlantsCapacityProductionShare (%)RAMA PHOSPHATE 3462247 12% LIBERTY PHOSPHATE6624235 11% Jubilant (Gaj+kap+Tolling)2+1495223 11% KHAITAN FERT & CHEM4847194 9% B.E.C.2201153 7% HLL/TCL1160125 6% COROMANDAL113284 4% BASANTAGRO112084 4% SHIVA FERT.190 56 3% TEDCO 1 132 56 3% TOTAL23 3263 1457 70% ALL INDIA687536 2073 <br />However, discounts are offered by all companies during the off season (Dec 15-March) that vary from company to company who compete on discount pricing, compromising margins.<br />There has been practice of saving on freight by selling the produce in the economic zones attracting lower freight rates in the past. In the recent months that equation is changing and companies are reaching out to distant locations as well, compromising on the margins. Few companies have entered into the marketing arrangement with other national fertilizer companies that do not manufacture SSP.<br />Jubilant’s position<br />Agribusiness’s financial and production performance for current year is being made available in the white paper submitted from the Agri side. By way of Background, Agribusiness did wonderfully well during the FY 08-09 achieving highest ever sales for all three segments i.e. SSP, Biocompost and Specialty nutrition products.<br />Jubilant clocked more than 2.35 lac Mt of SSP during FY 08-09 achieving a growth of 74% over 07-08 (1.35 lac Mt)<br />Jubilant has 12% market share in All India sales, with almost 70% in its main area of operations – UP. With the increased trend of GM crops like Bt Cotton, Bt Vegetables and hybrid rice, the fertilizer and agri nutritional products especially PGRs are likely to attract higher usage, resulting in higher volumes and new business opportunities.<br />Jubilant is well poised and well equipped with its range of products to tap the upcoming opportunities, especially with open MRP policy for SSP.<br />12IndiaPositionIndiaPositionSingle Super Phosphate(Ramban)Chlormequat Chloride (Vam-C)Triacontanol Granules (PPG 500)AGRIBUSINESS -- KEY PERFORMANCE HIGHLIGHTSNATIONAL POSITIONS IN VARIOUS PRODUCTSGrowth Over FY 07-08 : 209% CAGR : 34 %All India Market share -13% (70 % in U.P) Jubilant manufactures & markets Single Super Phosphate (SSP) Organic Fertilizer and Specialty Nutrition productsRamban is the largest selling brand of SSP in India3 Mfg. locations – Gajraula, Kapasan & NimbaheraOperational Geography : Northern, Western & Central IndiaUP – 70 % ContributionMajor ProductsSSP, Vam-C, Bentosulph & Power Plus <br />Organization Chart of the training unit<br />SVS SirohiGU-Head AgribusinessAnanda MukherjeeCEO<br />Ranjana KaushalSecretary<br />Shailendra SinghGM-Sales & MarketingSanjeev Madan Manager Sales Support<br />M.Bali Sr.ManagerCommercial &RegulatorySubhash Kapoor (AM-Taxation/Statutory)Ratnesh Nigam Manager Sales Sulphuric acidArvind Gautam Head Business DevelopmentAbhishek Kumar Product ManagerPragya GautamMarketing ExecutiveV.K Dixit Sales Manager<br />Mathew Chacko Exec.Sales Support<br />R K Chauhan Sr.Exec.Sales Administration<br />Gyanender Kumar (RM-Meerut & Bairely zone)Rajesh Khare (ZM-East Zone) LucknowN K Jangra (RM-MP & Rajasthan Zone)P D Budania (ZM-Punjab & Haryana Zone<br />State Head-MaharashtraDRM-1DRM-1DRM-1<br />2.16 DIFFRENT DEPARTMENTS<br />Different Departments In Jubilant Organosys; <br />Jubilant organization is a matrix organization which is served by business professionals, technocrats, financial experts, sales professionals, etc. It is an organization in which people with similar skills have been pooled for work assignments. Jubilant Organization has its division of finance, production, human resource, marketing etc are common for all the products.<br /><ul><li>1. Finance department: Its function is to deal with the safety investment, procurement and application of funds and to provide financial support to business.</li></ul>2. Marketing Department: There is keen competition among various Fertilizer producing companies. The marketing of fertilizer occupies an important position. Therefore, Jubilant Organosys Limited has set up a division to market its products. The major function of marketing division is the regular interaction with the dealers/customers to understand their changing needs. <br />3. Purchase department: Purchasing managers/directors, in Jubilant guide the organization’s acquisition procedures and standards., and form a contract for purchase.<br />4. HR Department: As the employees are the real assets of the organization so Jubilant Organosys employed the separate department for HR so major function of HR department is hiring promotions, performance appraisal review and processing, employee benefits and compensation.<br />5. Billing and Dispatch Department: The basic function of Billing and dispatch department is to dispatch the orders on time and make bills accordingly.<br />6. Accounts Department: The function of accounts department is to keep the books of accounts in accordance with the rules, internal check of transactions affecting the receipts and expenditure, and to do audit.<br />SWOT Analysis of the training unit<br /><ul><li>Strengths Weaknesses Brand Equity (Ramban) in UP/Utt/Har. Distribution Network (Reach). Production capacity & Location. Market Trust. Low Capacity Utilization (Mfg. bottlenecks). Insufficient Marketing inputs & Promotion. Insufficient response to MP & Raj. market dynamics. No N & K fertilizer range. OpportunitiesThreats Higher price realization. Value added SSP. New Markets. (Source: Information given by Dr.Arvind Gautum, on 27 July,2:00 p.m.)Government Policy on subsidy. Competition on Price with in SSP.Competition on Value with DAP.New Entrants (Fertilizer PSUs) .</li></ul> FINANCIAL ANALYSIS<br />RATIO ANALYSIS:-<br />A ratio is the simple arithmetical expression of the relationship of one number to another. Ratio Analysis is a technique of analysis & interpretation of financial statements. It is the process of establishing & interpreting various ratios for helping in making certain decisions.<br />Nature of Ratio Analysis<br />Ratio analysis is a technique of analysis and interpretation of financial statements. It is a process of establishing and interpreting various ratios for helping in making certain decisions. However, ratio analysis is not an end in itself. It is only a mean of better understanding of financial strengths and weakness of affirm. Calculation of mere ratios does not serve any purpose, unless several appropriate ratios are analyzed and interpreted. There are a number of ratios, which can be calculated from the information given in the financial statements, but analyst has to select the appropriate data and calculate only a few appropriate ratios from the same keeping in mind the objective of analysis. These ratios may be used as a symptom like blood pressure, the pulse rate or the body temperature and their interpretation depends upon the caliber and the competence of the analyst. The following are the four steps involved in the ratio analysis:<br />Selection of relevant data from financial statements depends upon objective of the analysis.<br />Calculation of appropriate ratios from the given data.<br />Comparison of the calculated ratios of the same firm in the past, or the ratios developed from projected financial statements or the ratios developed from projected financial statements or the ratios of the industry to which the firm belongs.<br />Interpretation of the ratios. <br />Following Ratios are calculated for the years 2007 to 2009:-<br />A) Liquidity Ratio<br />Liquidity ratios measure the ability of the company to meets its current obligations. It establishes the relationship between cash and other current assets to current obligation provide a quick measure of liquidity. These should be convertible into cash for paying obligations of short-term nature. The sufficiency or insufficiency of current assets should be assessed by comparing them with short term (current) liabilities. If current assets can pay off current liabilities, then liquidity position will be satisfactory. On the other hand, if current liabilities may not be easily met out of current assets then liquidity position will be bad. The bankers, suppliers of goods and other short term creditors are interested in the liquidity of the concern. They will extend credit only if they are sure that current assets are enough to pay out the obligations. To measure the liquidity position of a firm, the following ratios can be calculated:-<br />: It may be defined as the relationship between current assets and current liabilities. This ratio is also known as working capital ratio. It is a measure of a short term financial position of a firm.<br /> Current Ratio = Current assets <br /> Current Liabilities<br /> (In crores)<br />Particulars200720082009Total current assets875.491094.991508.62Total current liabilities388.90396.22597.55Current ratios2.252.762.52<br /> <br />Interpretation:<br />As the thumb rule for current ratio is 2:1 and the ratios of the company are above that range, but the ratio keeps fluctuating as percentage change in current assrets is not the same as percentage change in current liabilities .But company’s liquidity position is quite good to meet its current liabilities. <br />2)Quick ratio<br />It is also known as Liquid Ratio, is a more rigorous test of liquidity than the current ratio. The term ‘liquidity’ refers to the ability of a firm to pay its short-term obligations as and when they become due. Quick ratio may be defined as the relationship between quick/liquid assets and current or liquid liabilities. An asset is said to be liquid if it can be converted into cash within a short period without loss of value. Prepaid expenses and inventories are excluded from list of quick assets.<br />Quick ratio can be calculated as:-<br />Quick Ratio= Quick assets <br /> Current Liabilities<br />Quick Assets= Current Assets- (inventory + prepaid exp.)<br /> (In crores)<br />Particulars200720082009Quick assets564.02773.431175.19Total current liabilities388.90396.22597.55Quick ratio1.451.951.96<br /> <br />Interpertation:<br />The rule of thumb for quick ratio is 1:1 and the ratio’s of the company are quite above that level so their liquidity position is good to meet their current liabilities.<br />3)Absolute liquid ratio<br />Although debtors and bills receivables is generally more liquid than inventories yet there may be doubts regarding their realization in to cash immediately or in time. Hence some other are of the opinion that absolute liquid ratio also be calculated together with current ratio and quick ratio to find out the true picture of the firm.<br />Absolute ratio can be calculated as:-<br />A.L.R= Absolute Liquid Assets <br /> Current Liabilities<br />Absolute liquid assets = Marketable securities +Cash in hand +Cash at Bank<br /> (In crores) <br />Particulars200720082009Absolute liquid assets13.047.679.56Total current liabilities388.90396.22597.55Absolute liquid ratio0.0330.0190.016<br /> <br />Interpretation:<br />The rule of thumb for absolute liquid ratio is 0.5:1 which means the absolute liquid assets are half of the current liabilities.The company is not able to maintain this level in any of the year.It also reflects that company keeps very less of cash (in hand & at bank) as part of its current liabilities.<br />Solvency Ratios: <br />The term “solvency “ refers to the ability of a firm to meet its long term obligations. The long term indebtedness of a firm includes debenture holders, financial institutions providing medium and long term loans and other creditors selling goods on installment basis.<br />Types of Solvency ratio;s<br />Debt-Equity Ratio:- Long term debt<br /> Shareholders fund <br />Type of Ratio200720082009Debt Equity Ratio1.661.211.89<br /> <br /> Interpretation:<br />There has been an increase in the value of debt-equity ratio in 2009 as the company has raised a lot of funds from outside, so there has been an increase in outsiders debt leading to an increase in the value of debt equity ratio.<br />Turnover / Activity Ratio: <br />Inventory turnover Ratio:<br /> This ratio shows that how fast your inventory is sold. A high ratio is good from viewpoint of liquidity and vice versa. A low ratio would signify that inventory does not sell fast and stays on shelf or in warehouse for a long time.<br />Inventory turnover ratio = Cost of goods sold<br /> Average Inventory<br />Average inventory = Opening Inventory + Closing inventory<br /> 2<br />Inventory holding period = 365 <br /> Inventory Turnover Ratio <br />Type of Ratio200720082009Inventory Turnover Ratio5.876.687.79Inventory holding period62.1854.6446.85<br />Interpretation:<br />Inventory turnover ratio indicates how fast inventory is sold. A high ratio is good from the point of view of liquidity. A low signifies that inventory deos not sell fast and stays on the shelf for a long time. As the ratio is increasing so it is a sign of improving management of inventories in the firm.<br />Debtor Turnover Ratio<br />This is that ratio which provides us the details of how much time after our sale on credit converted into cash. This is very important ratio from accounting point of view because they have to keep a close check on the customers that they would not able to escape their liability to pay for on or before due date of bills.<br />Debtors Turnover Ratio = Net credit Annual sales<br /> Average Trade debtors <br />Debtors collection period = 365<br /> Debtor turnover ratio<br />Type of Ratio200720082009Debtors Turnover Ratio6.506.527.14Debtors collection period56.1555.9851.12<br /> <br />Interpretation:<br />Generally, higher the value of debtors turnover, the more efficient is the management of sales. The ratio is increasing from past two years showing that the recovery from debtors is becoming better with time.<br />Creditors Turnover Ratio<br />This ratio shows that the extent to which trade creditor’s can wait for their payment. This is an important tool of analysis as a firm can reduce its requirement of current assets by relying on supplier’s credit.<br /> Creditors turnover ratio = Net credit annual purchase<br /> Average trade creditors <br />Creditor payment period = 365<br /> Creditor Turnover Ratio<br />Type of Ratio200720082009Creditors Turnover Ratio7.266.786.02Creditors collection period50.2753.8360.63<br />Interpretation: <br />The creditors turnover ratio is increasing which shows that the creditors collection period is increasing. The amount is collected from debtors after 51 days of sale, and paid back to creditors after 60 days of making purchase.<br />Profitability Ratios<br />Profitability ratios are calculated to measure the operating efficiency of the company. Besides management of the company, creditors and owners are also interested in the profitability of the company. Creditors want to get repayment of principal regularly and owners want to get a required rate of return on their investment.<br />Profit Margin: The profit margin measures the relationship between profit and sales. As the profits may be gross or net, these are of two types: <br />1. Gross Profit Margin<br />2. Net Profit Margin<br />Gross Profit Margin<br />The G.P margin reflects the efficiency with which management produces each unit of product. This ratio measures the percentage of each sales rupee remaining after the firm has paid for its goods. This ratio is calculated by dividing the gross profit with sales.<br /> Gross Profit Ratio = G.P *100<br /> Net Sales <br />Type of Ratio200720082009Gross profit margin(%)17.9819.0918.95<br /> <br />Interpretation:<br />The reason for decrease in gross profit margin in 2009 is increase in manufacturing and other expenses. Even though there was an increase in sales but still the gross profit decreased as the percentage increase in Manufacturing and other expenses(35.98%) is more than the percentage increase in Sales20.54%).<br />Net Profit Ratio<br />The net profit margin is indicative of management’s ability to operate the business with sufficient success not only to recover from revenues of the period, the cost of the merchandise or services, the expenses of operating business and the cost of the borrowed funds, but also to leave a margin of reasonable compensation to the owners for providing their capital at risk, The ratio of net profit to sales essentially express the cost price effective of the operation.<br /> <br /> Net Profit Ratio = N.P *100<br /> Net sales<br />Type of Ratio200720082009Net profit Margin (%)14.1119.6910.60<br /> <br />Interpretation: <br />The reason for decrease in Net profit margin in 2009 is increase in manufacturing and other expenses. Even though there was an increase in sales but still the gross profit decreased as the percentage increase in Manufacturing and other expenses(35.98%) is more than the percentage increase in Sales20.54%).<br />TREND ANALYSIS<br />1) Trend analysis of Revenue:<br /> <br />Year200720082009Revenue(Rs million)180972488935180<br /> <br />Interpretation:<br />Turnover is increasing continuously in past three years which is a sign of company’s growing sales .<br />2) Trend Analysis of Net Profit<br />Year200720082009Net Profits(Rs million)231.49392.27260.74<br /> <br />Interpretation:<br />There has been a decrease in Net Profits in the year 2009 due to increase in manufacturing and other expenses of the company which was mainly due to increase in prices of raw materials used for making many of its products.<br />3) Trend analysis of Earning per Share:<br />Year200720082009Earning per share16.1426.8317.67<br />Interpretation:<br />The main reason for decrease in the EPS value is decrease in the Net profits of the company in the year 2009-10.<br />Part-B<br /> <br /> Title<br /> Effectiveness of promotional campaign for fertilizers in Jubilant Agribusiness.<br />CHAPTER -1<br />INTRODUCTION<br />INTRODUCTION<br />Role of fertilizer in increasing agricultural productivity and production during the last five and half decades has been well documented. A very close association is observed between growth of fertilizer and crop productivity in almost all the states of the country. No input in agriculture has seen as much growth as witnessed in the use of fertilizer in the recent history of agriculture. <br />Fertilizer consumption was around 67 thousand tonnes in early 1950s and it picked up very fast during mid 1950s. By early 1960s consumption of NPK crossed 400 thousand tonne and at the time of onset of green revolution consumption of fertilizer approached 1 million tonne. On per hectare basis, fertiliser consumption in India increased from 0.5 kg in early 1950s to 7 kg at the time of onset of green revolution in 1966-67. It is worth mentioning that in the pre green revolution post Independence period fertiliser consumption remained quite low but its growth rate was higher than that of crop production. Average growth rate in crop production (index) during 1950-51 to 1966-67 was 2.48 percent whereas average growth rate in fertiliser consumption in the same period was 19.41 percent. This shows that even in the pre green revolution period fertiliser was used as an important input for raising agricultural production.<br />The main reason for low use of fertiliser in pre green revolution period was that the use of this input was confined to a few cash crops. Principal crops like cereals and pulses which occupied more than 70 percent of gross area under cultivation were hardly applied inorganic fertiliser. Such crops were grown mainly for subsistence purpose based on low input requiring technology. Traditional varieties of crops grown at that time were not responsive to chemical fertilisers. The traditional varieties and methods of their production were sustainable but output was not large enough to meet the requirement of country.<br />New strains of wheat and paddy developed around mid 1960s were highly responsive to use of chemical fertilisers and offered much higher yield potential as compared to the traditional varieties. A big jump in use of fertiliser took place in the first two years of adoption of new varieties of paddy and wheat when fertiliser consumption increased from 784 thousand tonne during 1965-66 to 1539 thousand tonne during 1967-68. Since then fertiliser use in the country has moved on a continuously rising trend except a few short breaks (see Figure 1.1). <br />Fertiliser use remained sluggish during the oil crisis around mid 1970s but again recovered to robust growth path which continued till 1990-91. After this, growth in fertiliser use in the country has not been smooth. There has been a progressive deceleration in growth rates in fertiliser consumption and even a decline in some years. The slowdown in fertiliser use has been accompanied by sharp slowdown in growth rate of crop sector after 1996-97. <br />Growth in fertiliser consumption dropped below 2 percent during 1997-98 to 2005-06 and growth of crop sector went below 1 percent. This is causing a serious concern to policy makers and all others concerned with growth of agriculture sector.<br />Fig. 1.1: Trend in fertilizer use in India<br />In this context it is highly pertinent to find out how growth in agriculture output can be raised by increasing use of fertiliser. Use of fertiliser is quite low in most of the states of India and in most of the crops. Thus, considerable scope exists to raise agricultural production by raising fertiliser use. Further, use of plant nutrients in many parts of the country is highly concentrated towards nitrogenous fertiliser and a large imbalance has emerged between ratio of N, P and K as applied by farmers and the ratio that is considered optimum. This is raising all sorts of concerns regarding soil fertility, productivity and efficiency of fertiliser use.<br />In its concern to ensure equitable distribution of quality fertilizers to the farmers in time across the country and at affordable prices, the government has been exercising controls on manufacturing, imports, distribution, movement and prices, etc. of fertilizers from the very beginning. The measures adopted by the government from time to time have paid dividends. <br />The industry grew up and the consumption increased manifold resulting in enhanced agriculture production. However, of late, the controls have become excessive. The ‘cost plus’ method and ‘whichever is less’ approach of the government have left no scope for improvement in efficiency and innovations. Fiscal management of subsidy, which is nothing but reimbursement of difference between the cost incurred by the industry and the maximum price fixed by the government has also become unmanageable. <br />This is due to huge increase in subsidy amount in recent past. Ultimately, the existing system of routing the subsidy through the fertilizer industry is working in its detriment.<br />Fertilizer industry has been passing through very critical times during last few years. While the industry has been affected due to several changes in the government policies and market environment, it cannot afford to resign to fate. The industry will have to be resilient to change and demonstrate its resolve to rise like a phoenix. <br />The fertilizer industry is not only suffering financially but also earning a bad name. Infact, the industry is paying out of its own pocket to meet this obligation. The industry first passes on the subsidy to the farmers at the time of selling its products and gets reimbursement from the government at a later stage. <br />From time to time there have been suggestions from various quarters that the subsidy on fertilizers should be directly disbursed to farmers and not paid to the fertilizer companies which manufacture and or distribute fertilizers. The underlying assumption behind this suggestion presumably is that the subsidy benefits the industry and not the farmers. Nothing could be farther from the truth. This perception is based on a totally fallacious and inadequate understanding of the nature of the subsidy on fertilizers and the rationale behind it. In India, when people in responsible positions make a statement or pass an off the cuff remark on a topic it is taken as the gospel truth even if the person is not one who is expected to be informed about the subject.<br />The mounting bill of fertilizer subsidy and the concomitant pressure from various sectors for reducing it in the recent years have been so absorbing for the government that the fundamental issues concerning the development of agriculture in general and the fertilizer sector in particular have been put on the back burner, if not forgotten.<br />The lack of a stable and investor friendly fertilizer policy has already started affecting long-term business decision and sector. Delays in payment of large amounts of subsidy by the government, primarily due to inadequate provisions in the successive budgets and also due to procedural delays, besides significant under-recoveries due to disallowing costs under the pricing formulae has seriously affected the bottom lines of the manufacturing units and have rendered the industry unattractive for fresh investment.<br />The growth in consumption of fertilizers leveled off in the recent years. Even worse, is that the domestic production of fertilizers has not kept pace with even the sluggish growth in consumption. The country’s dependence on imports has increased significantly in the recent years and the government has been required to import large quantities of urea and DAP at exorbitant prices thereby further increasing the burden of subsidy. It is therefore, imperative that the government prepares realistic demand estimates for fertilizers in the medium to long-term, assesses the likely gap between the demand and supply estimates and more importantly, decides upon what proportion of the gap is to be met through domestic production and how much to import. This decision is crucial for providing direction for a long-term fertilizer policy.<br />Fertilizer subsidies are a production subsidy and not an income subsidy. Fertilizers have only one use and that is to improve soil fertility and thus agricultural productivity. Since we have to produce more and more from the limited and diminishing land available for agriculture, there cannot be a target group. Fertilizers should be “targeted” at all cultivable land and there should not be any discrimination on grounds of ownership of the land. <br />So keeping all this in mind the Hon’able Finance Minister in his budget speech (2009-2010) stated nutrient based subsidy with total decontrol in due course.<br />Prospective Scenario<br /><ul><li>The price decontrol will significantly raise the price of a fertilizer bag. The consumption of fertilizers will be depressed as was witnessed for phosphatic fertilizers after august 1992. The increased fertilizer prices would warrant concomitant increase in support price of farm produce.
In the movement decontrol scenario, suppliers attempting to cut cost and therefore trying to push their product in the markets close to their plant, crowding will be there. This non-rational distribution may necessitate in the initial phase some kind of distribution control at least within the state
When total price and movement decontrol takes place, the economics of operation in the distant markets will be further aggravated. The price variation of material of the same manufacturer/supplier will be tremendous depending on the cost of operation, mainly transportation and warehousing, and tiers in the distribution channel. There is going to be automatic market segmentation.
There will be general tendency to reduce price in the primary market to get a larger bite.
The situation will lead to high degree of replacement marketing. So luring the buyers will be on the top of the mind of the seller.
The new environment will shift focus from production to people (Marketing). In a liberalized environment, customer expectations become the fore most priority and ensuring customer satisfaction will be paramount to the players in the fertilizer industry.
There has to be an effective linkage between production, finance, logistics aspects and sale promotional aspects to develop efficiency for the improved productivity and profitability.
Since trade margins would shrink and the fertilizer prices will increase, the suppliers would try to reach farmers through the shortest route so as to keep selling price to farmers low. As a result, the multi-tier distribution system in some states is likely to see suppliers dispensing with intermediate tiers and confining to just one tier.
The demand for efficiency would also warrant reducing number of handling of the product. The tendency would be to position the product at the dealer point direct from railhead thereby reducing cost of extra handling, extra warehousing space requirement while also preventing deterioration of bags quality during handling.
The high cost of transportation can also prompt manufacturers of common product to enter into reciprocal arrangements (product exchange) of offering one’s product in a territory and receiving other’s in another territory while bagging the product in their own bags so as to retain their market at a distant location without incurring extra transportation cost. A lot will, however, depend on mutual understanding as the market would be competitive and the supplies will have to be assured in such kin of arrangement to sustain the market.
The focus of fertilizer companies in the competitive environment emerging out of the deregulation will be on providing all agri-inputs under one roof. This would increase farmer influx and develop customer loyalty through enhanced convenience and satisfaction.
Higher fertilizer costs would require concomitant higher credit availability. The fertilizer companies would do well to explore possibilities of establishing linkage for financing their product to increase offtake. Simultaneous insurance coverage of crops will help sustain fertilizer purchasing capacity of farmers even if the crop fails. This will also develop a strong brand loyalty of the farmers.
Decontrol will provide freedom of product mix to the industry. So far, only a limited number of products are being manufactured in the country while on scientific basis, there should be numerous products depending upon the soil structure, climate, crop, variety, stage of growth etc.
Decontrol of prices will lead to competition among fertilizer manufacturers and it will force them to be efficient both in production as well as in marketing operations. In order to expand their marketing area manufacturers/marketers will venture into new marketing areas and tap so far untapped markets.
The competition will lead to bring in efficiency in logistics i.e. transportation, handling and warehousing. Inventory management will also improve. All these will help in manufacturing the right type of fertilizers and making those available to the farmers. Packaging innovations, both in terms of size of bag and quality of packaging material will also come through to the advantage of farmers.
Since the product will not be widely different, services rendered to the farmers and the promotional work by the manufacturers will become the guiding factors for the purchase of fertilizers by the farmers. This will make the manufacturers to compete fiercely in providing service and education to farmers which will benefit the farming community.
The developmental marketing approach for expanding the fertilizer market will be productive in long run. However it will have to be backed by massive promotional and agricultural services activities on the farm land.</li></ul>As Jubilant is the largest producer of SSP in UP, but it cannot cater with the biggest market i.e Madhya pradesh and Rajasthan because of the distance and thus high freight charges.<br />So JUBILANT organosys decided to put up a plant in Chittorgarh to cater markets of MP and Rajasthan as these are not tapped by it and it had only 1.6% market share at these places and thus decided to run a promotional campaign in the following economic zone areas,<br />Rajasthan -Chittorgarh, Kota, Jhalawar, Baran, Udaipur.<br />Madhya Pradesh -Neemuch, Mandsaur, Ratlam, Ujjain, Indore.<br />This promotional campaign would help in;<br />Greater market share.<br />Higher realization and better value through freight savings.<br />To create market awareness.<br />Need of research<br />Fertilizer industry has been passing through very critical times during last few years. While the industry has been affected due to several changes in the Government policies and market environment, it cannot afford to resign to fate. The industry will have to be resilient to change and demonstrate its resolve to rise like a phoenix.<br />Innovative inputs in the areas of technology, financial engineering, supply chain management and marketing will be called for to face the current challenges.<br />Realizing the need to bring changes, make effort and add value, Jubilant Organosys launched a pilot campaign, and for this there was need of research, which would ultimately:<br />Benefits to the organization:<br />This research would help the company to evaluate its pilot campaign run<br />only in few regions of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh(Economic zone of Chittorgarh plant), so if it is a success then to roll it out to other regions also like Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Haryana, Punjab etc.<br />And to analyze the promotional method that is working best or is successful, and<br />accordingly concentrate and focus on that technique more and can invest on it.<br />This research would help to know the market preference and to understand the market, thereby,<br />increase the quantity in economic belt accordingly reducing the freight.<br />Benefits to the customers (farmers):<br />This research would help the farmers to become aware about the products and their use, and get products according to their expectations.<br />They will come to know about the quality, quantity and other products of the company and simultaneously win rewards.<br />CHAPTER -2<br />Literature Review<br />Literature Review <br />Review of literature is the review of past researches which have been conducted in same field. This review is done in order to have a glance about the result of the previous researches. This helps in selecting the objective for further studies. Literature review can gives an overview or acts as s stepping stone in a limited time. The selection of available documents ( both published or unpublished ) on the topic, which contains information, ideas, data and evidences written from a particular standpoint to fulfill certain aims or express certain views on the nature of the topic and how it is to be investigated, and effective evaluation of these documents in relation to the research being proposed. The major purpose of review of literature is:<br /><ul><li>Search out existing knowledge on the topic.
Goyal (2010) in her paper titled “Information, direct access to farmers, and rural market performance in Central India” estimated the impact of a change in procurement strategy of a private buyer in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Beginning in October 2000, internet kiosks and warehouses were established that provide wholesale price information and an alternative marketing channel to soy farmers in the state. Using a new market-level dataset, the estimates suggest a significant increase in soy price after the introduction of kiosks, supporting the predictions of the theoretical model. Moreover, there is a robust increase in area under soy cultivation. The results point towards an improvement in the functioning of rural agricultural markets.
Mishra et al (2010) in their paper “Nutrient based subsidy (NBS) & support systems for ecological fertilization in Indian agriculture” remarked that the chemical and synthetic fertilizers, particularly Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK), are highly subsidized. The amount of subsidy on this has grown exponentially during the last three decades from a mere Rs. 60 crore during 1976-77 to an astronomical Rs. 40,338 crore during 2007-08. In 2008-09, it shot up to Rs 96,606 crores. The budget allocation for 2009-10 for fertilizer subsidies was Rs 3 49,980 crores and is having similar estimate for 2010-11 . This huge rise in subsidy is attributed to inflation, and subsequent price fluctuations in the international fertilizer market.
Thomas (2010) in his study “ PPP for inclusive growth of Agriculture Marketing” remarked that the ultimate objective of all efforts is to ensure that the fruits of development reach the lowest stakeholders, the marginal and landless farmers. Ensuring a level playing field for farmers by creating an atmosphere of competition among buyers, organizing farmers into formal and informal groups to meet requirement of volume and quality, capacity building for more efficient production and post harvest management with adequate credit facilities to farmers are some of the elements that requires attention in the Agri marketing reform process.
Nair (2009) in her article “Indian fertilizer industry, changing with times” analyzed status of policies and trends in the Indian fertilizer industries in concomitance with the changed world perception. Under the circumstances, When increasing population will put pressure on the land, increased food output can only be realized form an equally decreasing land area which means we are looking at an input intensive agriculture. Fertilizer industry has much bigger role to play in this situation, where it not only has to make sure adequate nutrients are supplied, but also that these nutrients fertilize the plant and not the soil.
Rajagopal (2009) in his critical analysis “Converting hostile farmers into Happy Farmers” outline the measures to convert the ‘hostile’ farmers to ‘happy’ farmers. Through advanced technologies and constant encouragement it is possible. The foremost requirement to make them happy is to ‘care the uncared’ and to ‘reach the unreached’ sections of farmers by the scientists and extension personnel.
Shrotriya (2009) in his paper “Fertilizer market and agricultural services” highlighted that agriculture services, which are customer relation management activities in fertilizer business, are also undergoing a change and focus is on creating a permanent bondage with customer through various group activities. Fertilizer market has been classified as undeveloped, under developed and developed markets. Various programmes of agricultural services which can be undertaken in different market segment are highlighted in this paper.
Singh et al (2009) in their paper “Food and nutrition security-Sustainability through paradigm shift in fertilizer policy” stated that the subsidy scheme which was developed for promoting fertilizer use as well safeguard investment in fertilizer industry has outlived its role. To promote balanced fertilizer use and soil health correction the government has floated an idea of nutrient based subsidy scheme. In this paper attempts has been made to focus those key areas where maximum growth in agriculture production can be achieved by balanced fertilizer use and correcting soil health.
Dutrenit et al (2009) in their article “Successful organizational learning in the management of agricultural research and innovation” stated that Traditional innovation and extension systems seem to have become less effective, and new approaches and instruments are needed. To develop these instruments, all actors in agricultural innovation systems have to build up their innovation capabilities.
Thaker et al (2009) in their paper “Fertilizer subsidy in India: who are the beneficiaries?” examines trends in fertilizer subsidy and the issue of distribution of fertilizer subsidies between farmers and fertilizer industry, across regions/ states, crops and different farm sizes, says that the proposed policy of direct transfer of fertiliser subsidy to farmers is misconceived and inappropriate. Agricultural subsidies that encourage production and productivity have been widely criticized because of the cost of subsidies and they are perceived to be far from uniformly distributed. Therefore, there is need to understand the fertilizer subsidy distribution pattern to assess whether the subsidy benefits the target group(s), an argument often made while giving any farm subsidy.
Davis et al (2009) in their study “Knowledge and innovation for agricultural development” stated that Every day, millions of rural people who depend on agriculture confront technical, economic, social, cultural, and traditional obstacles to improving their livelihoods. To cope with these obstacles, the rural poor draw on indigenous knowledge and innovate through local experimentation and adaptation. Indigenous knowledge alone, however, is not enough to deal with the complex problems facing the agricultural sector. Formal and informal knowledge and innovation must therefore be linked to accelerate sustainable agricultural development.
Vigneri et al (2009) in their study “Impact of the global financial and economic situation on agricultural markets and food security” mentioned that Agricultural prices have fallen heavily since their peaks in the first half of 2008: some are already at the levels seen in early 2007 before the recent spike began. Thanks in part to economic downturn, prices are expected to continue falling in 2009. Prices of inputs such as fertiliser and oil, and ocean freight rates, have also come down; and by even larger fractions than those of outputs. Food security and nutrition depend on the incomes of the poor and local price levels of foods, as well as general health conditions.
Aggarwal (2008) in his study “Global climate change and Indian agriculture: Impacts, adaptation and mitigation” stated that Agriculture contributes 28% of the Indian greenhouse gases emissions, primarily due to methane emission from rice, enteric fermentation in ruminant animals, and nitrous oxides from application of manures and fertilizers to the soils. Potential approaches to reduce these emissions include mid-season drainage or alternate drying in rice, approaches to increase N-use efficiency and soil carbon, and improvement in livestock diet. Simple adaptation strategies, such as change in planting dates and varieties could help in reducing impacts of climate change to some extent.
Pandey et al(2008) in their paper “Fertiliser growth, imbalances and subsidies: trends and implications” examined trend in fertiliser use at national and state level and estimates imbalances in use of plant nutrients in different regions. The paper estimates regional disparities in fertiliser use and in benefits of fertiliser subsidy from different angles. Trend in fertiliser subsidy is presented in nominal and real terms and distortions caused by the subsidies are discussed at length. Productivity of fertiliser is compared across states to find out the pockets where fertiliser use needs to be promoted most to get the best return. Finally, implications of reduction in fertiliser subsidies are seen on growth of output and food security, and a way out is explored to contain subsidy bill without causing adverse impact on production.
Swaminathan (2006) in his article “Agriculture cannot wait the year of the farmer” summarized the main features of the year of agricultural renewal programme. Integrated action on the following five points will help to get our agriculture back on the rails,1.Undertake soil health enhancement, 2.Promote water harvesting, 3.Initiate immediately credit reforms, 4.Bridge the growing gap between scientific know-how and field level do-how, 5. Gap between what rural producer gets and the urban consumer pays.
Mittal (2006) in his paper “Role of ICT in fertiliser and agriculture sector and future prospects” outlined the emerging business environment with the passing of Information technology act,2000 and the consequent prospects for fertiliser industry and evaluated the possibilities of improving the efficiency and effectiveness of fertiliser industry with a well conceived IT deployment.
Deshpande (2003) in his paper “Value added marketing” discussed that as to what role Marketing should play and how differently to bring vibrancy to fertiliser industry. While throwing the ideas, Value added marketing emerges as a potential tool for strategizing beyond marketing.
Dhingra et al (2003) in his paper “Fertiliser marketing under decontrolled scenario” envisaged prospective scenario emerging that of price and movement decontrol as to how industry players may react to the situation and what may be the priorities before the industry as well as the government to go over the imbroglio.
Mathur et al (2003) in his article “Focus on retaining customers” stated that the reach of the farmer to information technology, over the period of time, has increased tremendously. The policy changes in the fertiliser sector have adversely affected the profitability of the fertilizer industry. This has forced the industry to look for cost cutting measures and allied business adding to profitability, so those who wish to remain must have a solid customer base.
Gahlaut (2002) in his article “Fertilizer policy in India and International trade” stated that to provide fertilizers to farmers at affordable prices, fertilizer policy in India is based on state subsidy and is going through major changes to take care of ballooning subsidy burden as well as managing global scenario including WTO regulations. The international fertilizer prices are basically determined by the demand and supply and debate over “produce” or “import” options goes on and A balanced approach to produce or import option is required to contain stability in international prices.
Rao(1984) in his article “Fertiliser Marketing: Impact of Governmental Policies and Programmes” stated that The Government of India and the state governments play a very significant role in shaping policies which are essential for stimulation of fertiliser consumption and the growth of fertiliser industry. There is no area in the entire gamut of fertiliser production, consumption or imports which is left untouched in one way or the other by the impact of various policy decisions of the government. Be it fertiliser production, distribution, marketing or promotion, government's ubiquitous role is clearly visible in every facet. This paper attempts a discussion on some of the important policies and programmes of the government and their influence on fertiliser marketing in the country.</li></ul>LIMITATIONS OF STUDY<br /> No study is complete in itself therefore this study also has some limitations.<br />As the sample size was 100, but still it cannot bring out the accurate results.<br />Quality of information is highly dependent on the knowledge and mindset of the respondents.<br />Shortage of time.<br />Objectives<br /><ul><li>To study the effects of promotional campaign and the improvements required.
To analyze various methods employed for pilot campaign.
To asses the level of awareness for ‘RAMBAN’ among the farmers.
To check the impact of promotional campaign on the purchase.
To create awareness among the farmers regarding other products.</li></ul>CHAPTER-3<br />Research methodology<br />Research Methodology<br />Scope:-<br />Duration: 8 weeks<br />Sector: Fertilizers (Agribusiness)<br />Area: Madhya Pradesh & Rajasthan<br />Research Design:-<br />A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.<br />Different Research Designs are:-<br />1.) Exploratory research design.<br />2.) Descriptive research design.<br />3.) Causal research design.<br /> Both Experimental and Descriptive Design was used as research design.<br />Descriptive design because the research is predesigned and arranged and Experimental because here pre and post effects of promotional campaign were studied.<br />As these studies are those which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group, and help in prediction and comparison also, fulfilling the objective.<br />Data collection<br />Both primary and secondary data. <br />Primary data was collected through schedule and unstructured interviews.<br />And in case of secondary data magazines, journals etc.were used.<br />Sampling<br />Sample method is that method in which data is collected about the sample on a group of items taken from the population for examination and conclusions are drawn on their basis.<br />Sampling Methods<br /> <br /> <br /> Probability Non Probability <br />1) Simple Random Sampling 1) Convenience<br />2) Systematic Sampling 2) Judgmental<br />3) Stratified Sampling 3) Quota<br />4) Cluster Sampling 4) Snowball<br />5) Area Sampling <br />6) Multistage Sampling <br /> <br />Universe: All those farmers who use fertilizers (SSP) in the world.<br />Population: All those farmers who use fertilizers (SSP) in India.<br />Sampling Unit:- All those people who use fertilizers in Madhya Pradesh & Rajasthan.<br />Sample Size:- Sample size here is 305, but there are 100 respondents with whom proceeded further, because questions were framed like that only.<br />Sampling Technique:- Out of the above mentioned Non-Probability sampling method is chosen and out of which, Convenience sampling as the sampling technique is selected, because convenience of location and accessibility.<br />CHAPTER-4<br />Result & Discussion<br />Data Analysis & Discussions<br />Analyzing survey data is an important and exciting step in the survey process. It is the time that you may reveal important facts about your respondents, uncover trends that you might not otherwise have known existed, or provide facts to support your plans. By doing in-depth data comparisons, you can begin to identify relationships between various data that will help you understand more about your respondents, and guide you towards better decisions.<br />Table 4.1 No. of responses for use of fertilizer.<br />OptionsNo. of ResponsesPercentageYes30098.4No50.16<br />figure 4. SEQ figure_4. * ARABIC 1<br />Analysis<br />When asked to about 305 farmers whether they use fertilizer or not, out of those 300 said yes an only 5 said no.<br />Interpretation<br />It shows that today maximum people rely on fertilizers and the rest who don’t use fertilizers are dependent on cow dung and manure.<br />Table 4.2 Responses for different kind of fertilizers used<br />OptionsResponses(total)AveragePhosphatic fertilizer2760.35Nitrogenous fertilizer3000.38Potash fertilizer1850.23Organic fertilizer60.01Speciality nutrition200.025Total789<br />figure 4. SEQ figure_4. * ARABIC 2<br />Analysis<br />When farmers were asked about the kind of fertilizer, maximum answered nitrogenous fertilizers followed by phosphatic and potash fertilizers.<br />Interpretation<br />This shows that maximum people use mainly urea as fertilizer followed by phosphates and rest according to the requirement of the grain/crop, the low use of the organic manure correlates with the fast depleting organic content in the soil, however a few farmers are adopting water soluble speciality nutrition NPK combinations as foliare applications.<br />Table 4.3 Types of phosphatic fertilizers used<br />OptionsResponsesPercentageDAP1530.51SSP1000.36MAP170.06Others60.02<br />figure 4. SEQ figure_4. * ARABIC 3<br />Analysis<br />As Jubilant mainly deal in phosphatic fertilizer and particularly SSP, so when farmers were asked about the type of phosphatic fertilizer they use, maximum i.e 153 people replied for DAP followed by SSP i.e 100.<br />Interpretation<br />This shows that farmers mainly use DAP i.e Di ammonium phosphate followed by SSP i.e Single Super phosphate, rest of the questions were based on this only, people who replied for SSP were asked questions further and rest were not.<br />Table 4.4 Brand preference of different farmers<br />OptionsTotal of Ranks(Lower the better)Ramban281Girnar419Khaitan133Double horse197Uttam494Others576<br />figure 4. SEQ figure_4. * ARABIC 4<br />Analysis<br />When farmers were asked to give ranks to the above brands, Khaitan was clearly the most preferred brand followed by Double horse and Ramban with clear 2nd and 3rd rank respectively.<br />Interpretation<br />This shows that people prefer Khaitan, and if Khaitan is not available they go for other brands like Double horse and Ramban, but this happens very rare as Khaitan’s delivery system is very strong.<br />Table 4.5 Sources from where the farmer came to know about RAMBAN<br /><ul><li>OptionsResponsesPercentageAlready knew1515From promotional schemes5555From whole sellers1414From field force1212Others44</li></ul>figure 4. SEQ figure_4. * ARABIC 5<br />Analysis<br />The sources from where farmers came to know about RAMBAN were promotional campaign with highest of 55 responses, 15 people already knew about it and rest from the whole sellers and field force.<br />Interpretation<br />Promotional campaign helped a lot to make people aware of the Ramban, so it is very necessary to run such a campaign from time to time.And even whole sellers are needed to be informed about the product, indicating better channel management, as it is also a good source from where a farmer can come to know about the product.<br />Table 4.6 Promotional material through which farmers came to know about RAMBAN<br /><ul><li>OptionsResponsesPercentageBanners1010Wall paintings3030Posters2525Ramban Dhamaka coupons2525Promotional bags1010</li></ul>figure 4. SEQ figure_4. * ARABIC 6<br />Analysis<br />Promotion material through which farmers came to know about Ramban were wall paintings with 30 responses followed by 25 each for posters and Dhamaka coupons, followed by banners and promotional bags.<br />Interpretation<br />This shows that the promotional campaign is working well, and it is needed to work more on it, so that more and more people could be made aware.<br />Table 4.7 Ranking of the promotional activities according to the farmers<br />OptionsTotal of RanksBanners436Wall paintings381Posters321Ramban Dhamaka coupons163Promotional bags199<br />figure 4. SEQ figure_4. * ARABIC 7<br />Analysis<br />The least total of ranks is for Ramban dhamaka coupons, this shows that these are number 1, followed by promotional bags at 2nd and posters at 3rd position.<br />Interpretation<br />This shows that coupons are liked by most of the farmers, followed by bags and posters so Company needs to work more on these to attract more and more farmers and if other promotional materials are not giving results then either work more on them or leave them and only concentrate on the fruitful one.<br />Table 4.8 Awareness of other products of RAMBAN among farmer<br />OptionsResponsesPercentageBhoo sanjeevani77Nutra Plus33Bento-Sulph1010Vam-C4040Sulpha-gold4040<br />figure 4. SEQ figure_4. * ARABIC 8<br />Analysis<br />When asked about the awareness of the other products of Ramban, Around 40% of the farmers were aware of Vam-C and Sulpha-gold, followed by Bento-sulph with 10% and very few were aware about Bhoo sanjeevani and Nutra- plus.<br />Interpretation<br />This shows that Vam-C and Sulpaha-gold are well known products but for other products more awreness is needed, so promotional campaign should be concentrated on other products also.<br /> Table 4.9 Importance of various factors<br />FactorsMeanFarm yield1.7Soil health0.6Crop protection0.54Price0.94Availability1.71<br />figure 4. SEQ figure_4. * ARABIC 9<br />Analysis<br />The various factors which are important for selection of crops were Farm yield, Soil health, Crop protection, Price and Availability, and the mean scores for these are as follows 1.7, 0.6, 0.54, 0.94, and 1.75 respectively.<br />Interpretation<br />Respondents believe that Availability and Farm yield are the most important factors as their mean scores are 1.75 and 1.7 respectively, for selection of a fertilizer, whereas they feel that soil health and crop protection are not that important which I feel shows their ignorance as these factors are also equally important.<br />Table 4.10 Satisfaction of parameters regarding RAMBAN<br />OptionsResponsesPercentageYes1818No8282<br />figure 4. SEQ figure_4. * ARABIC 10<br />Analysis<br />When farmers were asked whether Ramban satisfies all the above asked parameters, majority i.e 82 people replied no and only 18 replied yes.<br />Interpretation<br />This shows that farmers are not satisfied with the product and hence improvement is needed to be done.<br />Table 4.11 Improvements suggested by the farmers <br />OptionsReponsesPercentageDelivery4453.6Quality2125.61Affordability910.9Presentation44.8Other44.8<br />figure 4. SEQ figure_4. * ARABIC 11<br />Analysis<br />So for solution of the above, farmers wer