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This is a presentation for my six weeks Industrial Training at Jyoti CNC aAutomation ltd., Rajkot.
It describes Process of manufacturing of CNC machines.
Have fun !
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  2. 2. FOUNDRY
  4. 4. BASIC PROCESSES •Pattern making •Core making •Mould making •Clamping •Pouring •Cooling •Removal of casting •Primary Finishing •Inspection
  6. 6. FOUNDRY SHOP Pattern shop Pattern material : wood and thermocol Pattern handling is done using pillar crane. Lacquer coating is done on pattern for easy removal. Core making Fresh : used = 3 : 2 Yellow sand coating is used for core, brown sand coating for mould.
  7. 7. MOULD PREPARATION The molds of size from 1000*800 mm to 3500*2500 mm are prepared by the machines available Use of Fast loop molding techniques supplied by OMEGA, U.K. The fresh and used sand in proportion of 1 : 3. During winter and monsoon heating of mold is done to reduce setting time. Mixture of sand and resin is used. Resin : GHA FUR 909. Imported from GARGI Foundry chemicals, Mumbai.
  9. 9. POURING LINE Pouring process for these graded materials is accomplished on mechanized pouring and cooling lines equipped with 91 plates. The cores are placed in mould cavity with the help of core prints and supporting chaplets. The molten metal is taken to the mould by using overhead crane at higher temperature around 1700° C. Then poured metal is allowed to cool for certain period of time.
  11. 11. FURNACE For melting, Jyoti has installed 3 tonnes capacity Induction Furnace. This furnace is supported by 10 tonne induction holding furnace. Graded castings are produced as per IS210 standard of different grades-FG260, FG300, SG400/50, SG600/3, etc. All batches of molten metal are tested for their chemical composition.
  12. 12. MOULD BREAKER Mould is taken to the Mould Breaker (Maxtech). Knock-off process is done with pneumatically operated vibrator and the wasted sand is re-cycled through sand reclamation plant. Remaining sand is separated by labours from casting.
  13. 13. CASTING PROCESS CONT. Heat treatment and Shot Blasting  Casted components thus produced are relieved of stresses ensuring life time accuracy of CNC machines in a gas fired furnace which has a capacity to process castings of 20MT in a single batch.  After that cast product is taken to Shot Blasting unit for components weighing less than 2 tonnes.  Finally the castings are protected with superior primer coating and chemicals. Fatling Area  Component is tested first  Visual testing and Ultrasonic testing  machining is done using hand grinders Sand storage  Sand storage area is situated at backside of the foundry unit.
  14. 14. CHEMICAL TESTING  Sand testing, raw material testing and scrap testing is done  Sand testing consists of three tests:  F.S. number  SIEVE testing machine  indicates mesh number of sand particles.  facing sand is in between 45-55  backing sand this range is 65-75  Clay content - clay washer  ADV –  Acid Demand Value  Acid and resin content in sand sample  For raw material and scrap testing, microscopic analysis is done using spectrometer.
  15. 15. FUTURE EXPANSION •900MT per month to 1,500 MT per month and for that addition of 2 melting furnace of 5MT capacity. •A sand mixer : capacity of 45 ton/hour for large castings up to 20 tons. •Rs.196.23 million for expansion of foundry Rs.90.75 million for the civil works Rs.105.48 million for purchasing machines.
  17. 17. Machining shop of Jyoti CNC Automation pvt. Ltd. Is located at unit-3 of company premises. Machining unit majorly consists of: Machining shop-1 Machining shop-2 Machining shop-3 Grinding shop-1 Grinding shop-2 Raw material inlet & dispatch area A quality control and measurement laboratory.
  18. 18. MAJOR PROCESSES •Jyoti has developed sophisticated design, manufacturing and assembly capabilities, to meet the needs of today’s industries. •The components made from casting process, are machined to give them accurate size and shapes. •For that CNC machines are used. Following operations are carried out on raw parts to give them desired finish and accuracy: Turning Facing Milling Grinding Drilling Boring etc.
  19. 19. PARTS TO BE MACHINED Following parts are machined at machining unit: •Bearing covers •Tool sockets •Jigs& fixture parts •Main spindle shaft •Work table •Bed of CNC machines Raw parts are imported either from the company foundry (a major portion of needed parts for CNC machines is cast in the foundry located in company itself) or purchased by order from outside means.
  20. 20. MACHINING SHOPS FEATURES Main attractions of machine shops at Jyoti: •Jyoti has five phase CNC machining centre which contributes to the excellence towards the quality & productivity through head changer and multi tool ATC. •The finest Horizontal Machining Center in mother machineries assets are capable of producing accurate components with high productivity through double pallet system. •One of the best Horizontal Machining centers in our range of mother machineries, is the one having pallet system with 60 tools Automatic Tool Changer. •Almost all the machines use programming controller manufactured by ‘Siemens pt. Ltd.’
  21. 21. MACHINE COMPANIES AND MODELSAlthough a significant amount of mother machinery at machining unit is from foreign companies, many of the machines are manufactured by Jyoti itself. Some other manufacturing companies of mother machines are:  Huron pvt. Ltd. – Germany  Nicola correa  DMC ltd. Here are some model no. of machines used at machining shop: • VMC -640 • DX-250 • ATM-160 • VMC-430 • AM-430
  24. 24. MULTI TASKING TURN-MILL CENTER Various possibilities of configuration with spindles and turrets is developed to equip the production facilities. •Main advantage : Simultaneous machining of several parts and various operations in order to obtain significant gain.
  25. 25. VERICAL-3 AXIS CNC MACHINES This category contains: •C Frame Machines (PX Series) •C Frame Machines (VMC Series) •Fixed Table Travelling Column : Small Footprint •Fixed Table Travelling Column : Big Footprint •Double Column Machines
  26. 26. VERTICAL -5 AXIS CNC MACHINES This category contains: •High Speed Mono block Machines •High Speed Bridge Type Machines •High Speed Machines - (5 - Axis) •Double Column High Speed Machines
  27. 27. HORIZONTAL MACHINING CENTERS This types of machines are basically 4-axis Horizontal Machining Centers with Rotary Table (TRIM) with APC. It contains machines of HMC series.
  28. 28. GRINDING SHOPS •Jyoti CNC machining department also consists of two grinding shops. •All the critical parts are finished using various grinding CNC machines. •One more feather in cap is the unique machine – the ultimate solution in cylindrical grinding. It gives finest accuracy finishes to the machine parts that is in perfect tune with mission of the company. •Grinding Shops consists of: • Cylindrical grinding CNC m/c • Rotary horizontal-spindle surface grinding • Rotory vertical-spindle surface grinding CNC m/c.
  30. 30. QUALITY CONTROL & MEASUREMENT LAB•Machining department of Jyoti is innovatively facilitated with modern accurate testing and measurement laboratory. •Jyoti believes in the quote “Quality is avoidance of financial loss to society after the product is shipped.” •Before leaving the plant, the Jyoti CNC machine is passed through a series of quality assurance tests. •Jyoti has established a system of quality in line with the ISO 9001:2000. •Jyoti has enhanced quality testing and measuring capabilities that incorporate sophisticated measuring equipments like • Co-ordinate measuring machine (CMM) • Roundness testing machine • Profile projector • Various gauges and test charts • Autocollimator
  31. 31. COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE•3D Coordinate measuring machine which is compatible for providing increased accuracy and measuring speed that helps to increase the quality of processes and products. CMM is also used for Reverser Engineering.
  32. 32. ROUNDNESS TESTING MACHINEJyoti uses the state of art roundness testing to check Cylindricity, Circularity, roundness, concentricity and perform piston analysis of machine parts.
  33. 33. AUTOCOLLIMATOR •Quality testing instrument for checking the flatness, straightness, angle and squareness of machine parts through Precision electro- optical measurement programs in conjunction with a DA series autocollimator & reflector having an interface with the computer. Its dual axis digital systems are capable of measuring accuracy in terms of fraction of micro.
  35. 35. ASSEMBLY LINES & TYPE OF LAYOUT Assembly unit is mainly divided into three lines: 1)HMC line 2)TMC line 3)VMC line including ATMs Fixed position layout is used to assemble different CNCs. In this, after fixation of leveling points, all the other mountings are done at same position.
  36. 36. The sub-assembly required in the machinery is carried out in different department. The requirements of customers are written on the notes stick to the machine. After completion of mounting, the machine is carried to dispatch unit.
  37. 37. MAIN COMPONENTS Head-stock: It supports chuck and its mechanism. It posses system which clamps and de- clamps of work-piece.
  38. 38. Tail-stock: It possesses the supporting elements.
  39. 39. Bolt-screw : Bolt-screw always posses bolt-nut which converts its rotating motion to linear motion
  40. 40. Turret assembly : It holds tools to work on job. Generally it has ten to twelve tools.
  41. 41. Electrical panel : It contains lots of electrical and electronic devices which leads it to automatic.
  42. 42. Motors : There are four different motors. One for revolving of chuck, another two for bolt-screw and last motor for revolving of turret.
  43. 43. Pumps : There are two pumps in DX-250 and DX-150. One is for hydraulic oil transmission and the other is for coolant circulation. Coolant circulation system : This system circulates coolant which aims to cool down the working area and also directs the removal of chip.
  44. 44. Hydraulic pressurized oil system : There is oil sump which contain pressurized oil and one pump for circulation. One most important component for hydraulic system is solenoid valve. There are two valves require for it. Each solenoid valve is electrically controlled for oil circulation.
  45. 45. Lubrication system : This system is require to reduce friction and increase efficiency. 3 Point leveling system : It require for leveling of machine to the floor which maintain minimum vibration. Outer sheet metal body : It provide safety to user and gives good looks. Operating numeric control system with screen : It operates automatic system and also provide connection to PC for data transmission.
  46. 46. STEPS OF ASSEMBLY First step of assembly is to do 3 point leveling by spirit level and then tight the other 3 points.
  47. 47. •Second step is scrapping to remove the paint from guide- ways for fitting alum. Then worker clean the surface by diesel and air cleaner. •Then fit the alum and it is supported by eccentric head bolts. For this process worker is use keys and “Mac Master” which is torque controlling equipment with minimum effort.
  48. 48. •Then worker uses spray-cleaner to remove dust from it and mount blocks on it. Then worker does “Auto-collimator Test” for measuring allowances. • This is very important test as saddle is mounted on it. So, it must be perfect.
  49. 49. •Same process carried out for alum of saddle and then bolt- screw is mounted on saddle with two bearing and its run- out testing is carried out and then again top and side of bolt-screw is maintained in tolerance limit with help of dial- gauge indicator. •Dial gauge indicator is most important testing device for which minimum reading is 2 µm and 10 µm for different purposes.
  50. 50. •After that saddle is mounted on CNC bed with the help of hoists available in assembly unit. Then bolt-screw is mounted on CNC bed for z-axis. Than the same process is carried out as it is carried out for bolt-screw of saddle. Then lock-nut is mounted on it.
  51. 51. •After that, worker fixes the alum on tail-stock’s guide-ways. Then cleaning process is carried out and preparing alum with paint for mounting of surface plate on it. •As surface plate is not accurately machined, scrapping is carried out till it slides thoroughly on alum. •During this process, the other worker mounts head-stock on its base. •After that, chuck, pulley, motor and spindle is mounted on head- stock. Then mandrel is mounted on chuck and its alignment test is carried out.
  52. 52. •Than, squareness test is carried out for x-axis bolt-screw. •Center line of head-stock and tail-stock must be co-linear, If not then it is carried out with the help of height-gauge. •After that telescopic cover is mounted on saddle to cover sliding mechanism from coolant. •Subsequently, hydraulic oil system is fitted with its all mountings like oil sump with nitrogen gas accumulator, solenoid valves, pipe.
  53. 53. •After that sheet metal body(cabin) is fitted. For preventing leakage of coolant, copper stripes is rigidly fitted with silicon gel. •Then electric panel board is fitted to machine and numeric control operating system is mounted on it with colourful screen and data transmission slot is given for data transmission with PC. •Thus, mounting of CNCs are done.
  54. 54. DIFFERENT TESTS AND QUALITY CONTROL •First test is Auto-collimator which is performed for perfect alignment of L.M. with base. In this process, Auto-collimator ,a light sensing device, is used. For final fixing of L.M., they provide 5 µm for side and 10 µm for top allowances. •Then alignment test for bolt-screw is carried out by dial gauge. In this process tolerance must be less than 10 µm. With the use of mandrel , alignment test of head-stock with tolerances of 10 µm is carried out. •For squareness test, sq. gauge is required for alignment test of saddle’s bolt-screw after mounting of pulley and head-stock motor.
  55. 55. •For final inspection of whole assembly, laser testing and ball-bar testing is carried out. These instruments are very costly and precise in its function. •In laser testing, they test the pitch of bolt-screw for different cycles with different interval of space and compare graph of forward and reverse half cycle. •In ball-bar testing, different type of errors is tested and eliminated as maximum as possible. •After that trial operation like turning, facing, boring is carried out on standard specimen.
  58. 58. SHEET METAL OPERATION EQUIPMENTS 1.LASER cutting machine •Trumpf machine of Germany having Laser cutting technology. • It is semiautomatic type and only loading and unloading of sheet is done, all other operations are done by machine itself according to program given to it.
  59. 59. CONT. 2. Bending machine • True band 5050 • Trumpf CNC press brake machine 3.Robotic welding machines 4.Grinding equipments
  60. 60. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION •First sheet is cut by Laser cutting CNC machine which cuts the sheet to the required size. •Then sheet is bent to the required shape in bending machine. •After bending spot welding is done to attach number of sheets together. •Before dispatching the sheet to the assembly unit grinding of sheet is done.
  63. 63. PAINT PROCESS It is mainly divided into two parts: 1) Pre treatment + CED coating 2) Powder coating plan 1)Pre treatment + CED coating - It consists of 7 tanks pre-treatment process followed by CED primer coating - The process of pretreatment coating is tabulated below:
  64. 64. CONT. Powder coating plant - This unit consists of a powder coating oven. - There are 4 powder coating booth in line of different colors. Paint shop delivers sheet metal materials duly powder coated or painted with CED primary coating and casting are delivered with CED primary coating and followed by baking.
  67. 67. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT •Jyoti has developed a well versed and a versatile R & D centre to keep up the company with the international trends towards the automation and manufacturing excellence. •The exclusive R & D centre is been established to design and develop technologically advanced world class machines for the better quality, reliability & productivity to cater to sophisticated Aerospace, Automobile and Defence applications where high level of accuracies and reliabilities are inevitable.
  68. 68. •The Active R & D team of Jyoti has achieved outstanding success by developing TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) friendly machines, CNC Machines with Linear Technology of higher dynamics and productivity, in house developed software like “POTS” etc. •R & D activities here are conducted through a young team of 87 technocrat professionals facilitated by latest softwares, & assembly/testing and calibration equipments from world renowned manufacturers. •The R & D Centre of Jyoti is been Dedicated to an ancient design genius Leonardo Da’ Vinci who designed the First Lathe machine in early of 16th Century.
  69. 69. TRAINING DEPARTMENT •Training and Development holds a special attention and place at Jyoti. Even CNC Operators are equivalent to Service Engineers after undergoing few years of Training and Development activities that they provide. Each new employee is brought up speedily so that he can be productive as quickly as possible. •They are arranging various training programs which can help them to learn and practice their field work in depth.
  70. 70. All the new employs are trained in their respective fields. Few are mentioned bellow: 1.Assembly 2. Machine Shop 3. Designing and Development 4. Electrical Department 5. Quality Control 6. Workers/Supervisors Development Program 7.Industrial Safety & Use of Fire Fighting Tools 8. Seminar on "Energy Conservation“ 9. Re-Information of ISO-9000/2001 & SAP 10.Education program.
  71. 71. They firmly believe in old saying "Give m an a fish; yo u fe e d him fo r a day, Te ach him ho w to fish; yo u fe e d him fo r a life tim e . "
  72. 72. REFERENCES
  73. 73. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
  74. 74. THANK YOU…