Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

SOC2002 Lecture 6

592 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

SOC2002 Lecture 6

  1. 1. SOC2002: Sociological Analysis and Research Methods LECTURE 6: Data Collection (2) Secondary data Lecturer: Bonnie Green [email_address]
  2. 2. The research process: today… Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 LECTURES 5, 6, 7, 9 & 10 Research question Research design Data collection Data analysis Interpretation Literature review, and/or field reconnaissance Choosing indicators & Project Planning Ethics Quality
  3. 3. Data Collection (2): Overview <ul><li>Numerous data collection techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Today, some of the techniques used to obtain quantitative data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary data </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Secondary data <ul><li>Secondary data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collected by someone else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both quantitative and qualitative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary data analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the analysis of data by researchers probably not involved in the collection of those data for purposes…not envisaged by those responsible for the data collection” (Bryman, 2001: 196) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Secondary data <ul><li>Gaining access to the secondary data is a data collection process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes this can be difficult and time consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To get all the data you need to generate the information and knowledge required by your question you may need more than one source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often large amounts of extraneous data to sift through to get to the ones you want </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Secondary data <ul><li>Before you start consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who collected the data and what were their intentions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who funded the collection of the data? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did they use the proper procedures? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does the research stand up to scrutiny? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability and validity (Bryman, 2001: 206-207) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do the data mean? </li></ul>
  7. 7. What do the data mean? <ul><li>Remember that each step in the research process is connected </li></ul><ul><li>Crime statistics (May, 2001: 74-80) </li></ul><ul><li>What is “a crime”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ for an act to be criminal it must be defined as such by criminal law” (May, 2001: 75) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is considered criminal changes over time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A social construct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detection </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What do the data mean? <ul><li>Compiling official statistics can be seen as a complex process involving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential application of the law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The numbers given by the official crime statistics may be a poor indicator of the incidence of crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ As the authors of the British Crime Survey report note: ‘there is some doubt as to how accurately the BCS measures domestic violence’ (Mirrlees-Black et al. , 1996:30)” (May, 2001: 76) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They may be a worse indicator of how much crime people think is going on </li></ul>
  9. 9. What do the data mean? <ul><li>Do not take official statistics at face value </li></ul><ul><li>Data never “speak for themselves” </li></ul><ul><li>You must be able to justify your choice of secondary data, and show that the indicators you have chosen are good ones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. is the numerical value given in the BCS really a good indicator of the incidence a particular crime (e.g. violent knife crime)? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the data be delivered to me? </li></ul><ul><li>What are my ethical/data protection/data storage responsibilities? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What secondary datasets are out there and what is in each one? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the data be delivered to me? </li></ul><ul><li>What are my ethical/data protection/data storage responsibilities? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Which dataset(s) could I use? <ul><li>Check out the Economic and Social Data Service ( http://www.esds.ac.uk/ ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESDS government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESDS International </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESDS Longitudinal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESDS Qualidata (i.e. qualitative data) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. ESDS Government <ul><li>Annual Population Survey </li></ul><ul><li>British Crime Survey / Scottish Crime Survey </li></ul><ul><li>British Social Attitudes Survey / Northern Ireland Social Attitudes Survey / Scottish Social Attitudes Survey / Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey / Young People's Social Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Expenditure and Food Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Family Expenditure Survey / Northern Ireland Family Expenditure Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Family Resources Survey </li></ul><ul><li>General Household Survey / Continuous Household Survey (Northern Ireland) </li></ul><ul><li>Health Survey For England / Welsh Health Survey / Scottish Health Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Force Survey / Northern Ireland Labour Force Survey </li></ul><ul><li>National Food Survey </li></ul><ul><li>National Travel Survey </li></ul><ul><li>ONS Omnibus Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of English Housing </li></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom Time Use Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Vital Statistics for England and Wales </li></ul>
  14. 14. ESDS Longitudinal & Qualidata <ul><li>Longitudinal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1970 British Cohort Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Household Panel Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Families and Children Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal Study of Young People in England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millennium Cohort Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Child Development Study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualidata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edwardians: Family Life and Work Experience Before 1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mothers and Daughters: Accounts of Health in the Grandmother Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 Families: Families, Social Mobility and Ageing, an Intergenerational Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mothers Alone: Poverty and the Fatherless Family, 1955-1966 </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the procedures and how long will it take? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How will the data be delivered to me? </li></ul><ul><li>What are my ethical/data protection/data storage responsibilities? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Accessing secondary data <ul><li>What are the procedures for gaining access? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search the ESDS catalogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ gender” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Via the Nesstar system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The British General Election Study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Crime Survey (though can view basic stats for variables ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links to home websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Election Studies Survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How long will the process take? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly quick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT, register now…especially with Christmas coming up! </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the data be delivered to me? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What format will the data come in and what explanatory notes can I expect to receive? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are my ethical/data protection/data storage responsibilities? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Data formats & explanatory notes <ul><li>Are the data delivered digitally or in hardcopy, and in what format? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many ESDS datasets can be explored online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nesstar datasets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Election Studies Survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others are available on CD or for download in an SPSS compatible format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What explanatory notes can I expect to receive? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Crime Survey </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the data be delivered to me? </li></ul><ul><li>What are my ethical/data protection/data storage responsibilities? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the provider stipulate certain data storage conditions, and if so can you provide them? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Ethics, data protection and storage for secondary data <ul><li>Does the provider stipulate certain data storage conditions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See ESDS online guide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can you provide them? </li></ul><ul><li>If not, you may not be able to use this dataset legally </li></ul>
  21. 21. Data Collection (2): Summary <ul><li>Obtaining secondary data for social research should be thought of as a process of data collection </li></ul><ul><li>It involves considering whether the data are relevant and what they mean </li></ul><ul><li>Acquiring/accessing the data themselves </li></ul>
  22. 22. Data Collection (2): Some advice… <ul><li>When using secondary data make sure you are using the most appropriate dataset – there may be more than one! </li></ul><ul><li>This may involve surveying available sources as part of your literature review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify all the datasets contain relevant data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the pros/cons of each one? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look at what previous academic users said about them (i.e. search for social research that has used this dataset) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These may relate to the constraints of your project (i.e. it is not feasible to use a dataset that cannot deliver to you for 6 months – however ideal it may be) </li></ul></ul></ul>

×