Wwii trauma of_defeat

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  • Wehrmachtssoldaten ergeben sich vor Moskau Photographie Sowjetunion, Dezember 1941 DHM, Berlin F 85/30
  • Rotarmisten beim Häuserkampf in Stalingrad Photographie Stalingrad, Januar 1943 DHM, Berlin F 60/628
  • Deutsche Kriegsgefangene nach der Schlacht um Stalingrad Photographie Stalingrad, Februar 1943 DHM, Berlin F 60/630
  • Blick auf das zerstörte Köln Köln, um 1945 Photographie Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin F 65/33
  • Wwii trauma of_defeat

    1. 1. Map of Germany 2003 <ul><li>This map shows Germany in its current boundaries (2003); the current Eastern boundary is the “Oder-Neisse line” agreed upon at the end of WWII. Prior to WWII, Germany also held territories to the east (East Prussia); during WWII, Hitler took over Czechoslovakia and Poland. The new eastern boundary therefore represented a great territorial loss for Germany. </li></ul>
    2. 2. 1938 map <ul><ul><li>This map from 1938 shows the boundaries of Germany prior to World War II; note that Germany held land east of the current Oder-Neisse line. East Prussia (Ostpreussen) was not contiguous with the rest of Germany; this was one of Hitler’s excuses for invading Poland. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. “ Der Anschluß” <ul><li>Austria and Czechoslovakia were annexed “peacefully” in 1938. Since both had German-speaking populations, Hitler called this a “homecoming.” </li></ul>
    4. 4. Hitler in Poland <ul><li>In 1939, Hitler invaded Poland . . . </li></ul>
    5. 5. Paris guide for conquering German soldiers <ul><li>. . . then France in 1940. </li></ul>
    6. 6. German expansion 1939-40
    7. 7. War on four fronts <ul><li>With further attacks on Italy, England, the Scandinavian countries, and Russia, Germany found itself fighting an unsustainable war on four fronts; the ultimate plan was to rule the world . </li></ul>
    8. 8. Overpowered by Russia <ul><li>Many historians believe that Hitler, like Napoleon, was defeated by the vast spaces and cruel winter of Russia. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Surrender at Moscow
    10. 10. House-to-house fighting in Stalingrad <ul><li>The Germans’ total defeat at Stalingrad in the winter of 1942/43 was a humiliating turning point in the war. </li></ul>
    11. 11. German POWs at Stalingrad, 1943 <ul><li>Scenes like this archival photograph of defeated German soldiers . . . </li></ul>
    12. 12. Josef Vilsmaier’s Stalingrad film (with Herbert Grönemeyer) <ul><li>. . . were recreated in the 1993 film Stalingrad , which shows what a blow this defeat dealt to the German psyche. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Cologne after bombings <ul><li>Because Hitler swore to fight “to the last man,” many German cities were destroyed by Allied bombing raids before the war ended. Cologne, pictured here, was the home of future chancellor Adenauer. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Brandenburg gate, 1945 <ul><li>Berlin, Hitler’s capital city, was also heavily bombed. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Berlin in ruins
    16. 16. Dresden in ruins <ul><li>Unlike other bombings, the destruction of Dresden (Feb. ‘45) was probably not militarily necessary; many Germans have still not forgiven the Allies for this. In the 1990s, Dresden’s “Frauenkirche” was rebuilt with American assistance. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Russian soldier <ul><li>Russian troops invaded from the east and were the first to reach Berlin; while some Germans welcomed them as liberators, others felt humiliated by the defeat. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Almost a documentary <ul><li>Konrad Wolf’s 1968 film, </li></ul><ul><li>I was nineteen , was based on his own experience returning to Germany as a conquering “Russian” soldier. His family had fled Germany and spent the war years in Moscow because they were communists. </li></ul>
    19. 19. “ The Zero Hour” <ul><li>Many Germans used the phrase “zero hour” (“Stunde Null”) to refer to the complete destruction at the end of the war. We can compare this to US feelings about our defeat in Vietnam--but on home turf. </li></ul>

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