Legume-based fallows for restoring the community of soil macro-
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Legume based fallows for restoring the community of soil macro-invertebrates in semi-deciduous forest areas of côte d’ivoire


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Legume based fallows for restoring the community of soil macro-invertebrates in semi-deciduous forest areas of côte d’ivoire

  1. 1. Legume-based fallows for restoring the community of soil macro- invertebrates in semi-deciduous forest areas of Côte d’Ivoire Arnauth M. GUEI1*, Armand W. KONE1, Jérome TONDOH 2, Pascal K.T. ANGUI1 , Yao Tano3 1Université d’Abobo-Adjamé, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d’Ivoire 2CIAT-TSBF, Institut d’Economie Rurale, CRRA de Sotuba, Laboratoire Sol-Eau-Plante, BP 262 Bamako, Mali 3Université de Cocody , 22 B.P. 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire * E-mail:gueiarnauthmartinez@yahoo.fr Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below Ground Biodiveristy Introduction Soils house scores of organisms diverse in both the number of species recorded and the roles that they play in the ecosystem (Lavelle et al., 2004). Soil macrofauna, such as earthworms, have a high potential to be used as bioindicators of soil quality, as they are in direct contact with the soil. They allow for a sound assessment of environmental hazards (Lavelle & Spain, 2001). Thus, the management of soil fauna must not be ignored in promoting sustainable agriculture (Brussaard et al., 2007). The use of legumes to improve fallows is in total agreement with that of soil macro- invertebrates, as this can greatly contribute to soil organic matter conservation and cover through an abundant production of litter which is a food source for soil-born organisms (Lavelle et al., 2003; Koné et al., 2008). Objective The study aims to determine the potential of soil macro-invertebrates, especially earthworms as indicators of soil Natural fallow Mucuna pruriens variety utilis biodiversity restoration in legume-based fallows. Experimental plots and soil macrofauna sampling The study was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest margin in mid-West Côte d’Ivoire (6° 30’N, 5° 31’W). Sampling for soil macrofauna was done in experimental plots installed for legume and foodcrop trials, in the benchmark site. They were concerned with 3 types of fallow-based legume crops of short duration (Mucuna pruriens var utilis, Cajanus cajan and Pueraria phaseoloides). There were 4 plots of Cajanus cajans and 4 plots of Pueraria phaseoloides, while Mucuna pruriens was grown in only one plot. Each plot was divided into two subplots of 25 x 25m. One subplot was planted with one legume species and the other subplot consisted in a natural fallow (check). Three soil monoliths (25 x 25 x 20 cm) Cajanus cajan Pueraria phaseoloides were randomly dug in each subplot. Natural and legume fallows plots Results 1. Soil macro-invertebrate community 2. Legumes impact on soil macro-invertebrate abundance Soil macrofauna community, collected in all experimental plots, consisted in 12 taxa, namely earthworms, ants, termites, spiders, coleoptera, diplopoda, chilopoda, hemiptera, dermaptera, isopoda, coleoptera and diptera larvae. Earthworm 1000 Macrofauna density (individual.m.-2) a communities comprised 17 species, distributed among 6 genera. Pueraria phaseoloides (Pp) hosted the highest total 800 a number of earthworm species. This legume species was followed by C. cajan (Cc), that hosted twice as much species as a M. pruriens. Pueraria phaseoloides and M. pruriens (Mp) fallows hosted more species than the corresponding check 600 a 629.3 plots. b 620.7 Legume 400 426.7 465.3 b Control 200 304 310.7 0 Pueraria Cajanus cajan Mucuna pruriens phaseoloides Legume plots 250 Earthworm density (individual.m.-2) 200 a a a a a 150 b 160 150.7 165.3 Legume 100 118.7 136 138.7 Control 50 0 Pueraria Cajanus cajan Mucuna pruriens phaseoloides Legume plots 3. Legumes impact on soil macro-invertebrate diversity Taxonomic group diversity (Shannon index) 4. Impact of legume species on soil macro-invertebrate community 2.5 a a 2.0 a a- Macro-invertebrates b- Earthworms a a a 1 3 1 5 1.5 Axis 2 (23%) 2.03 2.14 Axis 2 (30%) -1 1 -3 3 -1 1 -5 5 Axis 2 (23%) -1 -3 -1 -5 Legume Biomass 1.0 1.75 1.51 1.22 Control C. cajan plots 0.5 1.62 Taxonomic richness C. cajan plots Shannon index Shannon index Axis 2 (30%) Species richness 0.0 Axis 1 (35%) Axis 1 (35%) Axis 1 (59%) Axis 1 (59%) Pueraria Cajanus cajan Mucuna pruriens Density Equitability phaseoloides P. phaseoloides plots Equitability M. pruriens plots Legume plots Biomass P. phaseoloides plots M. pruriens plots Density P = 0.009 P = 0.001 Earthworm diversity (Shannon index) The first two axes accounted for 65 % of the total inertia. The distribution of the inertia indicated that the first two axes 3.0 a a a Macrofauna abundance correlated negatively to axis 1, accounted for 82 % of total inertia. Excepted for equitability, 2.5 all earthworm communities were negatively correlated to 2.0 b whereas diversity correlated positively to the same axis. a 2.72 a Biomass, taxonomic richness and Shannon index were axis 1. Earthworm species richness and Shannon index were 1.5 2.43 Legume 2.42 positively correlated to axis 2, while density and equitability positively correlated to axis 2, while abundance and 1.0 1.59 1.48 1.39 Control were negatively correlated to this axis. Legume plots equitability were negatively correlated. The projection of 0.5 projection revealed a significant opposition between the 3 legume plots revealed a significant opposition between the 3 0.0 legume species. M. pruriens and C. cajan fallows restored legume-based fallows. P. phaseoloides restored earthworm Pueraria Cajanus cajan Mucuna pruriens most macro-invertebrates communities and biomass, abundance, while C. cajan fallow hosted the highest species phaseoloides respectively. While P. phaseoloides produced the highest diversity. Though M. pruriens hosted the lowest diversity, Legume plots taxonomic diversity. the individuals were fairly evenly distributed into the different species. Conclusion Acknowledgements The study assessed the potential of legumes to improve soil macro-invertebrate biodiversity. Of the 3 legume-based This study is a part of the N°GF/2715-2 projet, supported by FEM/PNUE. The fallows, P. phaseoloides and M. pruriens restored soil macrofauna biodiversity more than C. cajan, although the increase authors are grateful to the local coordinating committee, the farmers from was not always significant. Hence, P. phaseolides fallow was the most effective in enhancing soil macrofauna biodiversity Goulikao and field technicians for their kind assistance throughout this after 9 months of growth. investigation. References Brussaard L., de Ruiter P.C., Brown G.G., (2007). Soil biodiversity for agricultural sustainability. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121 : 233–244. Koné WA, Tondoh E.J., Angui T.K.P., Bernhard-Reversat F., Loranger-Merciris, Brunet D., Bredoumi K.T.S., (2008). Is soil quality improvement by legume cover crops a function of the initial soil chemical characteristics? Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 82. P. 89-105. Lavelle P., Spain A., (2001). Soil Ecology. Kluwer Academic Publisher (ed.) 654p. Lavelle, P., Senapati, B., Barrot, E., (2003). Soil macrofauna. In Schroth, G., Sinclair, F.L. (EDS). Trees, Crops and soil fertility: Concepts and Research Methods. International , Wallingford. UK : 397-407. Lavelle P., Blouin M., Boyer J., Cadet P., Laffray D., Pham-Thi A., Reversat G., Settle W., Zuily Y., (2004). Plant parasite control and soil fauna diversity. Comptes Rendus Biologies 327: 629-638 .