5/27/2010




                                                                                1. Premises for our Project
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5/27/2010




• Sampling as hypothesis-testing:                                          • Sampling as hypothesis-testing:...
5/27/2010




  What is the future of tropical landscapes?
• Some primary and secondary forests gazetted as reserves, but
...
5/27/2010




Ecosystem function conservation is a more practical approach than biodiversity                              ...
5/27/2010




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5/27/2010




CSM-BGBD sampling points allocated by a GPS grid
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5/27/2010




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OP03:Towards a universal sampling protocol for macro and meso-fauna in the humid tropics

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A presentation by Prof. David Bignell: Towards a universal sampling protocol for macro and meso-fauna in the humid tropics

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OP03:Towards a universal sampling protocol for macro and meso-fauna in the humid tropics

  1. 1. 5/27/2010 1. Premises for our Project ASB and CSM-BGBD: towards a 2. Why fauna? universal sampling protocol for soil biotas in the humid tropics 3. 3 Evolution of sampling methods 4. (Evolution of sampling design) David Bignell Queen Mary, University of London, UK 5. Conclusions and Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia Does soil biodiversity matter? IN MEMORIUM Anggoro Hadi Prasetyo The Indonesian Institute of Sciences 1970 - 2010 Key international research and development aid projects address the issue of declining soil fertility. The questions asked are: • 3. Are there alternative land uses which sustain agricultural productivity • 1. What is the relationship and retain high between AG and BG biodiversity? biodiversity across current and alternative land use systems? • 4. Is agricultural • 2. Can management production at forest interventions in existing margins made practices improve soil sustainable and improved biodiversity? by enhancement of soil biodiversity? 1
  2. 2. 5/27/2010 • Sampling as hypothesis-testing: • Sampling as hypothesis-testing: • BGBD expected to follow gradients of disturbance or land use • BGBD expected to follow gradients of disturbance or agricultural intensity or SOM. The central hypothesis is that variation in BGBD is intensification or loss of SOM. The central hypothesis is that associated with land use intensity described at the level of major variation in BGBD is associated with land use intensity described at land use categories. the level of major land use categories. • Usually carried out by cross-sectional studies (gradsects if land uses are aligned to one environmental variable, usually land use • Usually carried out by cross-sectional studies (gradsects if land uses intensity), as experimental and longitudinal approaches are not are aligned to one environmental variable, usually land use feasible. feasible intensity), as experimental and longitudinal approaches are not feasible. • Sampling without a priori hypotheses • Find the environmental variables which best explain the observed patterns of BGBD • But which variables do you measure, and what happens if they correlate with each other? 2
  3. 3. 5/27/2010 What is the future of tropical landscapes? • Some primary and secondary forests gazetted as reserves, but mainly at higher altitudes, including montane forests. Biodiversity retention up to 100% • Plantation landscapes: rubber, oil palm, pulpwood, hardwood. Biodiversity retention variable 10% - 50% • Segregated landscapes: intact larger or smaller forest fragments separated by crop or plantation monocultures, mixtures or rotations. Notable edge effects. Biodiversity retention up to 60% • Integrated landscapes: multistrata mixed treecrops or agroforests. Biodiversity retention 40% • Uniformly simplified or degraded landscapes: nutrient depleted sites dominated by invasive weeds, with severe soil erosion. Biodiversity retention 10% or less 3
  4. 4. 5/27/2010 Ecosystem function conservation is a more practical approach than biodiversity Ecosystem function conservation is a more practical approach than biodiversity conservation per se; for example the following 10 functional groups are required: conservation per se; for example the following 10 functional groups are required: • 1. Primary producers (higher and lower • 6. Predators (many macrofauna and • 1. Primary producers (higher and lower • 6. Predators (many macrofauna and plants): photosynthetic organisms mesofauna): animals which regulate plants): photosynthetic organisms mesofauna): animals which regulate assimilating carbon dioxide from the air, herbivores, ecosystem engineers, litter assimilating carbon dioxide from the air, herbivores, ecosystem engineers, litter penetrating the soil with rooting systems and transformers, decomposers and penetrating the soil with rooting systems and transformers, decomposers and translocating organic compounds microregulators through predation. translocating organic compounds microregulators through predation. synthesized above ground. • 7. Microregulators (e.g. microfauna such synthesized above ground. • 7. Microregulators (e.g. microfauna such • 2. Herbivores: animals consuming and as nematodes): animals which regulate • 2. Herbivores: animals consuming and as nematodes): animals which regulate partly digesting living plant tissues, including nutrient cycles through grazing and other partly digesting living plant tissues, including nutrient cycles through grazing and other leaf miners and rollers, stem borers and sap interactions with the decomposer leaf miners and rollers, stem borers and sap interactions with the decomposer suckers. microorganisms. suckers. microorganisms. • 3. Ecosystem engineers (e.g. macrofauna • 8. Microsymbionts (e.g. mycorrhizal fungi, • 3. Ecosystem engineers (e.g. macrofauna • 8. Microsymbionts (e.g. mycorrhizal fungi, such as termites, earthworms):organisms rhizobia): microorganisms associated with such as termites, earthworms):organisms rhizobia): microorganisms associated with which have major physical impact on soil roots that enhance nutrient uptake which have major physical impact on soil roots that enhance nutrient uptake through soil t th h il transport ,building of aggregate t b ildi f t • 9. Soil-borne pests and diseases (e.g. through soil t th h il transport, b ildi of aggregate t building f t • 9. Soil-borne pests and diseases (e.g. structures and formation of pores – as well fungal pathogens, invertebrate structures and formation of pores – as well fungal pathogens, invertebrate as influencing nutrient cycling. Can include pests):biological control species (e.g. as influencing nutrient cycling. Can include pests):biological control species (e.g. predators (e.g. many ants). predators, parasitoids and hyper parasites of predators (e.g. many ants). predators, parasitoids and hyper parasites of • 4. Litter transformers (many macrofauna pests and diseases) can also be included. • 4. Litter transformers (many macrofauna pests and diseases) can also be included. and mesofauna, but some microfauna): • 10. Prokaryotic transformers: Archaea and and mesofauna, but some microfauna): • 10. Prokaryotic transformers: Archaea and invertebrates feeding on microbially- Bacteria performing specific transformations invertebrates feeding on microbially- Bacteria performing specific transformations conditioned organic detritus and shredding of carbon (e.g.methanotrophy) or nutrient conditioned organic detritus and shredding of carbon (e.g.methanotrophy) or nutrient this material (comminution) and making it elements such as N, S or P (e.g. nitrification, this material (comminution) and making it elements such as N, S or P (e.g. nitrification, more accessible to decomposers, or nitrogen fixation). more accessible to decomposers, or nitrogen fixation). promoting microbial growth in pelletized promoting microbial growth in pelletized faeces. This activity can be performed at • Source: Swift, M.J., Bignell, D.E., Moreira, F.M.S., Huising, faeces. This activity can be performed at • Source: Swift, M.J., Bignell, D.E., Moreira, F.M.S., Huising, several spatial scales. E.J. 2008. The inventory of soil biological diversity: concepts several spatial scales. E.J. 2008. The inventory of soil biological diversity: concepts • 5. Decomposers (e.g. cellulose degrading and general guidelines. In: A Handbook of Tropical Soil • 5. Decomposers (e.g. cellulose degrading and general guidelines. In: A Handbook of Tropical Soil Biology: Sampling and Characterization of Below-ground Biology: Sampling and Characterization of Below-ground fungi or bacteria): microorganisms Biodiversity (eds. F.M.S. Moreira, E.J. Huising and D.E. fungi or bacteria): microorganisms Biodiversity (eds. F.M.S. Moreira, E.J. Huising and D.E. possessing the polymer degrading enzymes Bignell), pp 1-16. Earthscan, London. possessing the polymer degrading enzymes Bignell), pp 1-16. Earthscan, London. that are responsible for most of the energy that are responsible for most of the energy flow in the decomposer food web. flow in the decomposer food web. Where are we now? • 1989 “TSBF” : Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (Anderson and Ingram) • 2001 ASB: Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn ( (Swift and Bignell) g ) • 2008 CSM-BGBD: Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below-ground Biodiversity (Moreira, Huising and Bignell) 4
  5. 5. 5/27/2010 The “TSBF” transect (1989) 25 cm 5 metres 5, 8 or 10 25 monoliths as cm resources permitit 20 or 30 cm depth 40 metres Other cores (pattern not specified) for: Mycorrhizal roots Rhizosphere bacteria Viable rhizobia Macrofauna Soil physics/chemistry The Swift and Bignell ASB transect (2001) 60 20 small cores Prior litter removal, then per 8 x 5 m 5-8 soil monoliths, each section for 25 x 25 x 30 (depth) cm microsymbionts 50 2500 40 Soil physical Examine plant sampling roots for nodules from walls of and mycorrhiza monolith pit 40 m 40 2000 30 Monolith soil 5m sorted for for macrofauna TRANSECT 1 30 1500 Line of 10 (or more) pitfall traps, each 20 ca.15 cm diameter 10 soil samples from plant 20 1000 rhizosphere, 0-30 cm, bulked to ca. 1 litre for nematode extraction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 etc. 19 20 10 10 500 Qualitative termite transect, 100 x 2 m, in 20 sections of 5 x 2 m each 40 m 0 Pristine Logged Tree Rubber Jungle Alang- Cassava 5m forest forest plantation plantation rubber alang field 19 20 TRANSECT 2 Land-use system Termite transect can turn up to 90o to accommodate topography or bend around living trees. CSM-BGBD monolith, ring and transect (2008) CSM-BGBD enhanced monolith and transect (2008) 5
  6. 6. 5/27/2010 CSM-BGBD sampling points allocated by a GPS grid Sampling Sampling scheme parameter “TSBF” transect Swift & Bignell CSM-BGBD CSM-BGBD (1989) (2001) basic alternate (2008) (2008) Selection of plots Not specified Subjective From GPS From GPS window grid window grid Plots per land use Not specified 3 20 20 recommended Sampling events Not specified 620 (1860) 51 (1020) 71 (1420) per plot (per land use in bracket) Samples for Not specified 106 (318) 22 (440) 42 (840) analysis per plot (per land use in bracket) Time required One day Two days One day Two days per plot, assuming 6-10 staff available* * includes on-site sorting time for monoliths Sampling parameter Transect based (few Grid based (many plots, higher effort per plots, lower effort per Conclusions plot) plot) Ease of positioning Higher Lower • 1. Selection of sampling points should be grid- samples, access to sites and field logistics based. This provides for: Overall field time Shorter Longer – the best representation of land uses Representation of the Less good, normally Better, normally land use distribution more subjective; derived from remote – the best statistical descriptions of data concentrates sensing; spreads sampling, but rare sampling, but rare land uses can be land uses may be chosen missed Autocorrelation High Low • 2. Plot sampling schemes can combine Stratification Possible Possible monoliths, transects and soil cores. This Sensitivity to aggregated species Low High (better than random sampling) provides for: Precision of Higher Lower – co-location of sampling for macrofauna, mesofauna, biodiversity sampling Replication Pseudoreplication Genuine replication microfauna, microsymbionts and other microbiota Redundant points Few, if any Some – the highest resolution of below-ground biodiversity Estimations of Problematic (or high Possible (or lower abundance and variance) variance) biomass 6
  7. 7. 5/27/2010 7

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