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Invasive plant information for forest owners


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This PowerPoint is the presentation Ernie Sellentin of the Coastal Invasive Plant Committee gave at the Private Forest Landowners Association's annual forestry forum, June 21, 2012 in Langford, British Columbia.

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Invasive plant information for forest owners

  1. 1. Invasive Plant Information for Private Forest Land Owners by Ernie Sellentin, Coastal Invasive Plant Committee, Project Coordinator
  2. 2. Topics1) Background2) Control Methods3) Values To Protect4) Preventative Practices5) Tools to Use
  3. 3. Acknowledgement of the IssueFacts: Invasive alien species are the second most significant threat toglobal biodiversity (behind human population growth and its related activities) Invasive plants have far-reaching impacts, permanently alteringlandscapes and ecosystem functions, and costing the Canadianeconomy a few billion dollars each year~1855 ha of land are invaded each day by invasive plants in the US Once native plant communities are overtaken and replaced byinvasive plants, impacts are often irreversible and restoration canbe extremely difficult and expensive Preventing invasive plant introduction and spread is critical
  4. 4. Assessing Site Risk LevelLandscape Level: Highest Risk CDFmm, CWHxm (drier, more open forests & where most of the people live) Moderate Risk CWH – ds, dm, ms, mm, ws Lowest Risk CWH – wm, vm, wh (closed, wet forests, few people) MH – mm, wh
  5. 5. Assessing Site Risk LevelLocal Level: Parks & protected areas / Ecological reserves Endangered ecosystems e.g. Garry Oak Ecosystems (CDF) Wildlife Habitat Areas (WHAs) / Ungulate Winter Ranges First Nations spiritual use & native plant collection areas(food, medicine etc.) Along banks of wetlands (including marshes, swamps, fens or bogs, lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, or ditch lines) Uncultivated agricultural land – pastures, rangelands etc. Gravel pits
  6. 6. Assessing Species PriorityDepends on the Species: length of time in a given area i.e. how well established it is how geographically dispersed it is whether it is under biological control (i.e. insects, parasites and pathogens that have been introduced to reduce a target plant population below a desired level) potential ecological, economic and/or social impacts
  7. 7. Species of ImportanceCurrent FRPA Species: Near Future Weed Control Act SpeciesGiant Knotweed Bohemian KnotweedGorse Butterfly BushJapanese Knotweed DaphnePurple Loosestrife English HollyScotch Broom English IvyYellow Flag Iris Giant Hogweed Himalayan Blackberry Himalayan Knotweed Policeman’s Helmet (Himalayan Balsam).....
  8. 8. Manual / Mechanical Control
  9. 9. But there are tradeoffs…….
  10. 10. For Some Plants…….
  11. 11. Biological Control Dalmation toadflax, Mecnus janthus
  12. 12. Bio-control in a DecadeYear 1Year 2Year 10
  13. 13. Chemical Control Cut & Insert Stem InjectionFoliar Backpack Spraying
  14. 14. Combining Treatment Methods Examples:1. Manual treatment – then - Backpack foliar spray2. Establish containment line & use bio-control inside it - then - Manual treatments for “escapes” outside the line3. Stem inject down PFZ - then - Mechanical control down to the high water mark of a riparian area – then prompt restoration with native species
  15. 15. Ungulate Winter Ranges Black Tailed Deer Roosevelt Elk Mountain Goat
  16. 16. Wildlife Habitat AreasMarbled Murrelet Scouler`s Corydalis Red Legged Frog
  17. 17. South Island Forest District WHA Statistics
  18. 18. Scotch Broom Needs Only 1” Soil
  19. 19. Old Growth Management Areas
  20. 20. Wildlife Tree Patches
  21. 21. Riparian Zone Health Threats Yellow Flag Iris Policeman’s Helmet
  22. 22. Community Watersheds
  23. 23. First Nations Values
  24. 24. Recreation Trails
  25. 25. Permanent Sample Plots (G&Y, BEC etc.)
  26. 26. Pacific Yew – Cancer Cure
  27. 27. Connecting the Dots Butterfly Bush Along a Forest Service Road
  28. 28. Dowsing Flaming Embers
  29. 29. Dowsing More Flaming Embers
  30. 30. Some Preventative Practices1. Avoid parking, turning around or staging equipment in invasive plant infested areas2. Procure gravel that is weed free (seeds or plant parts)3. Inspect clothing, and vehicle/equipment undercarriages, then clean thoroughly if working in an area infested with high priority IPs (e.g. SK)4. Treat high priority invasive plants on road building and timber harvesting projects before activities commence5. Minimize roadside disturbance & retain desirable vegetation e.g. when ditch cleaning, side cast to spread a thin layer of material to allow native plants to continue to survive (as opposed to smothering them)6. Educate mowing & brushing equipment operators to recognize high priority invasive plants so that they are not spread (e.g. JK reproduces primarily by cuttings, and mowing and ditch cleaning operations can exacerbate spread)7. Place warning signs for unlawful dumping of garden or household waste and its consequences in strategic locations
  31. 31. Prompt Re-vegetation is KeySo what defines “prompt”?!• Concurrent grass seeding & fertilizing after soil disturbance along or in areas not scheduled for reforestation• 2 growing season months is a good general rule but where priority invasive are close by, it should be more immediate, where this is not the case, there is less urgency
  32. 32. Grass Seed Mixtures Agronomic SeedWhere?- Most roadside / post-harvest scenarios- There is no immediate adjacency to a high risk site (there are lots of invasives anyhow)But ensure: - Seed is ecologically-suited to the BEC zone- Use a grade of seed that is Common No. 1 Forage Mixture
  33. 33. Grass Seed Mixtures Agronomic Seed Cont’dSodgrass Dominant Mixtures Forms continuous mat to better resist IP spread Useful around culverts & other erosion prone areas Useful in areas with close proximity to already established IP populationsBunchgrass Dominant Mixtures Allow native plants to fill in amongst the clumps Useful in areas more distant from established IP populations
  34. 34. Grass Seed MixturesNative SeedWhere? - Adjacency to high value ecological areas where retention of local biodiversity is vital e.g. WHARemember: - To select for BEC/altitude/biome - Bunchgrasses allow for better ingress than sodgrasses - Native seed is much more expensive than agronomic
  35. 35. AVOID WILDFLOWER MIXTURES Chicory Cichorium intybus Dames Rocket Hesperis matronalisLOADED with invasive plant seeds !!
  36. 36. Sanitation Measures Never stockpile contaminated soil or plant material within 10 m of a watercourse Clean vehicles/equipment used in infested areas Note: in other jurisdictions cleaning is via expensive, portable units that spray pressure treated water which is captured and run through a settlement tank to remove any soil before passing it through a very fine mesh sieve to remove seeds or plant material . Captured seeds & plant parts are sent to the landfill.
  37. 37. Disposal – The Often Overlooked MeasureRemember - Priority Invasive Plants Typically Possess: very hard, viable, hooked, winged, floating seeds ability to reproduce vegetativelyTherefore: Either treat and dispose of plant in situ or move to a common disposal area e.g. a landfill At landfill – use deep burial, do NOT put IPs (or contaminated soil) in the compost stream
  38. 38. Options Shade
  39. 39. Tools to Learn to Use -IAPP Application Sign up for free, all day IAPP Training here at DSI at end of April / first of May 2011
  40. 40. Tools to Learn to Use –Map Display
  41. 41. Tools to Learn to Use –Report-A-Weed (3 easy steps)1. Enter species location as:• UTM Zone, Easting and Northing or• Longitude (DMS) and Latitude (DMS) or• Use standard map tools to zoom & mark position on map2. Pick species from drop down menu – Enter area (m2) – Give a location description & comments3. Confirm above and press “Enter”
  42. 42. Winterabrasivestockpile JKPowellRiver
  43. 43. Knotweeds Gorse Scotch Broom Spanish Broom Buddleja davidii Spotted Knapweed Meadow Knapweed Tansy Ragwort Common Tansy Canada thistle Bull thistle Dalmatian toadflaxHimalayan blackberry Oxeye daisy St Johns Wort Hawkweeds
  44. 44. Golden Bamboo, Texa da Island, Imperial Limestone Quarry
  45. 45. Thank You “Everyone Can Be Part of the Solution” orinvasivespeciesspecialist@ 250-702-2492