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The BAW codes of practice to ensure the bank stability of German inland waterways

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Workshop on Seepage Induced Geotechnical Instability
Imperial College London, UK
31st Aug – 1st Sept 2017

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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The BAW codes of practice to ensure the bank stability of German inland waterways

  1. 1. Bernhard Odenwald The BAW codes of practice to ensure the bank stability of German inland waterways Workshop on Seepage Induced Geotechnical Instability Imperial College London, UK 31st Aug – 1st Sept 2017
  2. 2. www.baw.de | Content 2017-30-08 1. German Federal Waterways – Hydraulic Structures 2. Cases of Damage at German Waterways 3. Conclusions and Consequences of the Assessment of the Damages 4. BAW Code of Practice Stability of Embankments at German Inland Waterways (MSD) 5. BAW Code of Practice Use of Granular Filters on German Inland Waterways (MAK) 6. BAW Code of Practice Internal Erosion (MMB) Page 2 BAW codes of practice - bank stability of waterways | Bernhard Odenwald
  3. 3. www.baw.de |2017-30-08 German Federal Waterways Inland Waterways total length: 7.310 km canals: 1.740 km rivers: • barrage controlled: 3.030 km • free flowing: 2.540 km Waterway Structures: • locks: 335 • weirs: 287 • canal bridges: 15 Embankments total distance: about 600 km Page 3 BAW codes of practice - bank stability of waterways | Bernhard Odenwald
  4. 4. www.baw.de |2017-30-08 Canal Embankments and Hydraulic Structures Elbe Lateral Canal Page 4 BAW codes of practice - bank stability of waterways | Bernhard Odenwald Source: WSA Uelzen Source: Wikipedia, Axel Hindemith Source: WSA Uelzen
  5. 5. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - bank stability of waterways | Bernhard Odenwald 2017-30-08 page 5 Embankments at Barrage Controlled Rivers Iffezheim Barrage Upper River Rhine Source: WSA Freiburg Source: WSA Freiburg
  6. 6. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - bank stability of waterways | Bernhard Odenwald 2017-30-08 page 6 Case of Damage at Elbe Lateral Canal (1976) dam breach at road tunnel after flooding of a new canal section Source: Wikipedia, Joachim Müllerchen Source: WSV, investigation of damages
  7. 7. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - bank stability of waterways | Bernhard Odenwald 2017-30-08 page 7 Case of Damage at Main-Danube-Canal (1979) dam breach at crossing with underlying water transport pipe after flooding of a new canal section Source: BAW Source: BAW
  8. 8. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - bank stability of waterways | Bernhard Odenwald 2017-30-08 page 8 Case of Damage at Main-Danube-Canal (1979) flooding of the village of Katzwang, heavy damages Source: BAWSource: WSA Nürnberg
  9. 9. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - bank stability of waterways | Bernhard Odenwald 2017-30-08 page 9 Conclusions - Impacts on Embankment Stability • embankments at waterways permanently loaded by water • embankment stability reduced by seepage forces  failure of the impervious lining of the canal bed with resulting seepage through embankments must be taken into account (accidental design situation) • increased damage potential at junctions with structures in embankments • different stiffness of soil embankment and concrete structure • possible development of erosion channels along structures (piping) cause by seepage flow  verification against piping for embankments with structures inside considering possible hydraulically effective joints (cavities) along structure/soil interface  prevention of soil material losses by appropriate measures taking into account filter criteria and internal erosion processes
  10. 10. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - bank stability of waterways | Bernhard Odenwald 2017-30-08 page 10 Consequence of the assessment of the damages BAW Code of Practice Stability of Embankments at German Inland Waterways (MSD) directly downloadable www.baw.de > service and knowledge > publications > rules and standards > MSD (2011) • provides rules for assessing the stability of embankments, taking account of seepage through embankments • covers the influence of structures in embankments (separate piping verification procedure taking account of possible cavities along structure/soil interfaces)
  11. 11. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - stability of embankments | Bernhard Odenwald 21.03.2017 page 11 BAW Code of Practice Stability of Embankments at German Inland Waterways (MSD) Verification against Piping at Structures in Embankments sufficient safety against piping no risk of soil loss if water seeps through the embankment (e. g. because of a local damage in the impervious lining of a canal) sufficient safety against uplift or hydraulic heave sufficient safety against slope failure + sufficient safety against internal erosion in the percolated zones + hydraulically effective joints (cavities) along a structure/soil interface are assumed, wherever the formation of cavities cannot be ruled out due to the particular features of the ground, the geometry of the structure or the construction method
  12. 12. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - bank stability of waterways | Bernhard Odenwald 2017-30-08 page 12 BAW Code of Practice Use of Granular Filters on German Inland Waterways (MAK) directly downloadable www.baw.de > service and knowledge > publications > rules and standards > MAK (2013) covers practical advices for design and construction of granular filters used in • embankments, • bank and bottom protection and • other structures on waterways
  13. 13. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - stability of embankments | Bernhard Odenwald 21.03.2017 page 13 BAW Code of Practice Use of Granular Filters on German Inland Waterways (MAK) Standard two-stage filter for revetments at inland waterways Acceptable ranges for grading curves in a standard two-stage filter
  14. 14. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - stability of embankments | Bernhard Odenwald 21.03.2017 page 14 BAW Code of Practice Internal Erosion (MMB) directly downloadable www.baw.de > service and knowledge > publications > rules and standards > MMB (2011) • describes verification methods based on geometric criteria of the soil structure • recommended for dealing with specific hydraulic issues, e.g. • design of granular filters according to MAK (2013) or • verification of internal stability according to MSD (2011)
  15. 15. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - stability of embankments | Bernhard Odenwald 21.03.2017 page 15 BAW Code of Practice Internal Erosion (MMB) • Erosion • migration and transport of almost all grain size fractions of a soil caused by the flow of water • contact erosion • at the interface between two soils of different composition • piping • at the interface between solid structures and the soil or • between a cohesive soil and an underlying cohesionless soil layer Types of internal erosion • Suffosion • migration and transport of the fine soil fractions through the pores of the granular skeleton of the coarse fractions
  16. 16. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - stability of embankments | Bernhard Odenwald 21.03.2017 page 16 recommended procedure for verification of safety against suffusion BAW Code of Practice Internal Erosion (MMB)
  17. 17. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - stability of embankments | Bernhard Odenwald 21.03.2017 page 17 BAW Code of Practice Internal Erosion (MMB) Examples of verifications of safety against suffusion (according to Kenney and Lau)
  18. 18. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - stability of embankments | Bernhard Odenwald 21.03.2017 page 18 BAW Code of Practice Internal Erosion (MMB) verification of safety against contact erosion method following Lafleur’s approach suffosive soils non-suffosive soils
  19. 19. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - stability of embankments | Bernhard Odenwald 21.03.2017 page 19 BAW Code of Practice Internal Erosion (MMB) verification of safety against contact erosion for cohesive soils Soil types and verification criteria according to Sherard
  20. 20. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - bank stability of waterways | Bernhard Odenwald Comparative assessment of the verification procedures 2017-30-08 Page 20
  21. 21. www.baw.de | BAW codes of practice - bank stability of waterways | Bernhard Odenwald Results of the comparison calculations 2017-30-08 Page 21 non-suffosive soil suffosive soil
  22. 22. Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau 76187 Karlsruhe, Germany www.baw.de Thank you for your attention Alternating Flow Apparatus soil columnpressure tank flow control

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