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Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
Pile 2017 Conference
A Case Study on Pile Foundations for Offshore Win...
www.baw.de
|10/19/2017 Page 2
Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
Pile 2017
www.baw.de
|10/19/2017
Pile 2017
BAW
(Germany)
Page 3
Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
www.baw.de
|
Structural Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering
Hydraulic Engineering
Organizational Structure
Head: Prof. Dr...
www.baw.de
|
Foundations
10/19/2017
Monopile Tripod Jacket
Page 5
Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
www.baw.de
|
Foundations
10/19/2017 Page 6
Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
http://www.nordseeone.com
www.baw.de
|10/19/2017
Jacket Tripod Jacket
Foundations
Page 7
Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
www.baw.de
|
Axial Pile Capacity
10/19/2017
Qb
Settlement
Qs
Load
bst QQQ +=
dzDQ fs ∫⋅⋅= τπ
1,0
2
4
bb q
D
Q ⋅



...
www.baw.de
|
Axial Pile Capacity – (API-00)
10/19/2017
qb0,1 ≤ qlim
Settlement
𝝉f ≤ 𝝉lim
Load
𝝉 𝑓 = 𝜎𝜎 𝑣𝑣 ∙ 𝛽
𝑞 𝑏𝑏,1 = 𝜎𝜎 ...
www.baw.de
|
Axial Pile Capacity – (CPT-based Methods)
10/19/2017
Settlement
𝝉 𝑓 = 𝐹(𝑞𝑞, 𝐿, 𝐷, 𝜎𝜎 𝑣𝑣 … )
𝑞 𝑏𝑏,1 = 𝐹(𝑞𝑞, 𝐿,...
www.baw.de
|
Axial Pile Capacity – Sensitivity
10/19/2017
Case A Case B
qc = 35 Mpa qc = 70 MPa
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 2...
www.baw.de
|
Recom. Practice for Planning, Designing and Construction
of Fixed Offshore Platforms (API)
Traditional Approa...
www.baw.de
|
Axial Pile Capacity - Assumptions
10/19/2017
API recommendations, […] seen to lead
large under-predictions in...
www.baw.de
|
Axial Pile Capacity
10/19/2017
Mechanisms
Plugging
Friction Fatigue
Interface Shear
…
Page 14
Axial Bearing C...
www.baw.de
|
Axial Pile Capacity - Parameters
10/19/2017
qc Dr ᵟ L-z ᵠ‘ γ‘ L D t
API-00
√ √ √ √ √ √
UWA-05
√ √ √ √ √ √ √
I...
www.baw.de
|
Axial Pile Capacity
10/19/2017 Page 16
Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
 Empirical in Nat...
www.baw.de
|
Axial Pile Capacity
10/19/2017
 Empirical in Nature
 Rely on Database
 Very uncertain when used outside of...
www.baw.de
|
Comparison of Databases
10/19/2017
UWA-Database OWF-Database
Pile Diameter Range [m] 0,356 - 2,0 1,8 - 7,8
Pi...
www.baw.de
|
Sensitivity on L/D Ratio
10/19/2017 Page 19
Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
www.baw.de
|
Sensitivity on Relative Density Dr
10/19/2017 Page 20
Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
www.baw.de
|
Conservatism of API-00 over CPT-Methods
10/19/2017
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 20 40 60 80
PileCapacity[MN]
qc [...
www.baw.de
|
Conclusion
10/19/2017
Pile Design is Highly Empirical
Using Appropriate Database is Crucial
Similar Trends fo...
www.baw.de
|
Concluding remark
10/19/2017
Conservatism
≠
Good Pile Design
Page 23
Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter...
www.baw.de
|
Concluding remark
10/19/2017
Conservatism
+
Cost Effectiveness
=
Good Pile Design
Page 24
Axial Bearing Capac...
Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau
22559 Hamburg, Germany
www.baw.de
Terima kasih banyak!
Thank you for your
attention!
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Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles

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A Case Study on Pile Foundations for Offshore Windfarms off the German Coast.
Pile 2017 Conference
Kuta (Bali), September 25th 2017

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles

  1. 1. Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles Pile 2017 Conference A Case Study on Pile Foundations for Offshore Windfarms off the German Coast Kuta (Bali), September 25th 2017 Source: www.alpha-ventus.de
  2. 2. www.baw.de |10/19/2017 Page 2 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles Pile 2017
  3. 3. www.baw.de |10/19/2017 Pile 2017 BAW (Germany) Page 3 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  4. 4. www.baw.de | Structural Engineering Geotechnical Engineering Hydraulic Engineering Organizational Structure Head: Prof. Dr. Christoph Heinzelmann Locations: Karlsruhe & Hamburg Our Key Areas Consultancy & Expert Opinions Standardisation Transfer of Knowledge Research & Development Most Major Cities and important Industrial Centres are Connected to Germany's Federal Waterways Total Gross Assets of ca. 50 bn Euro More than 2,300 Structures Germany has the Largest Network of Waterways in Western Europe Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW) at a Glance: 19.10.2017 Seite 4
  5. 5. www.baw.de | Foundations 10/19/2017 Monopile Tripod Jacket Page 5 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  6. 6. www.baw.de | Foundations 10/19/2017 Page 6 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles http://www.nordseeone.com
  7. 7. www.baw.de |10/19/2017 Jacket Tripod Jacket Foundations Page 7 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  8. 8. www.baw.de | Axial Pile Capacity 10/19/2017 Qb Settlement Qs Load bst QQQ += dzDQ fs ∫⋅⋅= τπ 1,0 2 4 bb q D Q ⋅      ⋅ = π Page 8 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  9. 9. www.baw.de | Axial Pile Capacity – (API-00) 10/19/2017 qb0,1 ≤ qlim Settlement 𝝉f ≤ 𝝉lim Load 𝝉 𝑓 = 𝜎𝜎 𝑣𝑣 ∙ 𝛽 𝑞 𝑏𝑏,1 = 𝜎𝜎 𝑣𝑣 ∙ 𝑁𝑞 qb0,1 𝝉f Page 9 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles Related to Overburden Stress and Dr Limiting Value τlim and qlim No Guideline on Pile Plugging
  10. 10. www.baw.de | Axial Pile Capacity – (CPT-based Methods) 10/19/2017 Settlement 𝝉 𝑓 = 𝐹(𝑞𝑞, 𝐿, 𝐷, 𝜎𝜎 𝑣𝑣 … ) 𝑞 𝑏𝑏,1 = 𝐹(𝑞𝑞, 𝐿, 𝐷, 𝜎𝜎 𝑣𝑣 … ) qb0,1 ≤ qlim 𝝉f ≤ 𝝉lim Load qb0,1 𝝉f Page 10 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles Related to Cone Tip Resistance No Limiting Value τlim and qlim Guideline on Pile Plugging
  11. 11. www.baw.de | Axial Pile Capacity – Sensitivity 10/19/2017 Case A Case B qc = 35 Mpa qc = 70 MPa 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 20 40 60 80 PileCapacity[MN] qc [MPa] Tensile Capacity API-00 UWA-05 ICP-05 NGI-05 Fugro-05 A B 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 20 40 60 80 PileCapacity[MN] qc [MPa] Compressive Capacity API-00 UWA-05 ICP-05 NGI-05 Fugro-05 A B Page 11 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles L = 35 m ᵠ‘ = 35° ᵟ = 29° D = 2,5 m t = 5 cm D t
  12. 12. www.baw.de | Recom. Practice for Planning, Designing and Construction of Fixed Offshore Platforms (API) Traditional Approach API-00 CPT-based Methods UWA-05 ICP-05 NGI-05 Fugro-05 Axial Pile Capacity 10/19/2017 ? ? ? Page 12 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  13. 13. www.baw.de | Axial Pile Capacity - Assumptions 10/19/2017 API recommendations, […] seen to lead large under-predictions in dense sands and become progressively non-conservative as the pile length (L) or aspect ratio (L/D) increased. Lehane et al. 2005:The UWA-05 method for prediction of axial capacity of driven piles in sand Page 13 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  14. 14. www.baw.de | Axial Pile Capacity 10/19/2017 Mechanisms Plugging Friction Fatigue Interface Shear … Page 14 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  15. 15. www.baw.de | Axial Pile Capacity - Parameters 10/19/2017 qc Dr ᵟ L-z ᵠ‘ γ‘ L D t API-00 √ √ √ √ √ √ UWA-05 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ ICP-05 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ NGI-05 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Fugro-05 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Page 15 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  16. 16. www.baw.de | Axial Pile Capacity 10/19/2017 Page 16 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles  Empirical in Nature
  17. 17. www.baw.de | Axial Pile Capacity 10/19/2017  Empirical in Nature  Rely on Database  Very uncertain when used outside of range Parameter A PileCapacity Method 1 Method 2 Method 3 Load Test from Database Page 17 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  18. 18. www.baw.de | Comparison of Databases 10/19/2017 UWA-Database OWF-Database Pile Diameter Range [m] 0,356 - 2,0 1,8 - 7,8 Pile Diameter Average [m] 0,725 2,81 Pile Length Range [m] 5,3 - 79,1 19,6 - 68,6 Pile Length Average [m] 25,6 42,0 Dr Range [%] 23 - 104 65 - 93 Dr Average [%] 74 76 Page 18 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  19. 19. www.baw.de | Sensitivity on L/D Ratio 10/19/2017 Page 19 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  20. 20. www.baw.de | Sensitivity on Relative Density Dr 10/19/2017 Page 20 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  21. 21. www.baw.de | Conservatism of API-00 over CPT-Methods 10/19/2017 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 20 40 60 80 PileCapacity[MN] qc [MPa] Tensile Capacity API-00 UWA-05 ICP-05 NGI-05 Fugro-05 A B 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 20 40 60 80 PileCapacity[MN] qc [MPa] Compressive Capacity API-00 UWA-05 ICP-05 NGI-05 Fugro-05 A B Parameters D↑ L↑ L/D↑ Dr↑ QCPT/QAPI<1 UWA-05 ₒ ↓ ↓ ↑ 31 % ICP-05 ₒ ↓ ↓ ↑ 36 % NGI-05 ₒ ↓ ↓ ↑ 0 % Fugro-05 ₒ ↓ ↓ ↑ 12 % Parameters D↑ L↑ L/D↑ Dr↑ QCPT/QAPI<1 UWA-05 ₒ ↓ ↓ ↑ 42 % ICP-05 ₒ ↓ ↓ ↑ 36 % NGI-05 ₒ ₒ ₒ ₒ 33 % Fugro-05 ₒ ↓ ↓ ↑ 31 % Page 21 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  22. 22. www.baw.de | Conclusion 10/19/2017 Pile Design is Highly Empirical Using Appropriate Database is Crucial Similar Trends for CPT-Methods (Except for NGI-05) „The“ Conservative Pile Design Method does not Exist Page 22 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  23. 23. www.baw.de | Concluding remark 10/19/2017 Conservatism ≠ Good Pile Design Page 23 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  24. 24. www.baw.de | Concluding remark 10/19/2017 Conservatism + Cost Effectiveness = Good Pile Design Page 24 Axial Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Pipe Piles
  25. 25. Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau 22559 Hamburg, Germany www.baw.de Terima kasih banyak! Thank you for your attention!

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