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PORT
PLANNING,
LAYOUT &
DESIGN
CARGO
HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
DIY 5034 PORT BUSINESS
Port development can refer either to the creation of a new
port or to the expansion of an existing one, usually aimed at
increasing its capacity or upgrading port operations.
The issue of port development is examined at three different
levels:
 National,
 Local,
 Port Terminal,
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
The competitive tendencies relate to the foreign trade of the
country, foreign goods in transit, and goods being transshipped:
the international flows that evidence potential for development
as opposed to internal transports, which have more-or-less
preset movement patterns.
These trade flows can be defined as follows:
 Foreign trade flows relate to the exports and imports of a
country, and consequently, have their origin or destination in
that country,
 Goods in transit are those goods in international flow whose
land transport leg uses the territory of the country and one of
its ports,
 Goods being transshipped, where both origin and destination
are located outside the country but both of whose transport
modes are marine,
Consequently, in this flow only the specific ports of the
country are used, not overland transport.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Depending on a country’s development and its tendency for
privatization, the allocation of roles to each port may be
conducted in such a manner as to permit a large percentage of
these ports to be released from national coordination and to
undertake their own development.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
In more general terms, the existence of a national port policy could
broadly define the role of each port in a country, so that in the context
of the national economy, the available funding can be employed as
productively as possible.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
At cargo ports, the type and packaging of cargo products determine the
manner of loading and unloading as well as of other operations.
Thus, the following basic categories of port terminals can be identified,
each having varying equipment and operational features:
General cargo terminals;
These are terminals equipped with conventional cranes, which handle cargo
in all types of packaging compatible with cranes.
The packaging could be parcels, sacks, pallets, or containers.
The latter should not, however, constitute a major percentage of the
traffic, because otherwise a specialized container terminal would be
required to improve throughput performance
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Container terminals:
In this case, containers are
handled using special loading/
unloading, transfer, and
stacking equipment. They are
typified by extensive yard areas
for container stowage.
Multipurpose terminals;
These terminals combine a
variety of functions in a single
terminal, where containers, but
also conventional general cargo
or other packaged products, can
be handled.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Ro-Ro terminals;
Here cargo is transferred within
a roll on–roll off system, with
loading and unloading of cargo
by horizontally moving lorries,
forklifts, tractors, and so on,
Bulk cargo terminals;
At these terminals, liquid or
dry bulk cargo without packaging
is handled. Usually, pumping
machinery with suitable piping
or grab cranes is used at these
terminals,
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
In the event that a new port is built or the existing ones are
planned to be improved, four main parameters should be
considered;
These parameters are;
1. inside the port, the port entrance and the approach channel
of the port should be sufficient size (depth and area) for the
ships to use the port,
2. Should be sufficient land area,
3. Compulsory works such as loading/unloading and ship berthing
events should be carried out economically and continuously
throughout the year,
4. Road/rail/sea/inland connection lines that connect the port
to the inner regions or countries should be established with
connection networks,
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Consequently, the initial and basic step in formulating a
country’s port system includes the determination of those ports
that will undertake to serve the flows of foreign trade,
transshipment, or transit.
These flows operate more-or-less independently of one another,
and thus for simplification of the analysis, may be studied
individually.
The basic criteria to be considered in developing a proposition
as to the roles of a country’s ports may be classified into the
following four groups:
1. The national and regional development policies of the country
2. The transportation infrastructure of the hinterland and its
prospects
3. Existing port capacity and potential for development
4. Cargo forecasts for each port
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
After each of the FOUR independent international flows has been
examined, the findings should be pooled, to define the core of
the country’s port system.
Thus, the role of each port that participates in international
cargo flow will be specified and the basic cargo throughputs can
be determined.
Considering these throughput values, and factoring in the
national flows, master plans can be drawn up for individual
ports
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Port MASTER PLAN;
The master plan of a port allocates the land within the port to
the various uses required, describes the projects needed to
implement the plan, and gives an indicative implementation
scheme by development phase,
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
These phases are related directly to the projected port
traffic which has to be monitored closely.
When in due course a decision is reached to proceed with
implementation of a development scheme, this should be
integrated smoothly with, or derive from, the master plan for
the port.
Therefore, it is important that a master plan exist, and
drafting one should be among the primary concerns of port
management
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
In the event that a national ports plan does not exist, the
consultant should proceed with drafting a master plan, after
studying the following components of long-term planning:
1. The role of the port—in particular:
a. The servicing of its inland area as regards foreign trade
b. The support that the port may offer to the region’s
commercial and industrial development,
c. The attraction of transiting and transshipment traffic,
2. The responsibility of the port for the construction of
both port and land works, Frequently, more than one agency
becomes involved: for example, when a port area is serviced
by a railroad.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
3. The land use in the area and the potential for expansion of
the port. It is important that there be general agreement
between interested parties over the proposed expansions and
land use so that the resulting master plan meets with wide
acceptance.
4. The policy for financing the port development, which may be
formulated on the basis of its own resources and/or through a
state grant.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Medium-Term Planning
The latter study should refer individually to each independent
section of the overall development proposal, such as a container
terminal or a bulk cargo terminal.
Thus, under a positive but reduced yield from the overall
proposal, the risk of concealment of a nonproductive section is
avoided,
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
The drafting of a port development plan calls for the conduct
of the following special studies:
1. Analysis of the functionality of the port as regards the
services offered in conjunction with capacity,
2. Designs, with budgets,
3. Operational design, with budget,
4. Financial and financing study,
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Principles of Port Design
Particularly as regards the individual terminals within a
port, the respective capacity calculations are based on
different factors, depending on the nature of each terminal as
follows:
1. In conventional cargo terminals, the required number of
berths is determined first, to keep vessels’ waiting time
below a specified limit, determined by economic and other
criteria,
2. In container terminals, the land area required for the
unobstructed movement of cargo flow is calculated,
3. For specialized bulk cargo terminals, the cargo flow during
loading and unloading has to be calculated first, to ensure
that vessels will be serviced within acceptable periods of
time,
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Guiding Principles
Port Costs; Two factors
constitute port costs:
investment cost, which does not
depend on traffic, and
operating cost, which does. A
ship’s cost in port is also
made up of two constituents:
the cost of the vessel’s
waiting time and the cost of
the ship while berthed.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Traffic Fluctuations; Even a proportionally small but
persistent increase in the traffic of a port may very quickly
cause congestion in a port lacking in reserve spaces; the
congestion will cause a reduction in the productivity of
serviced vessels, which aggravates the problem further.
The increase in traffic may be caused by a new shipping line,
larger cargo volumes, more frequent or occasional vessel calls,
and so on. Even a change in the packing method of a product of
large throughput may affect the efficiency and productivity of
a port adverselY,
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
The Optimum State
The chief benefit from investments in port projects is the
possibility if reducing total vessel time at a port.
Despite the fact that ships are the first party to benefit, in
the medium term both the port and the country benefit overall
from the development of ports.
From a practical point of view, optimization of the waiting
time–quay use issue may result in a 75% occupancy factor for a
group of, say,
five general cargo berths, which produces a wait of half a day,
for an average service time of 3.5 days
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Grouping of Installations.
Depending on the type of cargo traffic and on the equipment
required, berthing positions and other installations are grouped
in more-or-less independently operating areas of a port. This
grouping implies specialization in the type of cargo traffic
being served in each port section.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Thus, better utilization is achieved: for example, in wharf
depths and quicker servicing of vessels and cargoes. However,
there are also disadvantages to grouping port installations.
Basically, the flexibility obtainable by the greater number of
berths is reduced. This offers a more productive exploitation
of both water and land spaces.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Cargo Volume Forecasts
Cargo volume forecasts for a port provide estimates of:
• The types and quantities of the various goods to be moved
through the port,
• Packing by type of cargo,
• The number of vessel calls corresponding to the quantities
above,
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
If a national ports policy has been drawn up, the magnitudes
above will already be known; otherwise, forecasts are made
individually for the specific port under consideration.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
There is potentially great uncertainty in forecasts, and
therefore the planning should accommodate flexibility to enable
adaptation to meet future traffic.
The parameters considered in cargo volume forecasts include:
• Population and national product
• Regional development programs
• The transport network and its projected future
• Coastal shipping
• Diversion of a portion of the traffic to other harbors
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Cargo Flow Combination
Usually, forecasts of significant cargo flows are conducted by
type of cargo and by route. The results of cargo projections by
cargo type and route should be reformulated by cargo category.
The total probability of a complex flow depends on the partial
probabilities of the constituent flow forecasts and on the degree
of their interdependence.
It is advisable to analyze the flows of products with intense
seasonal fluctuation separately and then to add them to the other
flow forecasts.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
National Transshipment
To estimate the transshipment flows either originated from or
directed to a national port, and of the corresponding quays
required, the alternative cargo flows between ports A and B
should be examined.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Port Productivity
The productivity of a port is the measure of its ability to move
cargo through it within a unit of time under actual conditions.
It is known that cargoes undergo various stages of handling
while in port. For example, imported goods undergo the following
handling procedures:
 Discharging while a vessel is berthed
 Transport to storage area and stowage
 Removal from storage and transport to area of transshipment
or to means of overland transport
 Loading onto means of overland transport
 Departure from the port
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Obviously, the total productivity of a port is determined by
the lowest partial productivity of each link in the cargo
handling chain.
The conditions prevailing at the port at any given moment,
such as weather conditions, human resources, and condition of
machinery, affect the productivity of the partial procedures
considerably.
Consequently, a substantial time range representative of
prevailing conditions has to be assumed for the evaluation.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
The Master Plan
1. Port Categories; From a construction point of view, ports
may be classified into the following categories,
 Artificial Ports (LONG BEACH/LA)
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
 Natural Harbor (PORT OF SYDNEY)
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Port Location
Traditionally, ports are situated in a location central to
the urban area they serve. The port is thus surrounded by
urbanized area, and both further development of the port and
access to it are rendered difficult. This situation restricts
expansion of the port required to meet modern demands. In
most cases, a feasibility survey for relocation of the port
outside the city will have to be conducted
The prerequisites for such relocation are
 secure maritime approaches,
 sample availability of land area, and
 satisfactory access by land,
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
For an initial new site evaluation, an extensive list of data
to be collected is usually drawn up. Some of the items
included are:
• Uses and ownership of the land
• Topography and Access
• Existing utilities and structures at the site
• Wind and rainfall data
• Hydrographic information
• Geotechnical data, including potential sources of
construction materials
• Environmental assessment of the area
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Design Criteria
During the master planning stage
of a project preliminary design
criteria should be proposed
covering aspects such as types
of operations to be undertaken
(e.g., containers, transit and
transshipment flows,
import/export; design vessel,
operating equipment)
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Layout of Port Works
The arrangement of port works should be such as to ensure easy
berthing of vessels, secure efficient cargo loading and
unloading, and safe passenger embarkation and disembarkation
operations.
Specifically, easy access of vessels to a port should be
ensured through an appropriate navigation channel, a suitably
designed port entrance, an adequate maneuvering area, and
avoidance of undesirable erosion or deposition of material in
and around the harbor area.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
PORT OF ALIAGA
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
PORT OF DOUALA / KAMEROON
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Port Entrance;
The port entrance demands careful consideration to ensure quick
and safe entry of vessels in the harbor. The orientation and
width of the entrance should reconcile two opposing criteria.
For reasons of comfortable navigation, the harbor entrance
should communicate directly with the open sea and should be as
wide as possible.
On the other hand, the narrower and more protected the entrance,
the smaller the degree of wave energy and deposits that
penetrate the harbor basin, resulting in more favorable
conditions for attaining tranquility of the in-harbor sea
surface.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Layout of a large multipurpose artificial port. 1, General
cargo terminal; 2, container terminal; 3, passenger terminal;
4, oil berth; 5, fishing port; 6, dry dock; 7, ship repair
area; 8, anchorage area; 9, maneuvering circle; 10, mooring
dolphins; 11, breakwater; 12, tugboat berth; 13, coastal line
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
 Maneuvering Area,
 Vessel Anchorage and Mooring,
 Wave Agitation in the Port Basin,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuKTk2wbHMg
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
General Layout of Protection Works Layout of Main Structures;
Works whose function is to ensure the calmest possible
conditions within harbor basins and along quays, particularly
from wind-generated waves, are termed harbor protection works.
These may include the following:
1. Breakwaters, usually constructed either connected to the
shore or detached. Shore-connected breakwaters are
classified as windward or primary and leeward or secondary.
The former protect the harbor from the main wave direction,
and the latter protect from waves of secondary directions.
Frequently, leeward breakwaters are partially protected by
windward breakwaters.
2. Jetties, usually arranged in pairs to form entrances to
harbors located inward from the shoreline or in rivers.
Paired jetties may also increase the flow speed and thus
prevent sedimentation.
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Several issues of general application to the layout of land
installations of a port are listed below,
1. The conventional berthing positions for general cargo
require a smaller draft at the quay (usually 7.70 to 10 m) than
those required for containers or bulk cargo,
2. Much larger land areas are required in terminals where
containers are to be handled,
3. Care should be taken in drawing up the land use so that
smells from bulk cargoes carried by prevailing winds do not
damage the environment,
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
4. Security issues should be examined, particularly as regards
flammable materials or explosives,
5. Product compatibility should be examined for cargoes
adjacent to their respective handling areas. For instance,
pairing coal with grains is incompatible, as is pairing grains
with fertilizers,
6. The overall traffic pattern in the land area at a port
should be examined, to avoid potential congestion or a need for
bridging,
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Rail logistics operators; APMT Railway, DB Cargo Logistics,
Hupac, Kombiverkehr Deutsche Gesellschaft, Multirail, Renfe
Mercancías, Sicsa Rail Transport, SA, Shuttlewise, Synergy, TP
Nova, Viia Lorry-Rail
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
Port of BUSAN
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2t2cqiQl0BE
Port of LONG BEACH in US
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TEVBU_-QhSI
PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
SOURCE:
 PORT PLANNING, Constantine D. Memos, National Technical
University of Athens, Zografos, Greece,
 Port of BARCELONA,
 Port Layouts & Sedimentation-Erosion Patterns, R. Kamalian
PORT OPERATIONS & CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
DEVELOPMENTS IN CARGO HANDLING AND TERMINAL OPERATIONS
 BULK/BREAK BULK
 UNITIZATION
 LASH SYSTEM
 PALLETISATION
 CONTAINERISATION
CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
UNITIZATION; Some of the benefits of unitization are as follows:
 REDUCE TRANSIT TIME,
 MORE PREDICTABLE TRANSIT TIMES,
 IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY OF TRANSIPMENT STAFF E.G. DOCKERS,
 IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY OF SHIP,
 REDUCE STORAGE IN WAREHOUSE,
 EASY STORAGE AND HANDLING,
 REDUCE DAMAGE AND PILFERAGE,
 ALLOW SAFER WORKING PRACTICE TO BE USED,
 ENABLE TO USE MECHANICAL HANDLING,
 SAFETY,
CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
LASH SYSTEM
The proper stowage and securing
of cargoes is of the utmost
importance for the safety of
life at sea.
Improper stowage and securing of
cargoes has resulted in numerous
serious ship casualties and
caused injury and loss of life,
not only at sea but also during
loading and discharge.
Furthermore, many incidents in
transport are attributed to poor
practices in the packing of
cargo transport units, including
inadequate securing of the cargo
within the cargo transport
units, overloading and incorrect
declaration of contents.
CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
PALLETISATION;
 Pallets are plane (flat)
structures utilised in cargo
container ships for supporting
goods or containers.
 Cargo consignments are piled
atop these structures, the
process being referred to as
palletizing,
 Palletizing is regarded to be a
sure-safe way of dispatching
marine cargo consignments, just
as palletized cargo ships are
held in high regard in the
shipping sector across the world.
 The process helps in easy
handling and storage of goods on
ships.
 The cargo placed on pallet is
secured with straps and wraps in
order to stabilize and prevent
any unwanted movement.
CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
CONTAINERISATION;
The history of containerization is a development that can be
pinpointed to the mid-20th century.
Pioneered by an US-based conveyance businessman Malcolm Mclean,
cargo containers were fashioned in a bid to simplify the long-
drawn processes involved in shipping of cargo through sea routes.
CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
Salient Features of Containerization
 Transiting costs for the cargo to be shipped were reduced
drastically on account of the elimination of the unwanted
processes
 Large amount of cargo could be transported which meant that
transporters benefited from the economies of scale
 The feasibility offered by shipping containers also ensured
that the water navigable channels could be utilised for
transiting freight internationally
 Development of harbour facilities also took place
simultaneously once the qualitative worth of container shipping
began to spread far and wide,
CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
Detrimental Effects to the Cargo Shipping Sector
Although containerization provided a breakthrough in the
global shipping sector, there were several adverse effects
that were felt because of the changes it wrought.
 The labour force that was otherwise employed in the
dismantling and the assembly-line operations, prior to the
development of cargo containers started to become redundant
 Motorised operational links meant that lesser number of
labour force needed to be involved in the lading and unloading
of the freight to be shipped
 Semi-skilled labour force and even skilled labour force,
engaged in carrying out only one kind of operations at harbour
facilities were also negatively impacted
CARGO HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
CARGO POSITIONING AND STOWAGE ON THE
TERMINAL
Stowage; The arranging and packing of cargo in
a vessel for shipment.
CARGO POSITIONING AND STOWAGE ON THE
TERMINAL
PORT OF HABAŞ
CARGO POSITIONING AND STOWAGE ON THE
TERMINAL
Equipped with the ability to store 200.000 cubic meters fuel oil
products and 45.000 cubic meters LPG, SOCAR Storage terminal,
situated in Aliaga, Izmir, is the largest terminal across the
Aegean Region. This terminal will be among the 5 largest
terminals of Turkey upon completion of the ongoing additional
projects carried out to increase the capacity by 350.000 cubic
meters and to expand the seaport.
CARGO POSITIONING AND STOWAGE ON THE
TERMINAL
DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION
TERMINAL OPERATION: Maritime transport is the shipment of
goods (cargo) and people by sea and other waterways. Port
operations are a necessary tool to enable maritime trade
between trading partners. To ensure smooth port operations
and to avoid congestion in the harbor it is inevitable to
permanently upgrade the port’s physical infrastructure,
invest in human capital, fostering connectivity of the port
and upgrade the port operations to prevailing standards.
Hence, port operations can be defined as all policies,
reforms and regulations that influence the infrastructure and
operations of port facilities including shipping services.
DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION
OPERATION OF
FACILITIES
TRANSPORTATION
GOVERMENTAL
RELATIONSHIP
MARKETING
ACCOUNTING &
FINANCE
TENNANT
RELATIONSHIP
DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION
OPERATION OF FACILITIES; OPERATION IS EVERY ONES BEST FRIENDS,
 PLANNING OF CARGO & SHIP, TRANSPORTATION
 PREPAREDENESS OF YARD
 PILOTTAGE, BERTHING/UNBERTHING,
 INWARD/OUTWARD CLEARANCE, CUSTOM (FOR SHIP), DOCUMANTATIONS,
 CARGO OPERATION, GATE CONTROL (WEIGHING & BILLING)
 ACCOUNTING, FINANCE, MARKETING,
 SHIP SUPPLY (FW, PROVISION, STORES ETC), MAINTENANCE,
DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION
TRANSPORTATION;
 SHIP LINES,
 VESSEL SCHEDULING; The vessel scheduling problem is a
tactical level decision problem, which aims to determine
the vessel sailing speed at each voyage leg of a given liner
shipping route, arrival and departure times for each port of
call of the given port rotation.
 RAIL ROADS & RAIL OPERATION, HIGHWAY
 TRUCKING
DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION
VESSEL SCHEDULING
DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION
TRUCKING
DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION
GOVERMENTAL REALTIONSHIP;
 SECURITY PLAN,
 VESSEL BOARDING,
 VESSEL CLEARANCE,
 PORT AUTHORITY & PSC,
 QUARANTINE ISSUE,
 INSPECTION ISSUE,
 WARE HOUSE EXAMINATIONS,
DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION
VESSEL ACTIVITIES;
 CONTACT WITH PILOT & VTS & HARBOUR MASTER,
 PILOTTAGE, INBOUND & OUTBOUND MANOEUVRING,
 DOCKING, SHIFTING,
 CARGO OPERATION,
 STAND BY,
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0dbiW_C6IGA bulk carrıer loading
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6k7eXrK9m3w berthing
DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION
SANMAR has been producing tugboats and providing services for
numerous countries around the world for four decades. The
company celebrated its 40th year anniversary in 2016.
More than 200 tugboats benefiting from all this wealth of
experience are presently in operation on international seas.
Sanmar builds vessels at its two custom-built, state-of-the-
art yards located in Turkey’s shipbuilding heartland.
It delivered 17 tugboats in 2014 and thanks to the new
shipyard in Altınova, 27 in 2015 and 26 in 2016.
 ASD TUGBOATS,
 TRACTOR TUGBOATS,
 CONVENTIONAL TRACTOR TUGBOATS,
 LNG FUELLED TRACTOR TUGBOATS,
 FLAT TOP TRACTOR TUGBOATS,
DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION
DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION
BILLING & WEIGHNING;
 ALLOWS FOR SIMULTANEOUS REPORTING & PROCESSING OF TONNAGE
AND REVENUE,
 PROVIDES ON-LINE INQUIRY CAPABILITIES,
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
The port equipment market is estimated at USD 29.2 billion in
2018 and is projected to reach USD 36.6 billion by 2025, at a
CAGR of 3.30% from 2018 to 2025.
The factors that are expected to fuel the growth of the port
equipment market are the increasing seaborne trade across the
globe and the growing number of container shipments in Asia
Pacific and the Middle East.
Various countries have been focusing on developing new ports
owing to the increase in vessel count and trade volume.
According to the International Chamber of Shipping, 90% of the
world’s trade is carried out through seaways as they are ideal
for heavy and bulk goods, have large carrying capabilities, and
offer competitive freight costs.
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
SOURCE: https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/port-equipment-market-184119530.html
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
Key Market Players;
The major players in the port equipment market include Liebherr
(Switzerland), TTS (Norway), Kalmar (Finland), Konecranes
(Finland), Sany (China), Shanghai Zhenhua Heavy Industries
(ZPMC) (China), Hyster (US), Lonking (China), CVS Ferrari
(Italy), Anhui Heli (China), and Famur Famak (Poland), among
others. Konecranes is one of the key market players engaged in
securing contracts to increase the adoption of port equipment
by port terminals.
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
1949 – MOBIL CRANE INVENTED
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
1900 - USA
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
1900 - SINGAPORE
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
Source: https://w”ww.liebherr.com/
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
Source: https://w”ww.liebherr.com/
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
Source: https://w”ww.liebherr.com/
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
Theoutputofthreecraneswouldbe
7,600+movesperberthin24hours,this
withoutconsideringtheimpactof
multipleliftsalreadyutilizedwith
currentSTScranes.
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0UdMStGoJ2U&feature=emb_title
RMG / Rail Mounted Gantry Cranes
Gantryspan22-70+m
LiftingheightFrom9.2m
for1over2upto26.9m
for1over8
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
RTG / Rubber Tyre Gantry
Cranes; Rubber tyre gantry
cranes (RTGs) are available
with spans of between five and
nine containers wide (plus a
truck lane) and with hoisting
heights from 1 over 3 to 1
over 6 containers high.
Available in either eight or
16 wheel configuration with
numerous productivity options
from DGPS and auto steering to
stack profiling and
automation.
 TRADITIONAL DUAL SPEED
DIESEL
 VARIABLE SPEED
 E-RTG
 DIESEL ELECTRIC HYBRID
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
Straddle carriers;
Video: https://youtu.be/aERDsdcgwgI
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
Reach Steaker
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
AGV / Automated Guided Vehicle;
Automatic Guided Vehicle as the name suggests is a vehicle that
is controlled and operated with the help of automated
technological systems and equipments instead of the more
traditional manual operations.
AGV was initially introduced to enable faster delivery of goods
and products in warehouses and manufacturing units. The first
Automated Guided Vehicle was introduced in the year 1950 by the
American company Barrett Electronics, based in Illinois
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
AGV / Automated Guided Vehicle;
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0lEam-Hxv4
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
Main features:
Constructed as an AGV or Lift AGV with battery-electric or
diesel-electric drive unit
Payload 70 tons
Precise “according to plan” sequence via computer control system
Precise control using management and navigation software and
transponders in the terminal road surface
Positioning to +/- 25 mm accuracy
Easy operation of entire fleets
Battery-electric drives for zero exhaust emissions in the
terminal
Automated ease of operation
Fully automated, precise and rapid operation
Carries 20, 40 and 45-foot containers
Computer control system provides precisely timed sequences
according to plan
Travel forwards, backwards and sideways
Fully automated preciselly and fully automated battery changing
Exact control and data recording (transport jobs) through
management and navigation software and transponders embedded in
the terminal road surface
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
A terminal tractor, known in the United States as a shunt
truck, spotter truck, spotting tractor, yard truck, yard
dog, yard goat, yard horse, yard jockey or mule, is a semi-
tractor intended to move semi trailers within a cargo yard,
warehouse facility, or intermodal facility, much like
a switcher locomotive is used to position railcars.
Vidoe: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=51-BbgUQoAs&t=59s
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
World's Biggest Automated Cargo Wharf Yangshan Deep-water Port
Starts Operation in Shanghai
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzOeAGAu60k
Port of NEMPORT
Port of NEMPORT
Port of NEMPORT
Port of NEMPORT
Port of NEMPORT
Port of NEMPORT
Port of NEMPORT
THANK YOU FOR KIND
ATTENTION

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1. sunum port planning layout&design-cargo handling equipments-port operations

  • 2. Port development can refer either to the creation of a new port or to the expansion of an existing one, usually aimed at increasing its capacity or upgrading port operations. The issue of port development is examined at three different levels:  National,  Local,  Port Terminal, PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN
  • 3. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN The competitive tendencies relate to the foreign trade of the country, foreign goods in transit, and goods being transshipped: the international flows that evidence potential for development as opposed to internal transports, which have more-or-less preset movement patterns. These trade flows can be defined as follows:  Foreign trade flows relate to the exports and imports of a country, and consequently, have their origin or destination in that country,  Goods in transit are those goods in international flow whose land transport leg uses the territory of the country and one of its ports,  Goods being transshipped, where both origin and destination are located outside the country but both of whose transport modes are marine, Consequently, in this flow only the specific ports of the country are used, not overland transport.
  • 4. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Depending on a country’s development and its tendency for privatization, the allocation of roles to each port may be conducted in such a manner as to permit a large percentage of these ports to be released from national coordination and to undertake their own development.
  • 5. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN In more general terms, the existence of a national port policy could broadly define the role of each port in a country, so that in the context of the national economy, the available funding can be employed as productively as possible.
  • 6. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN At cargo ports, the type and packaging of cargo products determine the manner of loading and unloading as well as of other operations. Thus, the following basic categories of port terminals can be identified, each having varying equipment and operational features: General cargo terminals; These are terminals equipped with conventional cranes, which handle cargo in all types of packaging compatible with cranes. The packaging could be parcels, sacks, pallets, or containers. The latter should not, however, constitute a major percentage of the traffic, because otherwise a specialized container terminal would be required to improve throughput performance
  • 7. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Container terminals: In this case, containers are handled using special loading/ unloading, transfer, and stacking equipment. They are typified by extensive yard areas for container stowage. Multipurpose terminals; These terminals combine a variety of functions in a single terminal, where containers, but also conventional general cargo or other packaged products, can be handled.
  • 8. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Ro-Ro terminals; Here cargo is transferred within a roll on–roll off system, with loading and unloading of cargo by horizontally moving lorries, forklifts, tractors, and so on, Bulk cargo terminals; At these terminals, liquid or dry bulk cargo without packaging is handled. Usually, pumping machinery with suitable piping or grab cranes is used at these terminals,
  • 9. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN In the event that a new port is built or the existing ones are planned to be improved, four main parameters should be considered; These parameters are; 1. inside the port, the port entrance and the approach channel of the port should be sufficient size (depth and area) for the ships to use the port, 2. Should be sufficient land area, 3. Compulsory works such as loading/unloading and ship berthing events should be carried out economically and continuously throughout the year, 4. Road/rail/sea/inland connection lines that connect the port to the inner regions or countries should be established with connection networks,
  • 10. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Consequently, the initial and basic step in formulating a country’s port system includes the determination of those ports that will undertake to serve the flows of foreign trade, transshipment, or transit. These flows operate more-or-less independently of one another, and thus for simplification of the analysis, may be studied individually. The basic criteria to be considered in developing a proposition as to the roles of a country’s ports may be classified into the following four groups: 1. The national and regional development policies of the country 2. The transportation infrastructure of the hinterland and its prospects 3. Existing port capacity and potential for development 4. Cargo forecasts for each port
  • 11. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN After each of the FOUR independent international flows has been examined, the findings should be pooled, to define the core of the country’s port system. Thus, the role of each port that participates in international cargo flow will be specified and the basic cargo throughputs can be determined. Considering these throughput values, and factoring in the national flows, master plans can be drawn up for individual ports
  • 12. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Port MASTER PLAN; The master plan of a port allocates the land within the port to the various uses required, describes the projects needed to implement the plan, and gives an indicative implementation scheme by development phase,
  • 13. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN These phases are related directly to the projected port traffic which has to be monitored closely. When in due course a decision is reached to proceed with implementation of a development scheme, this should be integrated smoothly with, or derive from, the master plan for the port. Therefore, it is important that a master plan exist, and drafting one should be among the primary concerns of port management
  • 14. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN In the event that a national ports plan does not exist, the consultant should proceed with drafting a master plan, after studying the following components of long-term planning: 1. The role of the port—in particular: a. The servicing of its inland area as regards foreign trade b. The support that the port may offer to the region’s commercial and industrial development, c. The attraction of transiting and transshipment traffic, 2. The responsibility of the port for the construction of both port and land works, Frequently, more than one agency becomes involved: for example, when a port area is serviced by a railroad.
  • 15. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN 3. The land use in the area and the potential for expansion of the port. It is important that there be general agreement between interested parties over the proposed expansions and land use so that the resulting master plan meets with wide acceptance. 4. The policy for financing the port development, which may be formulated on the basis of its own resources and/or through a state grant.
  • 16. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Medium-Term Planning The latter study should refer individually to each independent section of the overall development proposal, such as a container terminal or a bulk cargo terminal. Thus, under a positive but reduced yield from the overall proposal, the risk of concealment of a nonproductive section is avoided,
  • 17. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN The drafting of a port development plan calls for the conduct of the following special studies: 1. Analysis of the functionality of the port as regards the services offered in conjunction with capacity, 2. Designs, with budgets, 3. Operational design, with budget, 4. Financial and financing study,
  • 18. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Principles of Port Design Particularly as regards the individual terminals within a port, the respective capacity calculations are based on different factors, depending on the nature of each terminal as follows: 1. In conventional cargo terminals, the required number of berths is determined first, to keep vessels’ waiting time below a specified limit, determined by economic and other criteria, 2. In container terminals, the land area required for the unobstructed movement of cargo flow is calculated, 3. For specialized bulk cargo terminals, the cargo flow during loading and unloading has to be calculated first, to ensure that vessels will be serviced within acceptable periods of time,
  • 19. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Guiding Principles Port Costs; Two factors constitute port costs: investment cost, which does not depend on traffic, and operating cost, which does. A ship’s cost in port is also made up of two constituents: the cost of the vessel’s waiting time and the cost of the ship while berthed.
  • 20. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Traffic Fluctuations; Even a proportionally small but persistent increase in the traffic of a port may very quickly cause congestion in a port lacking in reserve spaces; the congestion will cause a reduction in the productivity of serviced vessels, which aggravates the problem further. The increase in traffic may be caused by a new shipping line, larger cargo volumes, more frequent or occasional vessel calls, and so on. Even a change in the packing method of a product of large throughput may affect the efficiency and productivity of a port adverselY,
  • 21. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN The Optimum State The chief benefit from investments in port projects is the possibility if reducing total vessel time at a port. Despite the fact that ships are the first party to benefit, in the medium term both the port and the country benefit overall from the development of ports. From a practical point of view, optimization of the waiting time–quay use issue may result in a 75% occupancy factor for a group of, say, five general cargo berths, which produces a wait of half a day, for an average service time of 3.5 days
  • 22. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Grouping of Installations. Depending on the type of cargo traffic and on the equipment required, berthing positions and other installations are grouped in more-or-less independently operating areas of a port. This grouping implies specialization in the type of cargo traffic being served in each port section.
  • 23. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Thus, better utilization is achieved: for example, in wharf depths and quicker servicing of vessels and cargoes. However, there are also disadvantages to grouping port installations. Basically, the flexibility obtainable by the greater number of berths is reduced. This offers a more productive exploitation of both water and land spaces.
  • 24. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Cargo Volume Forecasts Cargo volume forecasts for a port provide estimates of: • The types and quantities of the various goods to be moved through the port, • Packing by type of cargo, • The number of vessel calls corresponding to the quantities above,
  • 25. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN If a national ports policy has been drawn up, the magnitudes above will already be known; otherwise, forecasts are made individually for the specific port under consideration.
  • 26. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN There is potentially great uncertainty in forecasts, and therefore the planning should accommodate flexibility to enable adaptation to meet future traffic. The parameters considered in cargo volume forecasts include: • Population and national product • Regional development programs • The transport network and its projected future • Coastal shipping • Diversion of a portion of the traffic to other harbors
  • 27. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Cargo Flow Combination Usually, forecasts of significant cargo flows are conducted by type of cargo and by route. The results of cargo projections by cargo type and route should be reformulated by cargo category. The total probability of a complex flow depends on the partial probabilities of the constituent flow forecasts and on the degree of their interdependence. It is advisable to analyze the flows of products with intense seasonal fluctuation separately and then to add them to the other flow forecasts.
  • 28. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN National Transshipment To estimate the transshipment flows either originated from or directed to a national port, and of the corresponding quays required, the alternative cargo flows between ports A and B should be examined.
  • 29. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Port Productivity The productivity of a port is the measure of its ability to move cargo through it within a unit of time under actual conditions. It is known that cargoes undergo various stages of handling while in port. For example, imported goods undergo the following handling procedures:  Discharging while a vessel is berthed  Transport to storage area and stowage  Removal from storage and transport to area of transshipment or to means of overland transport  Loading onto means of overland transport  Departure from the port
  • 30. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Obviously, the total productivity of a port is determined by the lowest partial productivity of each link in the cargo handling chain. The conditions prevailing at the port at any given moment, such as weather conditions, human resources, and condition of machinery, affect the productivity of the partial procedures considerably. Consequently, a substantial time range representative of prevailing conditions has to be assumed for the evaluation.
  • 31. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN The Master Plan 1. Port Categories; From a construction point of view, ports may be classified into the following categories,  Artificial Ports (LONG BEACH/LA)
  • 32. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN  Natural Harbor (PORT OF SYDNEY)
  • 33. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Port Location Traditionally, ports are situated in a location central to the urban area they serve. The port is thus surrounded by urbanized area, and both further development of the port and access to it are rendered difficult. This situation restricts expansion of the port required to meet modern demands. In most cases, a feasibility survey for relocation of the port outside the city will have to be conducted The prerequisites for such relocation are  secure maritime approaches,  sample availability of land area, and  satisfactory access by land,
  • 34. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN For an initial new site evaluation, an extensive list of data to be collected is usually drawn up. Some of the items included are: • Uses and ownership of the land • Topography and Access • Existing utilities and structures at the site • Wind and rainfall data • Hydrographic information • Geotechnical data, including potential sources of construction materials • Environmental assessment of the area
  • 35. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Design Criteria During the master planning stage of a project preliminary design criteria should be proposed covering aspects such as types of operations to be undertaken (e.g., containers, transit and transshipment flows, import/export; design vessel, operating equipment)
  • 36. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Layout of Port Works The arrangement of port works should be such as to ensure easy berthing of vessels, secure efficient cargo loading and unloading, and safe passenger embarkation and disembarkation operations. Specifically, easy access of vessels to a port should be ensured through an appropriate navigation channel, a suitably designed port entrance, an adequate maneuvering area, and avoidance of undesirable erosion or deposition of material in and around the harbor area.
  • 37. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN PORT OF ALIAGA
  • 38. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN PORT OF DOUALA / KAMEROON
  • 39. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Port Entrance; The port entrance demands careful consideration to ensure quick and safe entry of vessels in the harbor. The orientation and width of the entrance should reconcile two opposing criteria. For reasons of comfortable navigation, the harbor entrance should communicate directly with the open sea and should be as wide as possible. On the other hand, the narrower and more protected the entrance, the smaller the degree of wave energy and deposits that penetrate the harbor basin, resulting in more favorable conditions for attaining tranquility of the in-harbor sea surface.
  • 40. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Layout of a large multipurpose artificial port. 1, General cargo terminal; 2, container terminal; 3, passenger terminal; 4, oil berth; 5, fishing port; 6, dry dock; 7, ship repair area; 8, anchorage area; 9, maneuvering circle; 10, mooring dolphins; 11, breakwater; 12, tugboat berth; 13, coastal line
  • 41. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN  Maneuvering Area,  Vessel Anchorage and Mooring,  Wave Agitation in the Port Basin, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuKTk2wbHMg
  • 42. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN General Layout of Protection Works Layout of Main Structures; Works whose function is to ensure the calmest possible conditions within harbor basins and along quays, particularly from wind-generated waves, are termed harbor protection works. These may include the following: 1. Breakwaters, usually constructed either connected to the shore or detached. Shore-connected breakwaters are classified as windward or primary and leeward or secondary. The former protect the harbor from the main wave direction, and the latter protect from waves of secondary directions. Frequently, leeward breakwaters are partially protected by windward breakwaters. 2. Jetties, usually arranged in pairs to form entrances to harbors located inward from the shoreline or in rivers. Paired jetties may also increase the flow speed and thus prevent sedimentation.
  • 43. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Several issues of general application to the layout of land installations of a port are listed below, 1. The conventional berthing positions for general cargo require a smaller draft at the quay (usually 7.70 to 10 m) than those required for containers or bulk cargo, 2. Much larger land areas are required in terminals where containers are to be handled, 3. Care should be taken in drawing up the land use so that smells from bulk cargoes carried by prevailing winds do not damage the environment,
  • 44. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN 4. Security issues should be examined, particularly as regards flammable materials or explosives, 5. Product compatibility should be examined for cargoes adjacent to their respective handling areas. For instance, pairing coal with grains is incompatible, as is pairing grains with fertilizers, 6. The overall traffic pattern in the land area at a port should be examined, to avoid potential congestion or a need for bridging,
  • 52. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Rail logistics operators; APMT Railway, DB Cargo Logistics, Hupac, Kombiverkehr Deutsche Gesellschaft, Multirail, Renfe Mercancías, Sicsa Rail Transport, SA, Shuttlewise, Synergy, TP Nova, Viia Lorry-Rail
  • 54. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN Port of BUSAN https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2t2cqiQl0BE Port of LONG BEACH in US https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TEVBU_-QhSI
  • 55. PORT PLANNING, LAYOUT & DESIGN SOURCE:  PORT PLANNING, Constantine D. Memos, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, Greece,  Port of BARCELONA,  Port Layouts & Sedimentation-Erosion Patterns, R. Kamalian
  • 56. PORT OPERATIONS & CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENTS DEVELOPMENTS IN CARGO HANDLING AND TERMINAL OPERATIONS  BULK/BREAK BULK  UNITIZATION  LASH SYSTEM  PALLETISATION  CONTAINERISATION
  • 59. UNITIZATION; Some of the benefits of unitization are as follows:  REDUCE TRANSIT TIME,  MORE PREDICTABLE TRANSIT TIMES,  IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY OF TRANSIPMENT STAFF E.G. DOCKERS,  IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY OF SHIP,  REDUCE STORAGE IN WAREHOUSE,  EASY STORAGE AND HANDLING,  REDUCE DAMAGE AND PILFERAGE,  ALLOW SAFER WORKING PRACTICE TO BE USED,  ENABLE TO USE MECHANICAL HANDLING,  SAFETY, CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENTS
  • 61. LASH SYSTEM The proper stowage and securing of cargoes is of the utmost importance for the safety of life at sea. Improper stowage and securing of cargoes has resulted in numerous serious ship casualties and caused injury and loss of life, not only at sea but also during loading and discharge. Furthermore, many incidents in transport are attributed to poor practices in the packing of cargo transport units, including inadequate securing of the cargo within the cargo transport units, overloading and incorrect declaration of contents. CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENTS
  • 63. CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENTS PALLETISATION;  Pallets are plane (flat) structures utilised in cargo container ships for supporting goods or containers.  Cargo consignments are piled atop these structures, the process being referred to as palletizing,
  • 64.  Palletizing is regarded to be a sure-safe way of dispatching marine cargo consignments, just as palletized cargo ships are held in high regard in the shipping sector across the world.  The process helps in easy handling and storage of goods on ships.  The cargo placed on pallet is secured with straps and wraps in order to stabilize and prevent any unwanted movement. CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENTS
  • 65. CONTAINERISATION; The history of containerization is a development that can be pinpointed to the mid-20th century. Pioneered by an US-based conveyance businessman Malcolm Mclean, cargo containers were fashioned in a bid to simplify the long- drawn processes involved in shipping of cargo through sea routes. CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENTS
  • 66. Salient Features of Containerization  Transiting costs for the cargo to be shipped were reduced drastically on account of the elimination of the unwanted processes  Large amount of cargo could be transported which meant that transporters benefited from the economies of scale  The feasibility offered by shipping containers also ensured that the water navigable channels could be utilised for transiting freight internationally  Development of harbour facilities also took place simultaneously once the qualitative worth of container shipping began to spread far and wide, CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENTS
  • 67. Detrimental Effects to the Cargo Shipping Sector Although containerization provided a breakthrough in the global shipping sector, there were several adverse effects that were felt because of the changes it wrought.  The labour force that was otherwise employed in the dismantling and the assembly-line operations, prior to the development of cargo containers started to become redundant  Motorised operational links meant that lesser number of labour force needed to be involved in the lading and unloading of the freight to be shipped  Semi-skilled labour force and even skilled labour force, engaged in carrying out only one kind of operations at harbour facilities were also negatively impacted CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENTS
  • 68. CARGO POSITIONING AND STOWAGE ON THE TERMINAL Stowage; The arranging and packing of cargo in a vessel for shipment.
  • 69. CARGO POSITIONING AND STOWAGE ON THE TERMINAL PORT OF HABAŞ
  • 70. CARGO POSITIONING AND STOWAGE ON THE TERMINAL Equipped with the ability to store 200.000 cubic meters fuel oil products and 45.000 cubic meters LPG, SOCAR Storage terminal, situated in Aliaga, Izmir, is the largest terminal across the Aegean Region. This terminal will be among the 5 largest terminals of Turkey upon completion of the ongoing additional projects carried out to increase the capacity by 350.000 cubic meters and to expand the seaport.
  • 71. CARGO POSITIONING AND STOWAGE ON THE TERMINAL
  • 72. DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION TERMINAL OPERATION: Maritime transport is the shipment of goods (cargo) and people by sea and other waterways. Port operations are a necessary tool to enable maritime trade between trading partners. To ensure smooth port operations and to avoid congestion in the harbor it is inevitable to permanently upgrade the port’s physical infrastructure, invest in human capital, fostering connectivity of the port and upgrade the port operations to prevailing standards. Hence, port operations can be defined as all policies, reforms and regulations that influence the infrastructure and operations of port facilities including shipping services.
  • 73. DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION OPERATION OF FACILITIES TRANSPORTATION GOVERMENTAL RELATIONSHIP MARKETING ACCOUNTING & FINANCE TENNANT RELATIONSHIP
  • 74. DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION OPERATION OF FACILITIES; OPERATION IS EVERY ONES BEST FRIENDS,  PLANNING OF CARGO & SHIP, TRANSPORTATION  PREPAREDENESS OF YARD  PILOTTAGE, BERTHING/UNBERTHING,  INWARD/OUTWARD CLEARANCE, CUSTOM (FOR SHIP), DOCUMANTATIONS,  CARGO OPERATION, GATE CONTROL (WEIGHING & BILLING)  ACCOUNTING, FINANCE, MARKETING,  SHIP SUPPLY (FW, PROVISION, STORES ETC), MAINTENANCE,
  • 75. DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION TRANSPORTATION;  SHIP LINES,  VESSEL SCHEDULING; The vessel scheduling problem is a tactical level decision problem, which aims to determine the vessel sailing speed at each voyage leg of a given liner shipping route, arrival and departure times for each port of call of the given port rotation.  RAIL ROADS & RAIL OPERATION, HIGHWAY  TRUCKING
  • 76. DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION VESSEL SCHEDULING
  • 77. DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION TRUCKING
  • 78. DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION GOVERMENTAL REALTIONSHIP;  SECURITY PLAN,  VESSEL BOARDING,  VESSEL CLEARANCE,  PORT AUTHORITY & PSC,  QUARANTINE ISSUE,  INSPECTION ISSUE,  WARE HOUSE EXAMINATIONS,
  • 79. DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION VESSEL ACTIVITIES;  CONTACT WITH PILOT & VTS & HARBOUR MASTER,  PILOTTAGE, INBOUND & OUTBOUND MANOEUVRING,  DOCKING, SHIFTING,  CARGO OPERATION,  STAND BY, Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0dbiW_C6IGA bulk carrıer loading Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6k7eXrK9m3w berthing
  • 80. DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION SANMAR has been producing tugboats and providing services for numerous countries around the world for four decades. The company celebrated its 40th year anniversary in 2016. More than 200 tugboats benefiting from all this wealth of experience are presently in operation on international seas. Sanmar builds vessels at its two custom-built, state-of-the- art yards located in Turkey’s shipbuilding heartland. It delivered 17 tugboats in 2014 and thanks to the new shipyard in Altınova, 27 in 2015 and 26 in 2016.  ASD TUGBOATS,  TRACTOR TUGBOATS,  CONVENTIONAL TRACTOR TUGBOATS,  LNG FUELLED TRACTOR TUGBOATS,  FLAT TOP TRACTOR TUGBOATS,
  • 82. DEVELOPMENTS in TERMINAL OPERATION BILLING & WEIGHNING;  ALLOWS FOR SIMULTANEOUS REPORTING & PROCESSING OF TONNAGE AND REVENUE,  PROVIDES ON-LINE INQUIRY CAPABILITIES,
  • 83. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL The port equipment market is estimated at USD 29.2 billion in 2018 and is projected to reach USD 36.6 billion by 2025, at a CAGR of 3.30% from 2018 to 2025. The factors that are expected to fuel the growth of the port equipment market are the increasing seaborne trade across the globe and the growing number of container shipments in Asia Pacific and the Middle East. Various countries have been focusing on developing new ports owing to the increase in vessel count and trade volume. According to the International Chamber of Shipping, 90% of the world’s trade is carried out through seaways as they are ideal for heavy and bulk goods, have large carrying capabilities, and offer competitive freight costs.
  • 84. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL SOURCE: https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/port-equipment-market-184119530.html
  • 85. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL Key Market Players; The major players in the port equipment market include Liebherr (Switzerland), TTS (Norway), Kalmar (Finland), Konecranes (Finland), Sany (China), Shanghai Zhenhua Heavy Industries (ZPMC) (China), Hyster (US), Lonking (China), CVS Ferrari (Italy), Anhui Heli (China), and Famur Famak (Poland), among others. Konecranes is one of the key market players engaged in securing contracts to increase the adoption of port equipment by port terminals.
  • 86. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL 1949 – MOBIL CRANE INVENTED
  • 87. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL 1900 - USA
  • 88. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL 1900 - SINGAPORE
  • 89. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL Source: https://w”ww.liebherr.com/
  • 90. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL Source: https://w”ww.liebherr.com/
  • 92. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL Source: https://w”ww.liebherr.com/
  • 93. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL Theoutputofthreecraneswouldbe 7,600+movesperberthin24hours,this withoutconsideringtheimpactof multipleliftsalreadyutilizedwith currentSTScranes.
  • 94. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0UdMStGoJ2U&feature=emb_title RMG / Rail Mounted Gantry Cranes Gantryspan22-70+m LiftingheightFrom9.2m for1over2upto26.9m for1over8
  • 95. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL RTG / Rubber Tyre Gantry Cranes; Rubber tyre gantry cranes (RTGs) are available with spans of between five and nine containers wide (plus a truck lane) and with hoisting heights from 1 over 3 to 1 over 6 containers high. Available in either eight or 16 wheel configuration with numerous productivity options from DGPS and auto steering to stack profiling and automation.  TRADITIONAL DUAL SPEED DIESEL  VARIABLE SPEED  E-RTG  DIESEL ELECTRIC HYBRID
  • 96. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL Straddle carriers; Video: https://youtu.be/aERDsdcgwgI
  • 97. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL Reach Steaker
  • 98. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL AGV / Automated Guided Vehicle; Automatic Guided Vehicle as the name suggests is a vehicle that is controlled and operated with the help of automated technological systems and equipments instead of the more traditional manual operations. AGV was initially introduced to enable faster delivery of goods and products in warehouses and manufacturing units. The first Automated Guided Vehicle was introduced in the year 1950 by the American company Barrett Electronics, based in Illinois
  • 99. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL AGV / Automated Guided Vehicle; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0lEam-Hxv4
  • 100. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL Main features: Constructed as an AGV or Lift AGV with battery-electric or diesel-electric drive unit Payload 70 tons Precise “according to plan” sequence via computer control system Precise control using management and navigation software and transponders in the terminal road surface Positioning to +/- 25 mm accuracy Easy operation of entire fleets Battery-electric drives for zero exhaust emissions in the terminal Automated ease of operation Fully automated, precise and rapid operation Carries 20, 40 and 45-foot containers Computer control system provides precisely timed sequences according to plan Travel forwards, backwards and sideways Fully automated preciselly and fully automated battery changing Exact control and data recording (transport jobs) through management and navigation software and transponders embedded in the terminal road surface
  • 101. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL
  • 102. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL A terminal tractor, known in the United States as a shunt truck, spotter truck, spotting tractor, yard truck, yard dog, yard goat, yard horse, yard jockey or mule, is a semi- tractor intended to move semi trailers within a cargo yard, warehouse facility, or intermodal facility, much like a switcher locomotive is used to position railcars. Vidoe: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=51-BbgUQoAs&t=59s
  • 103. EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE TERMINAL World's Biggest Automated Cargo Wharf Yangshan Deep-water Port Starts Operation in Shanghai https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzOeAGAu60k
  • 111. THANK YOU FOR KIND ATTENTION

Editor's Notes

  1. Liman geliştirme, ya yeni bir liman oluşturulması ya da genellikle kapasitesini arttırmayı ya da liman operasyonlarını iyileştirmeyi amaçlayan mevcut bir limanın genişletilmesini ifade edebilir. Liman geliştirme konusu üç farklı seviyede incelenmektedir: ulusal, yerel ve liman terminali
  2. Rekabet eğilimleri, ülkenin dış ticareti, transit olan yabancı mallar ve aktarılan mallar ile ilgilidir: uluslararası akış, az ya da çok önceden belirlenmiş hareket örüntülerine sahip olan iç ulaştırma araçlarının aksine gelişme potansiyeli kanıtıdır. Bu ticaret akışları aşağıdaki gibi tanımlanabilir Dış ticaret akımları bir ülkenin ihracat ve ithalatı ile ilgilidir ve sonuç olarak o ülkede menşei veya hedefi vardır,  Transit mallar, kara taşımacılığı ayağı ülkenin topraklarını ve limanlarından birini kullanan uluslararası akıştaki mallardır,  Hem menşeinin hem de varış yerinin ülke dışında olduğu, ancak her ikisi de ulaşım modlarının deniz olduğu, aktarılan mallar, Sonuç olarak, bu akışta kara taşımacılığı değil, sadece ülkenin belirli limanları kullanılmaktadır
  3. Daha genel anlamda, bir ulusal liman politikasının varlığı, bir ülkedeki her bir limanın rolünü geniş ölçüde tanımlayabilir, böylece ulusal ekonomi bağlamında, mevcut fon mümkün olduğunca verimli bir şekilde kullanılabilir. Bir ülkenin kalkınmasına ve özelleştirme eğilimine bağlı olarak, her limana rol tahsisi, bu limanların büyük bir yüzdesinin ulusal koordinasyondan serbest bırakılmasına ve kendi gelişimlerini üstlenmesine izin verecek şekilde yürütülebilir
  4. Daha genel anlamda, bir ulusal liman politikasının varlığı, bir ülkedeki her bir limanın rolünü geniş ölçüde tanımlayabilir, böylece ulusal ekonomi bağlamında, mevcut fon mümkün olduğunca verimli bir şekilde kullanılabilir.
  5. Kargo limanlarında, kargo ürünlerinin türü ve ambalajı, diğer operasyonların yanı sıra yükleme ve boşaltma şeklini de belirler. Böylece, her biri farklı ekipman ve operasyonel özelliklere sahip olan aşağıdaki temel liman terminal kategorileri tanımlanabilir: • Genel kargo terminalleri.   Bunlar, vinçlerle uyumlu her türlü ambalajda yük taşıyan geleneksel vinçlerle donatılmış terminallerdir. Ambalaj, paketler, çuvallar, paletler veya kaplar olabilir. Bununla birlikte, ikincisi trafiğin büyük bir yüzdesini oluşturmamalıdır, aksi takdirde üretim performansını artırmak için özel bir konteyner terminali gerekli olacaktır
  6. Yeni bir liman yapılması veya mevcut limanların iyileştirilmesi planlanıyorsa, dört ana parametre dikkate alınmalıdır; Bu parametreler; liman içi, liman girişi ve yaklaşım kanalı liman için yeterli büyüklükte (derinlik ve alan) olmalıdır. limanı kullanmak için gemiler, Yeterli arazi alanı olmalı, Yükleme / boşaltma ve gemi yanaşma gibi zorunlu işler olaylar ekonomik ve sürekli yapılmalıdır yıl boyunca, 4. liman bağlamak Yol / demiryolu / deniz / iç bağlantı hatları iç bölgelere veya ülkelere bağlantı ağları,
  7. Sonuç olarak, bir ülkenin liman sistemini formüle etmenin ilk ve temel adımı, dış ticaret, aktarma veya transit akışlarına hizmet etmek için üstlenecek limanların belirlenmesini içerir.   Bu akışlar az çok birbirlerinden bağımsız olarak çalışırlar ve dolayısıyla analizin basitleştirilmesi için ayrı ayrı incelenebilirler. Bir ülkenin limanlarının rollerine ilişkin bir teklif geliştirirken dikkate alınması gereken temel kriterler aşağıdaki dört gruba ayrılabilir:   1. Ülkenin ulusal ve bölgesel kalkınma politikaları 2. İç bölgelerin ulaşım altyapısı ve beklentileri 3. Mevcut liman kapasitesi ve gelişme potansiyeli   4. Her liman için kargo tahminleri
  8. 4 bağımsız uluslararası akımın her biri incelendikten sonra, ülkenin liman sisteminin çekirdeğini tanımlamak için bulgular toplanmalıdır. Böylece, uluslararası kargo akışına katılan her limanın rolü belirlenecek ve temel kargo iş hacmi belirlenebilir. Bu verim değerleri ve ulusal akışlardaki faktoring göz önüne alındığında, bireysel limanlar için ana planlar oluşturulabilir
  9. Bir limanın ana planı, liman içindeki araziyi gerekli çeşitli kullanımlara tahsis eder, planın uygulanması için gerekli projeleri açıklar ve geliştirme aşamasına göre gösterge niteliğinde bir uygulama şeması verir,
  10. Bu aşamalar doğrudan yakından izlenmesi gereken tahmini liman trafiğiyle ilgilidir. Zaman içinde bir geliştirme şemasının uygulanmasına devam etme kararı alındığında, bu, liman için ana planla sorunsuz bir şekilde bütünleştirilmeli veya bu plandan türetilmelidir. Bu nedenle, bir ana planın olması önemlidir ve bir planın hazırlanması liman yönetiminin temel endişeleri arasında olmalıdır.
  11. Ulusal liman planının mevcut olmaması durumunda, danışman uzun vadeli planlamanın aşağıdaki bileşenlerini inceledikten sonra bir ana plan hazırlamaya devam etmelidir: 1. Limanın rolü - özellikle:  a. Dış ticaret konusunda iç bölgelerinin bakımı  b. Limanın bölgenin ticari ve endüstriyel gelişimine sunabileceği destek c. Transit ve aktarma trafiğinin çekiciliği 2. Hem liman hem de kara inşaatı için limanın sorumluluğu. Sıklıkla, birden fazla ajans devreye girer: örneğin, bir liman bölgesine demiryolu ile hizmet verildiğinde.
  12. 3. Bölgede arazi kullanımı ve limanın genişleme potansiyeli. İlgili genişletmeler ve arazi kullanımı konusunda ilgili taraflar arasında genel bir mutabakat olması önemlidir, böylelikle ortaya çıkan ana plan geniş bir kabulle karşılanır. 4. Kendi kaynaklarına ve / veya bir devlet hibesine dayalı olarak formüle edilebilecek liman gelişimini finanse etme politikası.
  13. İkinci çalışma, konteyner terminali veya dökme yük terminali gibi genel geliştirme teklifinin her bir bağımsız bölümüne tek tek atıfta bulunmalıdır. Böylece, genel tekliften elde edilen pozitif fakat azaltılmış bir verim altında, verimsiz bir bölümün gizlenme riskinden kaçınılır.
  14. Bir liman geliştirme planının hazırlanması aşağıdaki özel çalışmaların yürütülmesini gerektirmektedir: Kapasite ile birlikte sunulan hizmetlere ilişkin olarak limanın işlevselliğinin analizi Bütçe ile Tasarımlar 3. Bütçe ile operasyonel tasarım 4. Finans ve finansman çalışması
  15. Özellikle bir liman içindeki ayrı terminaller ile ilgili olarak, ilgili kapasite hesaplamaları aşağıdaki gibi her bir terminalin doğasına bağlı olarak farklı faktörlere dayanır: 1. Konvansiyonel kargo terminallerinde, gemilerin bekleme süresini ekonomik ve diğer kriterlere göre belirlenen bir sınırın altında tutmak için önce gerekli olan rıhtım sayısı belirlenir. 2. Konteyner terminallerinde, yük akışının engelsiz hareketi için gerekli olan arazi alanı hesaplanır. 3. İhtisas dökme yük terminalleri için, gemilerin kabul edilebilir süreler içerisinde servis görmesini sağlamak için, önce yükleme ve boşaltma sırasında kargo akışı hesaplanmalıdır.
  16. Liman maliyetini iki faktör oluşturmaktadır: trafiğe bağlı olmayan yatırım maliyeti ve işletme maliyeti. Limanda bir geminin maliyeti de iki bileşenden oluşur: geminin bekleme süresinin maliyeti ve rıhtımdayken geminin maliyeti.
  17. Bir limanın trafiğinde oransal olarak küçük fakat kalıcı bir artış bile, rezerv alanlarında eksik olan bir limanda çok hızlı bir şekilde tıkanıklığa neden olabilir; tıkanıklık, servis edilen gemilerin verimliliğinde bir azalmaya neden olur ve bu da sorunu daha da ağırlaştırır. Trafikteki artış, yeni bir nakliye hattı, daha büyük kargo hacimleri, daha sık veya ara sıra yapılan gemi çağrıları vb. Büyük iş hacmine sahip bir ürünün paketleme yöntemindeki bir değişiklik bile bir limanın olumsuz etkililiğini ve verimliliğini etkileyebilir,
  18. Liman projelerine yapılan yatırımlardan en büyük yararı, bir limandaki toplam gemi süresini azaltma olasılığıdır. Gemilerin ilk yararlanan taraf olmasına rağmen, orta vadede hem liman hem de ülke limanların gelişmesinden genel olarak yararlanmaktadır. Pratik bir bakış açısından, bekleme süresi - rıhtım kullanımı sorununun optimizasyonu bir grup için% 75 doluluk faktörüne neden olabilir. 3,5 günlük ortalama hizmet süresi için yarım günlük bekleme süresi üreten beş genel kargo iskelesi
  19. Yük trafiğinin türüne ve gerekli donanıma bağlı olarak yanaşma konumları ve diğer tesisler, bir limanın az çok bağımsız olarak faaliyet gösteren alanlarında gruplanır. Bu gruplama, her liman bölümünde sunulan kargo trafiği türünde uzmanlık anlamına gelir.
  20. Böylece daha iyi bir kullanım elde edilir: örneğin, rıhtım derinliklerinde ve gemilerin ve yüklerin daha hızlı servis edilmesinde. Bununla birlikte, liman kurulumlarını gruplamanın dezavantajları da vardır. Temel olarak, daha fazla sayıda rıhtımın sağladığı esneklik azalır. Bu, hem su hem de kara alanlarının daha verimli bir şekilde kullanılmasını sağlar.
  21. Limanda elleçlenecek çeşitli malların türleri ve miktarları, • Yük türüne göre paketleme, • Yukarıdaki miktarlara karşılık gelen gemi çağrılarının sayısı
  22. Ulusal limanlar politikası oluşturulmuşsa, yukarıdaki büyüklükler zaten bilinecektir; aksi takdirde, söz konusu liman için ayrı ayrı tahminler yapılır.
  23. Tahminlerde potansiyel olarak büyük bir belirsizlik vardır ve bu nedenle planlama gelecekteki trafiği karşılayacak şekilde adaptasyonu mümkün kılacak esnekliğe uyum sağlamalıdır. Kargo hacmi tahminlerinde dikkate alınan parametreler şunları içerir: • Nüfus ve ulusal ürün • Bölgesel kalkınma programları • Ulaşım ağı ve öngörülen geleceği • Kıyı nakliyatı • Trafiğin bir bölümünün diğer limanlara yönlendirilmesi
  24. Genellikle, önemli kargo akışlarının tahminleri yük türüne ve rotaya göre yapılır. Kargo tipi ve güzergahına göre kargo projeksiyonlarının sonuçları kargo kategorisine göre yeniden düzenlenmelidir. Karmaşık bir akışın toplam olasılığı, kurucu akış tahminlerinin kısmi olasılıklarına ve bunların bağımlılık derecelerine bağlıdır. Yoğun mevsimsel dalgalanma olan ürünlerin akışlarının ayrı ayrı analiz edilmesi ve daha sonra diğer akış tahminlerine eklenmesi tavsiye edilir.
  25. Ulusal bir limandan ya da bu limana yönlendirilen aktarma akışlarını ve gerekli karşılık gelen rıhtımları tahmin etmek için A ve B limanları arasındaki alternatif kargo akışları incelenmelidir.
  26. Bir limanın üretkenliği, gerçek koşullar altında yükü bir süre içinde bir birim içinde taşıma yeteneğinin ölçüsüdür. Kargoların limanda iken çeşitli taşıma aşamalarından geçtiği bilinmektedir. Örneğin, ithal edilen mallar aşağıdaki taşıma prosedürlerinden geçer:   Gemi rıhtımdayken deşarj   Depolama alanına ve depolama alanına taşıma   Depolama ve nakliye işlemlerinden aktarma alanına veya karayolu nakliye araçlarına kaldırma   Kara taşımacılığı araçlarına yükleme   Limandan hareket
  27. Bir limanın toplam üretkenliği, yük elleçleme zincirindeki her bir bağlantının en düşük kısmi üretkenliği tarafından belirlenir. Hava koşulları, insan kaynakları ve makinelerin durumu gibi herhangi bir anda limanda hüküm süren koşullar, kısmi prosedürlerin verimliliğini önemli ölçüde etkiler. Sonuç olarak, değerlendirme için geçerli koşulları temsil eden önemli bir zaman aralığı varsayılmalıdır
  28. Geleneksel olarak, limanlar hizmet ettikleri kentsel alanın merkezinde bir konumda bulunmaktadır. Böylece liman kentleşmiş alanla çevrilidir ve hem limanın daha da geliştirilmesi hem de limana erişim zorlaştırılmaktadır. Bu durum, modern talepleri karşılamak için gereken limanın genişletilmesini kısıtlamaktadır. Çoğu durumda, limanın şehir dışına taşınması için bir fizibilite araştırması yapılması gerekecektir. Bu yer değiştirme için önkoşullar; güvenli denizcilik yaklaşımları, arazi alanının örnek mevcudiyeti ve karadan tatmin edici erişim
  29. Yeni bir ilk site değerlendirmesi için, toplanacak kapsamlı bir veri listesi genellikle hazırlanır. Dahil olan bazı öğeler: Arazi kullanımı ve mülkiyeti • Topografi ve Erişim • Alandaki mevcut yardımcı programlar ve yapılar • Rüzgar ve yağış verileri • Hidrografik bilgi • Potansiyel yapı malzemeleri kaynakları dahil jeoteknik veriler • Alanın çevresel değerlendirmesi
  30. Bir projenin ana planlama aşamasında, gerçekleştirilecek operasyon türleri gibi unsurları kapsayan ön tasarım kriterleri önerilmelidir. (konteynerler, transit ve aktarma akışları, ithalat / ihracat; gemi tasarımı, işletme ekipmanı
  31. Liman işlerinin düzenlenmesi, gemilerin kolay yanaşmasını sağlayacak, etkili kargo yükleme ve boşaltma ve güvenli yolcu biniş ve iniş operasyonlarını sağlayacak şekilde olmalıdır. Özellikle, gemilerin bir limana kolay erişimi, uygun bir navigasyon kanalı, uygun şekilde tasarlanmış bir liman girişi, yeterli bir manevra alanı ve liman bölgesinde ve çevresinde istenmeyen erozyon veya malzemenin birikmesinden kaçınılmalıdır.
  32. Liman girişi, gemilerin limana hızlı ve güvenli bir şekilde girmesini sağlamak için dikkatle düşünülmesini gerektirir. Girişin yönü ve genişliği, iki karşıt kriter arasında uzlaşmalıdır. Konforlu navigasyon nedenleriyle liman girişi doğrudan açık deniz ile iletişim kurmalı ve mümkün olduğunca geniş olmalıdır. Öte yandan, girişin daha dar ve daha fazla korunması, liman havzasına nüfuz eden dalga enerjisi ve tortuların derecesi azalır ve bu da liman içi deniz yüzeyinin huzuruna ulaşmak için daha elverişli koşullar sağlar.
  33. Liman havzalarında ve rıhtımlar boyunca, özellikle rüzgar kaynaklı dalgalardan mümkün olan en sakin koşulları sağlamak olan işlere liman koruma çalışmaları denir. Bunlar aşağıdakileri içerebilir: 1. Dalgakıranlar, genellikle kıyıya bağlı veya müstakil olarak inşa edilmiştir. Kıyıya bağlı dalgakıranlar rüzgar veya birincil ve leeward veya ikincil olarak sınıflandırılır. İlki limanı ana dalga yönünden korur ve ikincisi ikincil yön dalgalarından korur. Çoğu zaman, leeward dalgakıranlar kısmen rüzgar dalgakıranlar tarafından korunmaktadır. 2. Kıyı şeridinden veya nehirlerden içeri doğru limanlara giriş oluşturmak için genellikle çiftler halinde düzenlenmiş iskeleler. Eşleştirilmiş iskeleler de akış hızını artırabilir ve böylece sedimantasyonu önleyebilir.
  34. Bir limanın arazi kurulumlarının düzenine genel uygulama ile ilgili bazı konular aşağıda listelenmiştir, 1. Genel kargo için geleneksel yanaşma pozisyonları rıhtımda (genellikle 7,70 ila 10 m) konteynır veya dökme yük için gerekli olandan daha küçük bir taslak gerektirir, 2. Konteynerlerin elleçleneceği terminallerde çok daha geniş alanlara ihtiyaç vardır, 3. Hakim rüzgarların taşıdığı dökme yüklerin kokusunun çevreye zarar vermemesi için arazi kullanımının hazırlanmasına özen gösterilmelidir,
  35. 4. Güvenlik konuları, özellikle yanıcı maddeler veya patlayıcılarla ilgili olarak incelenmelidir, 5. Ürün uygunluğu, ilgili elleçleme alanlarına bitişik kargolar için incelenmelidir. Örneğin, kömürün tahıllarla eşleştirilmesi ve tahılların gübre ile eşleştirilmesi, 6. Potansiyel tıkanıklığı veya köprüleme ihtiyacını önlemek için bir limanda kara alanındaki genel trafik paterni incelenmelidir.
  36. TOPLAM 16 ADET LİMAN İŞLETMECİSİ MEVCUTTUR.
  37. TRANSİT ZAMANINI AZALTIN,  DAHA ÖNEMLİ TRANSİT ZAMANLARI,  TRANSIPMENT PERSONEL E.G. İYİLEŞTİRİLMİŞ VERİMLİLİK DOCKERS,  GEMİNİN GELİŞTİRİLMİŞ VERİMLİLİĞİ,  DEPODA DEPOLANMAYI AZALTIN,  KOLAY DEPOLAMA VE TAŞIMA,  HASAR VE HIRSIZLIK AZALTIR, KULLANILACAK GÜVENLİ ÇALIŞMA UYGULAMALARINA İZİN VERİN, MEKANİK TAŞIMA KULLANIMI, EMNİYET,
  38. Yüklerin uygun şekilde depolanması ve emniyete alınması, denizdeki can güvenliği için büyük önem taşımaktadır. Uygun olmayan istifleme ve yüklerin emniyete alınması, çok sayıda gemi can kaybına yol açmış ve sadece denizde değil, yükleme ve boşaltma sırasında da yaralanmaya ve can kaybına neden olmuştur. Ayrıca, taşımacılıktaki birçok olay, yükün kargo taşımacılığı birimlerine yetersiz şekilde sabitlenmesi, aşırı yükleme ve içeriğin yanlış beyanı da dahil olmak üzere kargo taşımacılık birimlerinin ambalajlanmasındaki kötü uygulamalara bağlanmaktadır.
  39. Paletler, yük konteyneri gemilerinde mal veya konteynırları desteklemek için kullanılan düzlemsel (düz) yapılardır. Kargo konsinye bu yapıların üstüne yığılır, sürece paletleme denir,
  40. Paletleme, tıpkı dünya çapında denizcilik sektöründe paletli kargo gemilerinin yüksek düzeyde tutulması gibi deniz kargo sevkiyatlarını göndermenin kesin ve güvenli bir yolu olarak kabul edilir. Süreç, malların gemilerde kolay taşınmasına ve depolanmasına yardımcı olur. Palete yerleştirilen yük, istenmeyen hareketleri stabilize etmek ve önlemek için kayışlar ve sargılar ile sabitlenir
  41. Kapsayıcılığın tarihi, 20. yüzyılın ortalarına odaklanabilecek bir gelişmedir. ABD merkezli bir nakil işadamı Malcolm Mclean'ın öncülüğündeki kargo konteynırları, yüklerin deniz yolları üzerinden nakliyesinde yer alan uzun süreli süreçleri basitleştirmek amacıyla oluşturuldu
  42. Konteynerizasyonun Göze Çarpan Özellikleri   İstenmeyen işlemlerin ortadan kaldırılması nedeniyle, gönderilecek yükün nakliye masrafları önemli ölçüde azaldı   Büyük miktarda kargo taşınabilir, bu da taşımacıların ölçek ekonomilerinden yararlanması anlamına gelir   Nakliye konteynırları tarafından sunulan fizibilite, su ile seyredilebilen kanalların uluslararası yük taşımacılığı için kullanılabilmesini sağlamıştır   Liman tesislerinin geliştirilmesi de konteyner taşımacılığının kalitatif değeri geniş ve yaygınlaşmaya başladığında,
  43. Kargo Denizcilik Sektörüne Zararları Konteyner taşımacılığı küresel denizcilik sektöründe bir atılım sağlamasına rağmen, işlediği değişiklikler nedeniyle hissedilen bazı olumsuz etkiler vardı.   Kargo konteynırlarının geliştirilmesinden önce sökme ve montaj hattı operasyonlarında başka şekilde kullanılan işgücü gereksiz olmaya başladı Motorlu operasyonel bağlantılar, sevk edilecek yükün yüklenmesine ve boşaltılmasında daha az sayıda iş gücünün yer alması gerektiği anlamına geliyordu Liman tesislerinde sadece bir tür operasyon yürüten yarı vasıflı işgücü ve hatta vasıflı işgücü de olumsuz etkilendi
  44. İzmir Aliağa’daki SOCAR Depolama terminali, 200.000 metreküp akaryakıt ürünü ve 45.000 metreküp LPG depolama kapasitesi ile Ege Bölgesi’nin en büyük terminali konumunda. Devam etmekte olan ilave 350.000 metreküplük kapasite artışı ve iskele genişletme projelerinin sonrasında Türkiye’nin en büyük 5 terminalinden biri olacak
  45. Deniz taşımacılığı, malların (kargoların) ve insanların deniz ve diğer su yollarıyla gönderilmesidir. Liman operasyonları ticaret ortakları arasında deniz ticaretini sağlamak için gerekli bir araçtır. Sorunsuz liman operasyonlarını sağlamak ve limanda tıkanıklığı önlemek için limanın fiziksel altyapısını kalıcı olarak yükseltmek, beşeri sermayeye yatırım yapmak, limanın bağlantılarını güçlendirmek ve liman operasyonlarını geçerli standartlara yükseltmek kaçınılmazdır. Bu nedenle liman operasyonları, nakliye hizmetleri dahil liman tesislerinin altyapısını ve operasyonlarını etkileyen tüm politikalar, reformlar ve düzenlemeler olarak tanımlanabilir.
  46. Gemi çizelgeleme problemi, belirli bir liman nakliye rotasının her bir sefer ayağındaki tekne seyir hızını, verilen liman rotasyonunun her bir limanının varış ve kalkış zamanlarını belirlemeyi amaçlayan taktik seviye bir karar problemidir
  47. SANMAR, 40 yıldır dünyanın birçok ülkesine römorkör üretmekte ve hizmet vermektedir. Şirket, 2016 yılında 40. yılını kutladı. Tüm bu deneyim zenginliğinden yararlanan 200'den fazla römorkör şu anda uluslararası denizlerde faaliyet göstermektedir. Sanmar, Türkiye'nin gemi inşa kalbindeki iki adet özel yapım, son teknoloji ürünü bahçesinde gemi inşa ediyor. 2014 yılında 17 römorkör teslim etmiş ve Altınova'daki yeni tersane, 2015'te 27 ve 2016'da 26 adet teşekkür etmiştir.
  48. TONNAGE VE GELİRİN EŞZAMAN RAPORLAMASI VE İŞLENMESİ İZİNLER,  ÇEVRİMİÇİ SORGULAMA ÖZELLİKLERİ SUNAR,
  49. Liman ekipmanı pazarının 2018'de 29,2 milyar ABD doları olduğu tahmin edilmektedir ve 2018'den 2025'e kadar% 3,30'luk bir CAGR ile 2025 yılına kadar 36,6 milyar ABD dolarına ulaşması beklenmektedir. Liman ekipmanı pazarının büyümesini desteklemesi beklenen faktörler, dünya genelinde artan deniz ticareti ve Asya Pasifik ve Orta Doğu'da artan konteyner sevkiyatıdır. Çeşitli ülkeler gemi sayısındaki ve ticaret hacmindeki artış nedeniyle yeni limanlar geliştirmeye odaklanıyor. Uluslararası Deniz Ticaret Odası'na göre, dünya ticaretinin% 90'ı ağır ve dökme yükler için ideal oldukları, büyük taşıma kapasitelerine sahip oldukları ve rekabetçi navlun maliyetleri sundukları için deniz yolları üzerinden gerçekleştirilmektedir.
  50. Üç vincin çıkışı 24 saatte rıhtım başına 7.600+ hareket olacaktır, bu, mevcut STS vinçleriyle halihazırda kullanılan birden fazla asansörün etkisini dikkate almadan
  51. Kauçuk lastik portal vinçler (RTG'ler), beş ila dokuz konteyner genişliğinde (artı bir kamyon şeridi) ve 6 konteynerin üzerinde 1 ila 3'ten 1'e kadar kaldırma yükseklikleri ile mevcuttur. DGPS ve otomatik direksiyondan yığın profiline ve otomasyonuna kadar çok sayıda üretkenlik seçeneği ile sekiz veya 16 tekerlek konfigürasyonunda mevcuttur.
  52. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nde şönt kamyon, gözcü kamyonu, lekeli traktör, avlu kamyonu, av köpeği, avlu keçisi, avlu atı, avlu jokey veya katır olarak bilinen bir terminal traktörü, yarı römorkları bir kargo içinde taşımak için tasarlanmış bir yarı traktördür. avlu, depo tesisi veya intermodal tesis, bir anahtarlama lokomotifi gibi vagonları konumlandırmak için kullanılır