Bubonic plague, TB , Malaria, hiv have affected significant number of hyman beings and caused mortality and morbidity Adult humans contains 1014 cells, only 10% are human – the rest are bacteria Antibiotic use promotes Darwinian selection of resistant bacterial species Bacteria have efficient mechanisms of genetic transfer – this spreads resistance Bacteria double every 20 minutes, humans every 30 years Development of new antibiotics has slowed – resistant microorganisms are increasing
Antimicrobial agents were viewed as miracle cure when introduced into clinical practice. However it became evident rather soon after the discovery of penicillin that resistance develops quickly terminating the miracle. This serious development is ever present with each new antimicrobial agents and threatens end of antimicrobial area. Today even major class of antibiotics are resistant
If this can be achieved, the microorganism is considered susceptible to the antibiotic. If an inhibitory or bactericidal concentration exceeds that which can be achieved safely in vivo, then the microorganism is considered resistant to that drug.
Antibiotic resistance refers to unresponsiveness of microorganism to antimicrobial agents.
Susceptible MIC is at a concentration attainable in blood or other appropriate body fluid using usually recommended dosages
Resistant MIC is higher than normally attainable levels in body fluids
Intermediate (moderately sensitive, moderately resistant) MIC is between sensitive and resistant levels, may be able to treat with increased dosage
ACYl HOMOSERINE LACTONE,
COLONIZATION means that the organism is present in or on the body but is not causing illness. Adopt WHO Strategies and Policies
Vaccination is the most logical and effective means to contain resistance by preventing infection in the first place. For ARIs, diarrhoeal diseases and malaria in children, WHO has developed the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). For the treatment of TB, WHO recommends use of the DOTS strategy. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance – another critical tool in the fight against antimicrobial resistance – identifies and tracks resistance trends in specific infections and geographical locations.
INFECTION means that the organism is present and is causing illness.