Draft of Research Proposal


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Draft of Research Proposal

  1. 1. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 ISSUES FACED BY THE TEACHERS ON TECHNOLOGY USAGE IN JUNIOR SCHOOL CLASSROOMS Draft Research Proposal CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction Technology is everywhere these days. The successful integration of technology into classrooms has been a goal for generations of instructional technology researchers and practitioners (Cuban, 1986). Today teachers have access to innovative tools that can be used to enhance the curriculum. Technology tools can be used by teachers which has given students a new way to do research, so that the teachers are allowed to offer a wider topic range, and provides available an endless amount of information to them. Furthermore, email connects teachers and students and they can work collaboratively with other teachers and students from everywhere. Other than that interactive whiteboards, class blogs, podcasting and social networking are also has been developed for classrooms use for teaching. Most believe that integrating technology into the curriculum can improvise the quality of education. Like many other countries, Malaysia also steps up to this idea. Nowadays, students are no longer interested to be tied to the printed text such as books and magazine as an option to read. Instead, they can also read any documents or texts using the application in the computer. Students are required to benefit from the use of technology in the classroom. Research in the technology usage in classroom has the potential to prove that when teachers use technology tools in the classroom, students become more motivated to learn and are
  2. 2. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 more involved in the lesson. In addition, their attention period may increase when a teacher uses technology tools. If teachers understand the importance of integrating technology into their lessons and receive the professional development needed in their fields, they could become familiarized to use technology tools. The student’s learning and motivation could increase by using the technology tools. As KleynKennedy (2006) stated, "Even if teachers are not drawn to technology, they realize that computers are here to stay, and inevitably, they must resign themselves to developing sufficient technology skills” (p. 43). "Today's education system faces irrelevance unless we bridge the gap between how students live and how they learn...Students will spend their adult lives in a multi-tasking, multifaceted, technology-driven, diverse, vibrant world-and they must arrive equipped to do so” (Kleyn-Kennedy, 2006, p. 48). Results of a study conducted by O’Donnell (1996) on the integration of computers in the classroom indicated that the majority of teachers failed to utilize computers in direct classroom instruction. Cuban (1995) offered the following as explanations to why teachers use technologies infrequently and selectively: 1. Limited access to equipment that quickly becomes obsolete. 2. Limited time to use technology due to class schedules. 3. Each teacher’s beliefs about instruction and learning, knowledge about new technologies and prior attitudes toward technology determine whether and how students will get to use computers.
  3. 3. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 1.1 Background of the study The main purpose of this study was to study the factors that contribute to conserve teachers' usage of technology and suggest recommendations to the efficient utilization of technology. Technology integration can be useful to teachers, students and administrators. Technology enable media such as video, audio and software to be more easily exploited, allows students to work in way that was previously impossible, and provide tools to increase productivity of teachers. The study is focussed on how the teachers deliver their lesson using the current technolgy and the difficulties on using it. It is also makes the distance learning easier and faster feedback and collabration efforts among big group students. Class blogs is one of the chance for the students to discuss the studies with their teachers and friends outside of the classromms. 1.2 Statement of the Problems Using technology involves students in the learning and teaching process. Computers have become more common among students and the use of information technology has become important in most everyone’s lives. Nowadays it is hard to imagine daily life without the influence of technology, personal digital assistants, cell phones or any number of computers especially for younger generations. In academic, we have likely reached the point where the use of technology is expected, by both students and their parents (Christensen, 1999). The development toward technology enhanced classes has escalated quickly during the past five years as students have become increasingly tech-savvy, classrooms across the nation have
  4. 4. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 become “wired” and textbook publishers now offer a wide variety of computerized teaching supplements. Lowerison, Sclater, Schmid, and Abrami (2006) suggest that technology has the potential to transform the learning environment from passive to active and more subject to the control of the learner. According to Roblyer (2003), technology may enable the learner to be more actively involved in learning. In spite of the various functions that technologies have offered, the implementation itself has not yet reaches to the point in which it can make a real difference in classroom learning. The main problem comes from the equipments of the technologies and internet connection in the school itself. “Evidence is mounting to support technology advocates’ claims that 21st-century information and communication tools as well as more traditional computer-assisted instructional applications can positively influence learners learning processes and outcomes” (Cradler, McNabb, Freeman & Burchett, 2002). Other than that, technology requires a high level of access which is being a challenge for students for low-income homes. Schools have to be actively provide hogh-quality of technology to students those have less access to technology in their home. According to Sutton (1991), there is also a gender difference in technology access to computers, with boys having more home access than girls. Boys tend to have more knowledge and confident on using technology than the girls. According to education research, students are not motivated to learn if they do not have sufficient confidence in using technology for learning (Keller, 2010)
  5. 5. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 1.3 Research Objectives The objectives of this research are as follows: (a) To obtain teacher’s perceptions about the using of technology in classroom. (b) To determine whether the teachers experience difficulty while using technology in classroom. 1.4 Research Questions Based on the previous statements of the problems, this study will attempt to answer the following research questions: (a) What are the teachers’ perceptions about the using of technology in classroom? (b) What are the difficulties that teachers face in using technology in classroom? 1.5 Significance of the Study This research will be significant to identify the problems occurred while using technology in classroom. From the research, teachers and learners can get the benefits as they will be able to acknowledge and find out the technology that help the most in learning. Students will be able to collaborate and discuss their ideas by connecting with the teachers on topics of study. Interactive simulations and illustrations produce a much better vigour of understanding of a conception. When virtual manipulation used in classroom sets they can go far beyond the chalk and talk.
  6. 6. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 The study will help other researchers and educators further understand of the problems on using technology in classrooms. It is probable that the study will also contribute to the ongoing effort to improve the technology usage among school teachers for better pedagogy. More practically, this study will assist junior school teachers to change the pedagogy for better improvement in technology usage among the students. 1.6 Limitation of the Study The study is subjected to several limitations in terms of definition and generalization. The concept of technology has many different definitions and interpretation as it is a widely researched subject. In addition, the terms used to define the concept are different to certain extent depending on the researchers. Hence, the definition used in this study may not be agreeable and acknowledged by other researchers in other researches. Apart from that, the scope of this study which focuses on teachers from only Nobel International School, Kelana Jaya makes the findings unable to be generalized to population other than secondary school teachers as well as the population outside the district of where the research is conducted. 1.7 Operational Definition According to the oxford dictionary, technology means the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry. Lowerison, Sclater, Schmid, and Abrami (2006) suggest that technology has the potential to transform the learning environment
  7. 7. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 from passive to active and more subject to the control of the learner. According to Roblyer (2003), technology may enable the learner to be more actively involved in learning and can also reduce the discipline problems among them if they are more focus on lessons using technology. ICT stands for Information and communications technology. While technology may enhance the classroom and engage today’s student more effectively, most do not believe it replaces the need for a structured, content-driving learning process that is grounded in theory. To be effective, technology-based tools must accompany appropriate pedagogy (Laurillard, 2002). That said, a 2001 national study showed that 87% of faculty believe computer technology enhances student learning (Epper and Bates, 2001). Apperson et al (2006) believe that the use of technology in classrooms causes students to have a more favourable attitude toward their education, and benefits accrue to instructors who utilize it in their classes. 1.8 Summary Chapter one introduced the investigation of problem faced by the teachers on teaching using in Junior School classroom. It is contrast with the technology central usage in schools to prepare the students for the 21st century. It is also included rational of study which is to examine the problems faced by the teachers in the school on the technology usage in junior classrooms. There are three questions designed by testing the related the aim of this study. Chapter two contains a review of related research regarding educational technology as strength of improvement to develop student achievement.
  8. 8. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 Chapter II Literature Review 2.0 Introduction The implementation of technology in Malaysian education system is expanding from day to day. Technology can be considered as the new instructional tool for teachers and a new learning tool for students. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that the use of technology in the classroom has been many subjects in research over the years. One of the biggest implementation of technology in the education system is the use of computer in the classroom. Those researches cover the advantages of using technology and its effects on student’s achievement. Among the research are research by Hersh Waxman, Meng-Fen Lin, and Georgette Michko of the University of Houston which found that the impact of technology on students achievement is worthy to be researched (Waxman et al., 2003). In relation to this, students’ test score also shows positive improvement when technology is used in the instruction (Kulik, 2003). What is more interesting is that in more recent studies, technology is found to have positive effect on students’ attitude as well. This is based on the finding of a research conducted by Schacter (2001). Schacter (2001) further adds that the data suggests that there is consistent improvement on students’ attitude towards learning and self-esteem when technology is integrated. 2.1 Related Theory: Constructivism This study on the use of technology in the classroom is strongly based on the learning theory of Constructivism. Christie (2005) defines constructivism as the process of learners
  9. 9. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 building or constructing understanding and knowledge. This is done through learners’ own experience of doing things and its reflection. Christie (2005) further asserts that this theory heavily emphasizes on authentic content presented in authentic context and problem solving. This is consistent with the role of technology in the classroom where it serves as a tool for students to experience the new features and interactive hands-on activities in the classroom. Furthermore, constructivism also encourages collaboration among students and teachers as well as it places strong emphasis on individual needs and multidisciplinary learning (Christie, 2005). This results teachers as the facilitator during the lesson which is ideal for technology-integrated learning to be conducted. 2.2 Review of Past Studies Nowadays, along with the development of technology, teachers use the technology as an approach to teach in classroom. Although this general belief that the use of technology in the classroom is generally good, such may not always be the case. Burbules and Callister (2000) suggest technology can be used well or poorly, and thus its effectiveness is dependent on how it used, by whom and for what purpose. For example, some teachers use PowerPoint slides or similar technology widely or fairly throughout a lesson, while others seldom or never use technology. There may be several reasons why instructors finally adopt technology for classroom use. For some, it may help them to create better controlled, more focused in teaching. For others, they believe that the use of technology benefits students by engaging them more in the classroom and allowing them to pay attention closely without transcribe every word that is spoken. Some teachers may choose technology because writing on whiteboards or blackboards hinders their ability to interact with students. There are some teachers could adopt the technology as a tool to save time because it can be acquired today, provided by the publishers who are eager to
  10. 10. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 encourage school to accept their textbooks. While the motivation may be different, the overall theoretical expectations are that the technology will enhance the subject, connecting students and encourage them to learn more. English teachers used the technology for finding the text to teach reading in classroom. Grabe, 2002 stated that “several researches in the past decade have also established better the nature of second language reading using computer”. The first computer-based reading curriculum was created in 1964 by Richard Atkinson, which aims to lessen the need for classroom teachers. Since then, more projects of the same basis continued to develop. Starting from the past 20 years, the use of computers in the field of second language reading has been increasing. For example, a survey conducted by Chun and Plass (1996) investigated how reading comprehension can be facilitated with a multimedia application for language learning. Chun and Plass claimed that the results support the dual coding theory and its extension to multimedia learning and emphasize the significance of visual information in addition to verbal information to support both top-down and bottom-up processing in reading in a foreign language. Besides that, Culver (1991) also has conducted a survey to improve reading speed and comprehension of ESL students using computers. It was concluded in his research that the computer was a good tool for improving students' reading rate. The integration of technology in the classroom requires many factors to be taken into account so as to ensure the success of the implementation. Many researchers in the past have examined these factors closely. Among them are Groff and Mouza (2008) who summarize the factors influencing the use of technology in the classroom under six main categories which are a) legislative factors; b) district/school level factors; c) factors associated with teachers; d) factors associated with technology-enhanced project; e) factors associated with students and f) factor
  11. 11. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 inherent to technology itself. As this paper focuses on the availability of equipment and teachers’ readiness in determining technology use in the classroom, the findings of the research by Groff and Mouza (2008) are of significant relevance to this paper. In other research by Honan (2008), she collected data through semi structured interviews and five full-day meetings with four teachers in order to investigate challenges in technology use in instruction. She found that there are three major challenges which affect technology integration in classroom. First and foremost is the teachers’ impression that students are unfamiliar with technology which can be attributed to their lack of knowledge about learners’ use of technology outside the school context (Honan, 2008). The second and third factors are related to the technology use as the assessment product in which according to Honan (2008) divert the initial objective of the integration of technology in the classroom. Another research that focuses on challenges in technology integration in the classroom is conducted by Stolle (2008). She collects data from sixteen high school teachers in the US through observations, interviews and researcher’s journal. Based on the data, she concludes that four important factors which influence technology use are a) unavailability to technology access for teaching and learning; b) lack of knowledge in technology and the usage; c) teachers’ impression on how technology may replace traditional instruction and d) existing doubt about benefits of technology in students learning. In a different study by Bauer and Kenton (2005), thirty teachers identified as technologically savvy complete a questionnaire and undergo both observation and interview with the researchers. The findings list several challenges to technology use in the classroom including incomplete or non-functioning technology equipment, time constraint for planning and implementing technology during lesson, various technology skills among students and teachers,
  12. 12. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 and problem with software and internet connection (Bauer & Kenton, 2005). In conclusion, previous research has supported the use of technology in classroom. 2.3 Conceptual Framework and Theoretical Framework The usage of the terms conceptual framework and theoretical framework are indistinct and inexact. Miles and Huberman (1994) defined a conceptual framework as a visual or written product, one that “explains, either graphically or in narrative form, the main things to be studied — the key factors, concepts, or variables—and the presumed relationships among them” (p. 18). Here, the term has been used to refer to the actual problems faced by the school teachers to use the technologies in delivering lessons. The most important thing about the conceptual framework is to plan study linked to statement problem that drives the investigations. The advantages of concept analysis framework are its flexibility, its capacity for customization, and the emphasis on understanding rather than prediction. The relationship between problems faced by teachers and technology usage status can be conceptualised at a fairly general level, showed in Figure 1.0, as a two stage relationship where a set of fundamental factors impact on a series of intermediate indicators, which in turn resolve the final outcome in terms of changes in technology usage.
  13. 13. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 Table 1.0: A simple theoretical framework for linking problems faced by teachers and technology usage. Causal factors Intermediate effects Teacher’s ICT competency level in terms of pedagogy knowledge Frequency of use of the technology Teacher Comfort Level Technology equipments provided by school Lack information Technology usage competency level of teachers ‘pedagogy impact on the level of teachers' knowledge. Those teachers who learned ICT have low impact compare with teachers who have no educational knowledge on ICT. Frequency of ICT use in the classroom allows teachers to be more comfortable and show the interest of the usage and the technology equipments provided by school which create a technology environment. When appropriate assistive technology is integrated into the classroom, students are provided with multiple ways to complete their work and focus on achieving academic standards. 2.4 Summary The main purpose of this survey design sets out is to test whether there are issues on technology use among junior school teachers. This chapter is a summary of the research and education related educational theories related to the topic of study. Previous literature identified the prominent points of the case study methodology, as well as illustrating the weaknesses the earlier research. It explains in more details elsewhere in the research and other published paper. Initially we can say that literature review is important to understand the topic, of what has already been done, what are the key issues and how it has been researched.
  14. 14. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to present the assumptions of philosophy that supports this study, and also to introduce the empirical research and strategy techniques used. This chapter explains the design and methods that are used in this study. It includes the description of the sample, the construction and administration of the instrument as well as the process and procedure of data collection. The next segment is the research strategy which describes the research approaches followed in case study research. The research strategic adopted was to conduct case study in one school and the teachers in the school. The main data collection techniques used in this research study was interviews and questionnaires. At the end of the chapter, a brief description of how data will be analyzed is given. 3.1 Research Design The research design of this research is case study. According to the Oxford English Dictionary Social Networking Sites (SNS) is defined case study as a process or record of research into the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period of time. The reason why case study is used is to understand a complex issue to examine contemporary real-life situations and provide the basis for the application of ideas and extension of methods. Case study is an ideal methodology when a holistic, in-depth investigation is needed (Feagin, Orum, & Sjoberg, 1991). On the other hand, case studies are designed to bring out the information
  15. 15. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 from the point of view of participants using a variety of data sources. The case study is considered by Benbasat et al. (1987, p.370) to be viable for three reasons: • It is necessary to study the phenomenon in its natural setting; • The researcher can ask "how" and "why" questions, so as to understand the nature and complexity of the processes taking place; • Research is being conducted in an area where few, if any, previous studies have been undertaken. On the other hand, a definition compiled from a numeral of sources (Stone, 1978; Benbasat, 1984; Yin, 1984; Bonoma, 1985 and Kaplan, 1985) in Benbasat et al. (1987, p.370), runs as follows: “A case study examines a phenomenon in its natural setting, employing multiple methods of data collection to gather information from one or a few entities (people, groups or organizations). The boundaries of the phenomenon are not clearly evident at the outset of the research and no experimental control or manipulation is used”. 3.2 Population The samples of the study involve of 15 teachers from Nobel International School, Kelana Jaya, Selangor. They come from different states and race. The reason why they were chosen is because they are an expert in education. So, this means that they will be around the school and be able to be interviewed and to answer the questionnaire. Besides, by choosing teachers from the same school as I teach create a convenient location of research. And on top of all that, they
  16. 16. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 fulfill the requirement of the research respondents as they are expert in education field. A total numbers of 15 experts took part in this study. 3.3 Subject of the study The respondents in this study were the 15 teachers from Nobel International School, Kelana Jaya, Selangor. Majority of them were 24-40 years old while a few have ages 50. Most of them are graduated from teaching college and seven of them are graduated from different courses. Focuses of the study were the teachers those teaching Junior School which are the students age 11 to 13, and they considered themselves as the target population with sampling methods specified. 3.4 Instrument The type of instrument used in this study, are interview and questionnaire. Besides that, the research was also be conducted a one-to-one interview with the participants. The questionnaire is divided into three sections, Section A, B and C. The first section, which is Section A, consists of 9 questions about the use of technology in learning process in classroom. The second section, which is Section B, consists of 6 questions about individual value. The last section, which is section C contain 2 questions about application of the technology. The information gathered in all this section is essential in showing the differences and similarities among the respondents.
  17. 17. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 3.5 Validity and reliability of instrument Validity is one of the main concerns with research. "Any research can be affected by different kinds of factors which, while extraneous to the concerns of the research, can invalidate the findings" (Seliger & Shohamy 1989, 95). The validity is affected by weaknesses in the study itself as not control some key variables (design problems), or a problem with the instrument (the problem of data collection). This instrument has been chosen because accurate answers can be received from the participants through interview. For example, if a participant provides some unclear thoughts or opinion, they can be asked to clarify their answer again. This will ensure that the data collected is not being misinterpreted. The reason why questionnaire is chosen is because it “can be custom designed to meet the objectives of almost any type of research project” (McNabb, 2002). A questionnaire can be used to gather information among a large number of respondents or from small groups of sample, so this instrument is suitable for the research. 3.6 Procedure of the study The first step is to enlist the expert and clearly outline in verbal and written form what is expected from the participants. It is important that they know the expected time commitment at the beginning so that they are more likely to stay involve in the whole process. The participant is consisting of 15 teachers from Nobel International School, Kelana Jaya, Selangor. After the
  18. 18. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 interview session, questionnaires have been created based on the responses from the participants. Second step is distributing the questionnaire for them to answer it. Then to analyses the responses by identifying common and conflicting viewpoints. The third step is preparing the second questionnaire based on the analysis and send to participants. The aim of the second questionnaire is to reach a share understanding of how the group views the issue. Lastly, is to analyze the responses to the second questionnaire. 3.7 Pilot Test Pilot test is needed in research to refine the procedures of the research project. A pilot test can be used as a ‘small scale version or trial run in preparation for a major study’ (Polit, Beck, & Hungler, 2001, p. 467). Baker (1994) noted that ‘a pilot test often used to pre-test or try out (pp. 182-183) a research instrument. A pilot test panels consisting of 15 experts was chosen from Nobel International School. Questionnaires have been sent out to colleagues and friends to get a feedback. This is to pick up the mistakes in the term of content, format and grammar. It followed by asking them to answer the questionnaire and get their feedback on answering it. It helps to identify confusing or sensitive questions. From the pilot test, a good, valid, clear, brief, and interesting questionnaire has been designed. 3.8 Data Analysis Frequency analysis was used to evaluate the type questions in this research. Results obtained were transformed into ranking to be presented in the study. Results were analyzed as t-
  19. 19. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 test for each of the survey questions. Defuzzification process is used to analyze data for this research. According to the Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia, defuzzification is the process of producing a quantifiable result in fuzzy logic, given fuzzy sets and corresponding membership degrees. Usually all defuzzification operators can be formulated in distinct form (via ∑ ) as well as in continuous figure (via ∫). Defuzzification could interpret the specific decision or real value of data gathered. For defuzzification process, there are three formulas that can be used to identify the ranking or score for the items; i. Amax = 1/3 * (a1 + am + a2) ii. Amax = 1/4 * (a1 + 2am + a2) iii. Amax = 1/6 * (a1 + 4am + a2) Formula (ii) has been chosen to analyze this data which is Amax = 1/3 * (a1 + am + a2). The threshold value has been used for facilitating the issues faced by junior school teachers in using technologies in classroom. 3.8 Summary In this chapter research design, population, subject of the study, instrument used, validity and reliability of instrument, pilot test, data analysis were described. A detailed account of the research also has been presented. Nevertheless the strategy and methodology according to which the research shall conducted. The research has been placed in case study approaches. Interviews and questionnaires are the main data collection methods used to collect data related to achieve the objectives of the study. Finding regarding the researches are reported in chapter four.
  20. 20. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 References Bauer, J., & Kenton, J. (2005). Toward technology integration in the schools: Why it isn’t happening . Journal of Technology and Teacher Education 13 (4), 519-546. Bruce, B.C. (1995). Twenty first century literacy. In Synder, I. (Ed.) Page to Screen: Taking literacy into the electronic era. London: Routledge. Christie, A. (2005). Constructivism and its implications for educators. http://alicechristie. com/edtech/learning/constructivism/index.htm. Christensen, K. (1999). A Comparison of Student Performance in Human Development Classes Using Three Different Modes of Delivery: Online, Face-to-Face, and Combined. Ed.D. Dissertation, Department of Education, Drake University. Cousin, G. (2010) Neither teacher-centred nor student-centred: threshold concepts and research
  21. 21. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 partnerships, Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, Issue 2: February 2010. Cuban, L. (1986). Computers meet classroom: Classroom wins. Journal of Teachers College Record, 95 (2), 185-210. Epper, R. and Bates, A. (2001). Teaching Faculty How to Use Technology. American Council on Education. Oryx Press. Groff, J., & Mouza, C. (2008). A framework of addressing challenges to classroom technology use. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) Journal, 16(1), 21-46. Herbst, C. (2003). Coding the classroom: Technology and the practice of language. First Monday, (8)11 Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue8_11/herbst/index.html. Honan, E. (2008). Barriers to teachers using digital texts of literacy classrooms. Literacy, 42(1), 36-43. Kleyn-Kennedy, C. (2006). Teachers and Technology. Clovis News Journal, 18(2), 43-48. Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge Kulik, J. A. (2003). Effects of using instructional technology in elementary and secondary schools: What controlled evaluation studies say. Arlington, VA: SRI International. Lowerison,G., Sclater, J., Schmid, R., Abrami, P.C. (2005-2006). Are we using Technology For Learning?. Journal of educational technology systems, 34(4), 401-425. Roschelle, J. M., Pea, R. D., Hoadley, C. M., Gordin, D. N., & Means, B. M. (2000). Changing how and what children learn in school with computer-based technologies. The Future of Children, 10 (2), 76-101.
  22. 22. NOOR AZREEN BINTI JALALUDIN (ub2013557299) 2014 Schacter, J. The Impact of Educational Technology on Student Achievement: What the Most Current Research Has to Say. Santa Monica, CA: Milken Exchange on Education Technology, 2001. Retrieved November 22, 2013, from http://www.mff.org/pubs/ME161.pdf. Stolle, E. (2008). Teachers, literacy, & technology: Tensions, complexities, conceptualizations & practice. In Y. Kim, V. Risko, D. Compton, D. Dickinson, M. Hundley, R. Jiménez, K. Leander, & D. Wells-Rowe(Eds.), Fifty-seventh Yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. 56-69). Oak Creek: National Reading Conference. Waxman, H.C., Len, M., & Michko, G. M. (2003). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of teaching and learning with technology on student outcomes. North Central Regional Education Laboratory. Retrieved November 22, 2013, from http://www.ncrel.org/tech/effects2/waxman.pdf. Wikipedia Contributors. (2005). About WikiPedia. Retrieved October 30, 2005, 2005, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:About