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201501 gests423 s3

innovation - university - triple helix - technology transfer office

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201501 gests423 s3

  1. 1. 1 GESTS423 Intellectual Property Management & Technology Transfer Part II: Role of higher education institutes in innovation processes Azèle Mathieu, PhD February - June 2015
  2. 2. 2 You will work on a patent applied by a UNIVERSITY WHY UNIVERSITIES APPLY FOR PATENTS? © Azèle Mathieu
  3. 3. The missions of higher education institutions GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu 3 Mission 1: teaching KNOWLEDGE TRANSMISSION Mission 3: contribution to society KNOWLEDGE CAPITALISATION Mission 2: research KNOWLEDGE CREATION
  4. 4. Increased importance of the 3rd mission GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu 4  Decrease of structural funds for HEIs  From a “closed” to an “open innovation” model  Emergence of some high-tech based fields  Knowledge-based society  Bayh-Dole act in the US in 1983  Regional decrees in Belgium at the end of the 90’s
  5. 5. Higher education Industry Long-term economic growth Innovative capacity of countries Mission 1: Teaching Mission 2: Research Mission 3: Contribution to society - economic development ? ? 5 GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu
  6. 6. Importance of accrued interactions between different types of players: Triple Helix Model GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu 6 Source: Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff (2011)
  7. 7. Triple Helix Model of an innovation ecosystem - benefits for the industry 7 Source: Arthur D. Little, Prism 02/2012  New ideas: from adjacent industries, from experts in a particular area, from a fresh approach  New people: often businesses transfer in transfer in academic staff for a period of secondment, or hire PhD students who complete industrial placements  Non-core science: access technology outside the bounds of existing R&D activities, at a low cost  First look: maintain a watching brief over new, emerging and potentially disruptive technologies GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu
  8. 8. Triple Helix Model of an innovation ecosystem - benefits for higher education institutions 8 Source: Arthur D. Little, Prism 02/2012  Get paid: financial rewards for academic researchers and the institutions they work in  Career progression: prestige associated with working with industry and new transferable skills  Stimulus of exposure to real-world problems: application of basic and applied expertise to practical challenges GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu
  9. 9. Triple Helix Model of an innovation ecosystem - benefits for the government 9 Source: Arthur D. Little, Prism 02/2012  Sustainable jobs: industry and academia working together creates new jobs  Economic growth: new jobs means a knock-on effect for the national economy, as people spend money GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu
  10. 10. Different mechanisms to transfer knowledge from HEI to business sector 10 Knowledge Transfer Mechanisms (KTMs) “New” KTMs Patents Spin-offs Contract-based consultancy Contract-based research Collaborative research Traditional KTMs Informal interactions Conferences Employment of graduates Publications GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu
  11. 11. 11 Informal interaction Formation of social relationships and networks. Participation in conferences Active participation in conferences by presentation of research results. Mobility of people It embodies the employment of graduates (B.Sc., M.Sc. or Ph.D. Level) in the business sector, the employment of university staff/researchers in the business sector, the trainees, the double appointments and the temporary movement of university members to the business sector. Cooperation in education It either covers the training of business employees by academics, either the situation where the firm members influence curriculum of university programs or give lectures at universities. Cooperation in R&D Inter-organizational arrangements for pursuing collaborative R&D. It also includes the joint supervision of PhDs and Master Theses by universities and firm members and/or the financing of Ph.D. research by the business sector. R&D services Activities commissioned by industrial clients. It includes contracted R&D and consultancy. Publications Use of codified knowledge within industry. It includes joint-publications with the business sector and scientific publications of the academic researcher. Sharing of facilities It covers the sharing of facilities between academics and firm members or the financing of new facilities with industry funding. IP rights and licensing Transfer of university-generated IP (such as scientific research results, patents, software, trademarks, databases) to firms, e.g. via licensing. Academic spin-off companies Development and commercial exploitation of technologies pursued by academic inventors through a company. Data sources: Azèle Mathieu®, PhD Thesis (2011), adapted from Perkmann and Walsh (2007) and Bekkers and Freitas (2008) GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu
  12. 12. 12 12 Traditional, open sciences KTMs still privileged New, formalised KTMs, not the most important Patent, spin-off not the most important for academics; Business-funded contracts, important for academics Data sources: Azèle Mathieu®, PhD Thesis (2011), own summary of surveys performed by Meyer-Krahmer and Schmoch (1998), Thursby and Thursby (2001), Schartinger et al. (2001), Agrawal and Henderson (2002), Cohen et al. (2002), Arundel and Geuna (2004), Landry et al.(2005), Brennenraedts et al. (2006), D’Este and Patel (2007), Bekkers and Freitas (2008). Importance of KTM as perceived by their users GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu
  13. 13. Income from partnerships activities across UK universities (2010-2011) 13 For HE: IP revenues remain small compared to other types of revenues from other KTMs GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu Source: Arthur D. Little, Prism 02/2012 and HEFCE Higher Education – Business & Community Interaction Survey, July 2012
  14. 14. How do universities manage the 3rd mission? (1/2) 14  New infrastructures: ● Technology Transfer Offices (TTO) Making part of the university or independent Legal – scientific – business advisors Interacting with patent attorneys ● Patent fund ● Business incubators ● Dedicated investment fund © Azèle Mathieu
  15. 15. How do universities manage the 3rd mission? (2/2) 15  New rules: ● Ownerships of inventions ● Distribution of revenues ● Limitation of conflicts of interest  All these changes do not go without some tensions... ● Academic freedom ● Cultural differences ● ...
  16. 16. ULB-Technology Transfer Office 16  Launched in 1991  Integrated in the university  ~ 15 employees  Missions: ● Fundraising for research ● Management of interactions with the industry ● Management of the ULB’s Intellectual Property and its marketability ● Support to spin-off launching
  17. 17. Evolution of patents and spin-offs at ULB 17 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 # patents# spin-offs Cumulative evolution # launched spin-offs Cumulative evolution # applied patents Region's decree Inventions belong to the ULB Spin-off Fund Theodorus Patent Fund ULB TTO EEBIC Solvay Entrepreneurs (1986) Valorisation Committee
  18. 18. Inventions from ULB: very specific fields, strength in biomed 18 © Azèle Mathieu Medical bioinformatics Low Risk (50%) High Risk (50%) Endoscopy Orthopaedic Anaesthesia monitor Neurophysiology Prosthesis Optics – Holographic Microscope
  19. 19. Intellectual Property regime @ ULB 19  All inventions belong to ULB  Selectivity for quality patent applications: ● Contribution of the lab (2.500€) ● PCT applications to evaluate market perspectives  Patenting costs  3 thirds rule  No equity parts in exchange of licenses  Investment in spin-offs managed by Theodorus fund
  20. 20. RESEARCH INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Knowledge transfer @ ULB
  21. 21. Knowledge transfer @ ULB and your role 21  In order to valorise a new invention towards the society there is a need for scientific, legal & business competences. You will work and be considered as a business developer Interacting with the scientific, legal and business advisors of ULB-TTO In charge of developing a “Valorisation plan” © Azèle Mathieu
  22. 22. 22 GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu
  23. 23. References (1/3) 23  (2013). Big Bang Disruptions, Harvard Business Review  Chasm Institute. http://www.chasminstitute.com/METHODOLOGY/TechnologyAdoptionLifeCycle/tabid/8 9/Default.aspx  Chesbrough, H.W. (2003). Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Harvard Business School Press.  Chesbrough, H.W. (2006). Open innovation: a new paradigm for understanding industrial innovation. In Chesbrough, H.W., Vanhaverbeke, W. and J. West (eds), Open Innovation:Researching a New Paradigm. Oxford University Press.  Christensen, C. (03/11/2012). A Capitalist’s Dilemma, Whoever Wins on Tuesday. The New York Times.  Cohen, W.M. and D.A. Levinthal (1990). Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), pp.128-152.  Europe Enterpise Network, http://een.ec.europa.eu/ GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu
  24. 24. References (2/3) 24  Etzkowitz, H. and L. Leydesdorff (2000). The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and “Mode 2” to a Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations, Research Policy, 29 (2), pp. 109-123.  European Communities – Gate 2 Growth (2002). A Guide to Financing Innovation.  Geuna, A. (2001). The Changing Rationale for European University Research Funding: Are There Negative Unintended Consequences? Journal of Economic Issues, 35 (3), 607- 632.  McKinsey Global Institute (2013). Disruptive technologies: advances that will transform life, business and the global economy.  Mowery D.C., Nelson R.R., Sampat B.N. and A.A. Ziedonis (2001). The growth of patenting and licensing by U.S. universities: an assessment of the effects of the Bayh– Dole act of 1980. Research Policy, 30 (1), 99–119.  OECD - Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, 3rd Edition. GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu
  25. 25. References (3/3) 25  Pavitt, K. (1980). Industrial R&D and the British economic problem. R&D Management, 10, 149.  Perkmann M. and K. Walsh (2008). Engaging the scholar: Three types of academic consulting and their impact on universities and industry. Research Policy, 37, 1884– 1891.  Perkmann M. and K. Walsh (2009). The two faces of collaboration: impacts of university- industry relations on public research. Industrial and Corporate Change, 1-33.  Procter and Gamble, Connect + Develop http://www.pgconnectdevelop.com/home/pg_open_innovation.html GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu
  26. 26. Additional slides 26 GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu
  27. 27. Triple Helix Model of an innovation ecosystem - benefits for the industry GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu 27 Source: Arthur D. Little, Prism 02/2012
  28. 28. Types of academic consulting 28 Source: Perkmann & Walsh (2008) GESTS423 – Technology Transfer – © Azèle Mathieu

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