Research Objectives, Questions & Hypothesis * Dr. A. Asgari

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Research Objectives, Questions & Hypothesis * Dr. A. Asgari

  1. 1. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Dr. Azadeh Asgari </li></ul>Research Methodology
  2. 2. Research Objectives <ul><li>A continuation of the problem statement. </li></ul><ul><li>May be written in the form of a general objective which is GENERALLY STATED and RATHER WIDE, followed by the specific objectives – which are more focused and direct. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of Research Objectives <ul><ul><li>Outline the scope of the research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give a picture of how to perform the investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give an idea who would be the subjects of the research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g.: To examine if there is a significant relationship between readiness for self-directed learning (SDL) and needs for language skills, perceived language competence, and teaching experience. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Research Questions <ul><ul><ul><li>The research objectives being posed as questions or derivatives of the objectives being posed as questions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g.: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVE: to identify the differences in form 2 mathematics performance based on gender </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of Research Questions <ul><li>Should be significant to be studied and would add knowledge to the body of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be ethical (would not cause physical and psychological injury to anyone, or to the environment). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Characteristics of Research Questions <ul><li>Should be feasible (could be studied and would not take too much time, energy, and cost). </li></ul><ul><li>Should be clear (most researchers would agree to the meaning of key descriptors in the questions). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Research Hypothesis <ul><li>Tentative statements as solutions to the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Tentative statements on relationships between two or more variables. </li></ul><ul><li>An educated guess of conditions of a phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>A reasoned speculation about how two or more variables are related to each other. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Suppose you want to find out the effect of higher level cognitive questions on students’ learning in geography classes but has no basis for formulating a hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><li>What is the objective of this research? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… to determine whether higher level cognitive questions affect students’ learning in geography classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the research question of this research? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the effect of higher level cognitive questions on students’ learning in geography classes? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>If These Is Basis For Formulating A Hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level cognitive questions will significantly affect students’ learning in geography classes </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level cognitive questions will significantly improve students’ learning in geography classes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Criteria of Research Hypothesis <ul><li>Borg & Gall (1989) identified four criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Should explain expected relationships that exist between two or more variables, </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher should have strong reasons based on concrete evidences or theories to formulate the hypothesis which is to be tested, </li></ul><ul><li>Should be as short as possible but clear, </li></ul><ul><li>Should be testable. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Research Hypothesis <ul><li>H O : Null Hypothesis= Statistic Hypothesis = No relationship Hypothesis or No Difference Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>H A : Alternative Hypothesis = Research Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Directional Hypothesis vs Non Directional Hypothesis </li></ul>
  12. 12. Examples of Research Hypotheses <ul><li>Gifted students have higher motivation towards mathematics. </li></ul><ul><li>There exists a positive relationship between IQ scores and scores on a Mathematic Interest Inventory for 11 year old students. . </li></ul><ul><li>There exists a positive relationship between English grades and grades achieved in Mathematic. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no significant difference in customer satisfaction between ethnic groups. </li></ul>

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