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General Procedure in Research * Dr. A. Asgari


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General Procedure in Research * Dr. A. Asgari

  1. 1. GENERAL PROCEDURE IN RESEARCH <ul><li>Dr. Azadeh Asgari </li></ul>Research Methodology
  2. 2. General Procedure In Research <ul><li>PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION </li></ul><ul><li>DATA COLLECTION </li></ul><ul><li>DATA ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>REPORTING THE RESULTS </li></ul>
  3. 3. Data Collection Process <ul><li>REQUIRES: </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects to provide information </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments to collect data on different variables from subjects </li></ul>
  4. 4. Measurement <ul><li>Process of giving a value (numeric or category) to systematically measured variables using specific steps </li></ul><ul><li>Process of measuring whatever that needs to be measured </li></ul>
  5. 5. Instrument <ul><li>A tool used to measure whatever needs to be measured </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To measure achievement = prepare an achievement test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To measure professional needs of teachers = prepare an inventory of teacher needs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Some Instruments Used In Education <ul><li>ACHIEVEMENT TEST </li></ul><ul><li>CREATIVITY TEST </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONALITY INVENTORY </li></ul><ul><li>ATTITUDE SCALE </li></ul><ul><li>INTEREST SCALE </li></ul><ul><li>INTERVIEW SCHEDULE </li></ul>
  7. 7. Scale <ul><li>Instrument that allows assigning a symbol or value to an individual, or his/her behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning the value to the ind. gives the connotation that the ind. HAS that ‘value’ measured by the scale </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Scale <ul><li>Likert scale or summated rating scale – consists of a set of items, all of which having the same value loading </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic differential </li></ul>
  9. 9. Instruments <ul><li>The Instrument Should be VALID and should be RELIABLE </li></ul>
  10. 10. Validity of Instruments <ul><li>Validity Refers To The Extent The Instrument Measures What It Is Supposed To Precisely Measure. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Face Validity <ul><ul><li>Superficially, Does The Instrument Look Satisfactory. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Content Validity <ul><li>Is the content complete and suitable? Is the format and content in line with the respondent’s ability level? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you ascertain validity? Refer to panel of experts and anyone who is able to evaluate suitability of information used. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Steps to Ensure Validity <ul><li>Panel of judges confirms suitability of format, instruction, font size, reading and reasoning level of respondents . </li></ul><ul><li>Panel of judges confirms whether the included items will be able to answer the research objectives. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Construct Validity <ul><li>To what extent the concept or theory was taken into account in coming up with the construct. </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent ind. Overall performance in responding to the instrument mirrors the trait / quality of the construct measured. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ensuring Construct Validity <ul><li>Using panel of judges </li></ul><ul><li>Factor analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The computer will calculate the Eigen value for each factor within the instrument, and from the values, the researcher may decide to reject specific items from the instrument </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Criterion Validity <ul><li>Refers to the relationship / correlation between the scores obtained from the new instrument and the scores obtained from a standard instrument. </li></ul><ul><li>A positive strong relationship connotes that the instrument has high criterion validity. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Reliability <ul><li>Measures that are free from error and therefore, yield consistent results </li></ul><ul><li>A consistent instrument means that the measure will result in a measured value that is similar every time the measurement is being used </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. : A measuring tape used to measure the height of a high jump bar, a stop watch used to measure the speed of problem solving, the test which measures the mathematical performance. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Reliability Coefficient <ul><li>Increases if the instrument is long. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases if the variance score of the instrument is high </li></ul>
  19. 19. Types of Reliability <ul><li>Test-retest which determines the coefficient of stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The correlation is calculated between the results of two tests, administered one after another after a lapse of some time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the same test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative forms = measures the coefficient of equivalence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The correlation is calculated between the results of two equivalent tests or two parallel tests, given one after another after a lapse of some time </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Reliability <ul><li>Split half which measures the coefficient of internal consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dividing the items in the instrument into two equivalent halves and finding the coefficient correlation between the halves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then corrected using the spearmen-brown formula to estimate the reliability of the whole test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPEARMEN-BROWN FORMULA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>r Whole = 2r Halves / 1 + r Halves </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Types of Reliability <ul><li>Method of rational equivalence </li></ul><ul><li>Using Kuder Richardson Formula 20 or 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Formula 21 is not very precise but it is easier to calculate </li></ul><ul><li>r (KR-21) = (K)(s 2 ) - Mean(K - Mean) </li></ul><ul><li>(s 2 ) (K – 1) </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE: </li></ul><ul><li>  K – No. Of Items In The Whole Test </li></ul><ul><li>s 2 – Variance Score </li></ul><ul><li>Mean – Mean of Scores </li></ul>