“reformers dreaming about changing the education system for the
better almost always see a need to include assessment and testing in
their plans and frequently see them as the main instrument of their
reforms” Black (2001)
However, one of the main
problem is that assessment
is about several things at
Assessment can take many forms and is certainly wider
than traditional forms of objective tests and essay tests.
Keeping in mind that, It can have a dramatic effect on the
lives of students.
Assessment should be used to;
Raise student‟s self-steem – learning, experience
are needed which enable students to create success
criteria and to organize their individual targets.
Assessment systems differ around the world:
• A deep distrust of teachers;
many new formal tests have
been initiated; there is some
school- based assessment
• They rely on national tests;
teachers are trusted to make
•They use a range of different
assessment system; teachers
concentrate on formative
assessment and pedagogy; all
summative assessment is
There has been an increase in
testing for accountability
The assessment practices are very uneven, the new
frameworks are now specifying student outcomes; there
are some opportunities for teachers to collaborate on
Is the term typically used to describe the
activities undertaken by a teacher to obtain
performance against targets
Using assessment to inform
next steps in teaching and
Teachers giving feedback
Learning about children‟s
Children taking some control
of their own learning and
Turning assessment into
a learning event.
There are problems in treating
formative assessment and
summative assessment as separate
For example; Taras (2005)
contends, after scriven (1967), That
all assessment begins with
summative assessment and all
formative assessment is in fact
summative assessment plus
feedback which is used by the
There are four factors
The creation of
trust in the
teachers to drive
The use of „startsmall‟ strategies.
Assessment: value continua.
The types of assessment which can
actually occur is influenced by:
It is inefficient to start teaching without -checking a
student‟ knowledge & understanding.
Some students lack the
prerequisite skills to undertake the
Some have negative attitudes to
Others have the skills &
understandings that the teacher
intended to reach.
helps teachers start their
instructions at the level
each student reached.
It undertakes during all
the stages of instruction.
Provides data to help, develop or form a final
Help students adjust to the tasks through the
feedback they receive, also enables on-the-spot
Applies to course improvement & student
It brings student growth and raise student
achievement standards, according to Clarke.
Provides the data from
which decisions ca be
made, and the
can be used in a
The final goal of the
educational activity is
to know the merits &
demerits of a
Related Summative Terms.
The process of measuring
standards of actual performance
against those achieved by others
with broadly similar
Where raw scores from test
results are adjusted to
allow for the characteristics
of the intake of the school.
Inevitable, ongoing and very useful especially
for gaining information about student
The less obvious
the more natural
It is used for lower primary classes to early childhood.
to compare student‟ performance in tests by
providing comparative aged-based data.
-Does not tell us anything about an individual‟
potential or attitude towards certain subjects.
Avoids the competitive element, because its
based on previous performances rather in
relation to other students.
-The difficulty is in defining certain subjects
such as creative writing and art.
These tests require students to demonstrate their
acquisitions of problem-solving & critical thinking or
-Some links these tests to, constructivism, which is
the theory that knowledge is constructed by
individual human beings & not merely discovered.
• Most assessment involves
making judgments products as
an assignment , project or object.
• Payne suggests that if steps
involved in arriving at the product
are indeterminate and measuring
the processes leading to the
Learner judged + teacher judged
At most levels of schooling the teacher does the judging about
She states the greatest impact on student to
rise them self as revealed by they behavior
as the following :
Be able to see where they need
help without any sense.
Beginning to set their own
targets and goals .
Now being able to speak about
their learning when they would
not have done so before .
In USA high stakes
assessments are widely
used and have been
very popular because it
is argued that they raise
performance of students
Some of the major
Test score are
mainly used for
sorting and ranking
Test divert valuable
instructional time to
prepare for testing.
The impact of high stakes
summative assessment can
have negative effects on
students motivation .
The production of forms of
assessment should ideally provide
access to all learners and be
inclusive , regardless of
gender, ethnicity or disadvantage.
Gipps raises three fundamental questions about
whose knowledge is taught ?
why is it taught in a particular way to this particular group ?
how do we enable the histories and culture of people of color and of
women to be taught in responsible and responsive ways ?
A lot of writers argue that
traditional forms of assessment
are technics and are used to
identify and perpetuate the
social hierarchy .
• An electronic folder
• includes The materials collected in
• it represent the person's work
• a set of pieces of creative work
• uses in educational situations
• collected to be shown to potential
customers or employers
• -individual centered curricula
• -it depends on student perception
• -the teachers help students to identify his
or her interests and lead them to
• -it gives the responsibility that students
must take for their own learning's.
What does it include?
they can see what the portfolios
contain and the processes
students have followed in
carrying out their projects.
- what kind of decisions have
-it helps teachers to discuss
questions with students and also
to offer advice and constructive
students can reflect on what they
Examples of what a student portfolio
good for their
it‟s a very time
its difficult to
4.Why is it
1.What is the
2.What are the
aims of the
3.What are the
of the authentic
What is the authentic assessment ?
• It is any type of assessment that
requires students to demonstrate skills
and competencies that realistically
represent problems and situations
likely to be encountered in daily life .
• Students are require to produce ideas
, and to complete tasks that have realworld applications .
Is a contrast to
testing and evaluation
, which focuses
such as memorized
dates , terms or
What are the aims of the authentic
It aims to connect feelings , thinking and doing
with learning .
it suggests that the curriculum must be directed
at learning in the broadest possible sense , so the
curriculum must be evaluated in terms that can
contribute in students deep understand of the
subjects and their own lives as well .
What are the characteristics of
the authentic assessment ??
It reveals how students go about solving problems •
It connects students with the world outside schools •
It reflects local values , standards and control •
Procedures for assessments and its content are taken from student‟s •
everyday learning at school.
Why is it important ?
1 . It can help students to be
more creative , practical and
realistic than the normal test
with pencils and papers .
2 ) students can perform many
tasks as those which require
analysis , integration of
knowledge and invention
Should teachers use only one
inside their classes ??
It is advisable for teachers to use more than one technique
, some of these technique can be :
Record-keeping for many teachers might be perceived as a chore
but it is impossible to rely on one's memory for details about
students' learning and achievements. Record-keeping is typically
undertaken because :
-It helps teachers monitor the progress of individual
students and to use this as a basis for planning future
learning experiences -it serves a formative function.
-Parents require detailed reporting of their child's
achievements at regular intervals.
-The information can be used for placement of students
in subsequence years.
-The information is required by the school or state
system or nationally, as an accountability measure.
Does it really
match up with
uses it and
Could it be
save time and
it for ?
Record-keeping can be
very time-consuming and
it is often quite instructive
to reflect upon the range
and type of recordkeeping that is currently
used. Some pertinent
questions to ask about
each item included:
to the data
Many innovatory computer-based
packages are already available to assist
teachers with the task of assessing and
recording students' achievements.
Schools have to balance up the costs of
these programs versus teachers
devoting much of their daily time to
assessing, recording and reporting so
that their time to teaching is greatly
Parents have a major rule in schools and they
have a right to receive regular school reports
about the achievements of their children.
However, because all parents have experienced
schooling in the past, they have expectations
about the format of reports and what they
consider to be the highest priorities in reporting.
There can also be considerable generation gap
between parents' experiences at school and
current education provisions.
The new and more complex forms of assessment
clearly demand new forms of reporting .Yet changes to
reporting are not welcomed by parents if they create, in
turn, further anxieties for them. Most educators agree
about basic principles of reporting namely:
The process of
communication must be
fair, timely, confidential and
The basis for
Any summary judgments
made in the report must be
performance must be
supported by data.
made known and be
The relative weight attached to
categories that make up the final
grade must be made explicit and
kept uniform across students and
A number of schools are now changing the type of communication they
send to parents. The mailing to the parents of a single-sheet report from
once a term or once a semester as the only form of communication has
changed dramatically .Schools now are use the following:
Leaflets to explain
new curriculum or
Two major factors are currently driving
assessment developments: the emphasis upon
performance assessment and the and the priority
given to standers and accountability. Recent
efforts to develop a comprehensive picture of
student learning have involved systematically
combining multiple-choice formats and
There are many
which are likely
and tailored to
the needs of
teachers in the
the following .
computer adaptive testing (CAT) customizes the assessment process so that the
computer determines which level of questions to pose to the student. If a student
answers a question correctly then he or she receives a more difficult item. Although
expensive to develop at present, more customized versions are likely to be developed.
Large-scale testing can now be done at computurized testing centers students
take their test on-line and receive their score instantaneously.
In the classroom (or at home ) students can download specific assesment
programs and then transmit them to the teacher or computer for scoring.
Technology allows a variety of test-and response formats using the computer's video and
audio capabilities. Students can answer oraly or by consructing answers on the screen.
Computer software can translate items into many languages.
Automated essay grading has made major advances and prototypes are now
available for use on a standard Windows PC.
Much of the paper testing done today will become an anachronism. As students
come to do the majority of their learning with technology, they will want the
medium of assessment also to be technology.
Assessment of students is a constant part of life in
schools and very important element. Although some
forms of assessment have stood the test of time and are
still used widely (eg. external examinations), there have
been enormous pressures over recent decades to widen
the range of assessment and procedures. It is likely that
norm-referenced assessment will decrease as
accountability focuses more on what students actually
know and can do, Performance assessment is likely to
become far more prominent in both classroom and for
high-stakes testing. Electronic assessment will be
integrated into educational process along with on-line
delivery of instruction.