Group1 Assessment


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Group1 Assessment

  1. 1. Assessment, grading and reporting Presented by: Azhar Anwar Ghaneema Dema shema Abrar
  2. 2. Azhar
  3. 3. “reformers dreaming about changing the education system for the better almost always see a need to include assessment and testing in their plans and frequently see them as the main instrument of their reforms” Black (2001) However, one of the main problem is that assessment is about several things at once: 1- Grading. 2- Learning.
  4. 4. Assessment can take many forms and is certainly wider than traditional forms of objective tests and essay tests. Keeping in mind that, It can have a dramatic effect on the lives of students. Assessment should be used to; Raise student‟s self-steem – learning, experience are needed which enable students to create success criteria and to organize their individual targets.
  5. 5. Assessment systems differ around the world: England • A deep distrust of teachers; many new formal tests have been initiated; there is some school- based assessment Germany • They rely on national tests; teachers are trusted to make summative judgments. France •They use a range of different assessment system; teachers concentrate on formative assessment and pedagogy; all summative assessment is handled externally USA There has been an increase in testing for accountability purposes. Australia The assessment practices are very uneven, the new frameworks are now specifying student outcomes; there are some opportunities for teachers to collaborate on formative assessment.
  6. 6. Assessmen t Is the term typically used to describe the activities undertaken by a teacher to obtain information about Knowledge skills Attitudes of the students
  7. 7. Those activities involve:
  8. 8. Monitoring students‟ performance against targets or objectives Using assessment to inform next steps in teaching and learning Teachers giving feedback for improvement Learning about children‟s learning Children taking some control of their own learning and assessment Turning assessment into a learning event.
  9. 9. There are problems in treating formative assessment and summative assessment as separate entities. For example; Taras (2005) contends, after scriven (1967), That all assessment begins with summative assessment and all formative assessment is in fact summative assessment plus feedback which is used by the
  10. 10. There are four factors for practicing assessment for learning: Proactive leadership The creation of space for collaboration between teachers Professional trust in the capacity of teachers to drive change and adapt teaching The use of „startsmall‟ strategies.
  11. 11. Assessment: value continua. The types of assessment which can actually occur is influenced by:
  12. 12. Anwar
  13. 13. Diagnostic vs. Formative vs. Summative
  14. 14. Diagnostic assessment. It is inefficient to start teaching without -checking a student‟ knowledge & understanding. Some students lack the prerequisite skills to undertake the requirements. Some have negative attitudes to the topic. Others have the skills & understandings that the teacher intended to reach.
  15. 15. Diagnostic assessment helps teachers start their instructions at the level each student reached. It undertakes during all the stages of instruction.
  16. 16. Formative assessment. Provides data to help, develop or form a final curriculum. Help students adjust to the tasks through the feedback they receive, also enables on-the-spot changes. Applies to course improvement & student growth. It brings student growth and raise student achievement standards, according to Clarke.
  17. 17. Summative assessment. Provides the data from which decisions ca be made, and the information collected can be used in a diagnostic way. The final goal of the educational activity is to know the merits & demerits of a curriculum package.
  18. 18. Related Summative Terms. Value-added assessment The process of measuring standards of actual performance against those achieved by others with broadly similar characteristics. Benchmarking Where raw scores from test results are adjusted to allow for the characteristics of the intake of the school.
  19. 19. Informal vs. Formal
  20. 20. Informal assessment: Inevitable, ongoing and very useful especially for gaining information about student interactions. The less obvious the more natural It is used for lower primary classes to early childhood. Such as: observatio ns runnin g record s anecdotal records written note
  21. 21. Formal assessment: -Planned, obtrusive activity. -Such as weekly tests & planned assignments.
  22. 22. Norm-referenced measures: -Used to compare student‟ performance in tests by providing comparative aged-based data. -Does not tell us anything about an individual‟ potential or attitude towards certain subjects.
  23. 23. Criterion-referenced measures: - Avoids the competitive element, because its based on previous performances rather in relation to other students. -The difficulty is in defining certain subjects such as creative writing and art.
  24. 24. Performance-based assessment: These tests require students to demonstrate their acquisitions of problem-solving & critical thinking or writing skills. -Some links these tests to, constructivism, which is the theory that knowledge is constructed by individual human beings & not merely discovered. -
  25. 25. Ghaneema
  26. 26. process-product • Most assessment involves making judgments products as an assignment , project or object. • Payne suggests that if steps involved in arriving at the product are indeterminate and measuring the processes leading to the product .
  27. 27. Learner judged + teacher judged At most levels of schooling the teacher does the judging about standards . She states the greatest impact on student to rise them self as revealed by they behavior as the following : Be able to see where they need help without any sense. Beginning to set their own targets and goals . Now being able to speak about their learning when they would not have done so before .
  28. 28. In USA high stakes standardized assessments are widely used and have been very popular because it is argued that they raise the academic performance of students .
  29. 29. Some of the major concerns include Test score are mainly used for sorting and ranking students . Test divert valuable instructional time to prepare for testing. The impact of high stakes summative assessment can have negative effects on students motivation .
  30. 30. Inclusive exclusive The production of forms of assessment should ideally provide access to all learners and be inclusive , regardless of gender, ethnicity or disadvantage.
  31. 31. Gipps raises three fundamental questions about inclusivity : -1- whose knowledge is taught ? -2- why is it taught in a particular way to this particular group ? -3- how do we enable the histories and culture of people of color and of women to be taught in responsible and responsive ways ?
  32. 32. Technics-liberal postmodernist A lot of writers argue that traditional forms of assessment are technics and are used to identify and perpetuate the social hierarchy .
  33. 33. Dema
  34. 34. • An electronic folder • includes The materials collected in different cases • it represent the person's work • a set of pieces of creative work • uses in educational situations • collected to be shown to potential customers or employers
  35. 35. • -individual centered curricula • -it depends on student perception • -the teachers help students to identify his or her interests and lead them to worthwhile learning. • -it gives the responsibility that students must take for their own learning's.
  36. 36. What does it include? Notes drafts model s plans record s audiotap es videotap es Photograp hs
  37. 37. For teachers, they can see what the portfolios contain and the processes students have followed in carrying out their projects. - what kind of decisions have been made. -it helps teachers to discuss questions with students and also to offer advice and constructive criticism.
  38. 38. students can reflect on what they have learned…
  39. 39. Examples of what a student portfolio might contain essay s Journal s Summari es Resear ch notes Project s Group activitie s tests Teacher s commen ts
  40. 40. Merits of portfolios Meaningful good for their self-esteem. demerits of portfolios: it‟s a very time consuming to assess portfolios its difficult to establish appropriate rubrics.
  41. 41. Shema
  42. 42. 4.Why is it important ? 1.What is the “The authentic assessment” The authentic assessment 2.What are the aims of the authentic assessment ? 3.What are the characteristics of the authentic assessment?
  43. 43. What is the authentic assessment ? • It is any type of assessment that requires students to demonstrate skills and competencies that realistically represent problems and situations likely to be encountered in daily life . • Students are require to produce ideas , and to complete tasks that have realworld applications .
  44. 44. Authentic assessment Is a contrast to traditional educational testing and evaluation , which focuses reproducing information such as memorized dates , terms or formulas.
  45. 45. What are the aims of the authentic assessment ?? It aims to connect feelings , thinking and doing with learning . it suggests that the curriculum must be directed at learning in the broadest possible sense , so the curriculum must be evaluated in terms that can contribute in students deep understand of the subjects and their own lives as well .
  46. 46. What are the characteristics of the authentic assessment ?? 1 2 3 4 It reveals how students go about solving problems • It connects students with the world outside schools • It reflects local values , standards and control • Procedures for assessments and its content are taken from student‟s • everyday learning at school.
  47. 47. Why is it important ? 1 . It can help students to be more creative , practical and realistic than the normal test with pencils and papers .
  48. 48. 2 ) students can perform many tasks as those which require analysis , integration of knowledge and invention
  49. 49. Should teachers use only one technique inside their classes ??
  50. 50. It is advisable for teachers to use more than one technique , some of these technique can be :
  51. 51. Abrar
  52. 52. Record-keeping for many teachers might be perceived as a chore but it is impossible to rely on one's memory for details about students' learning and achievements. Record-keeping is typically undertaken because : -It helps teachers monitor the progress of individual students and to use this as a basis for planning future learning experiences -it serves a formative function. -Parents require detailed reporting of their child's achievements at regular intervals. -The information can be used for placement of students in subsequence years. -The information is required by the school or state system or nationally, as an accountability measure.
  53. 53. Does it really match up with the original purpose ? Who actually uses it and for what purpose? Could it be organized more rationally to save time and effort? who is it for ? Why do this ? Record-keeping can be very time-consuming and it is often quite instructive to reflect upon the range and type of recordkeeping that is currently used. Some pertinent questions to ask about each item included: Would computeriz ed records assist? What happens to the data collected and recorded ?
  54. 54. Many innovatory computer-based packages are already available to assist teachers with the task of assessing and recording students' achievements. Schools have to balance up the costs of these programs versus teachers devoting much of their daily time to assessing, recording and reporting so that their time to teaching is greatly reduced.
  55. 55. Parents have a major rule in schools and they have a right to receive regular school reports about the achievements of their children. However, because all parents have experienced schooling in the past, they have expectations about the format of reports and what they consider to be the highest priorities in reporting. There can also be considerable generation gap between parents' experiences at school and current education provisions.
  56. 56. The new and more complex forms of assessment clearly demand new forms of reporting .Yet changes to reporting are not welcomed by parents if they create, in turn, further anxieties for them. Most educators agree about basic principles of reporting namely: The process of communication must be fair, timely, confidential and clear. The basis for comparing students' Any summary judgments made in the report must be performance must be supported by data. made known and be credible; The relative weight attached to categories that make up the final grade must be made explicit and kept uniform across students and teachers;
  57. 57. A number of schools are now changing the type of communication they send to parents. The mailing to the parents of a single-sheet report from once a term or once a semester as the only form of communication has changed dramatically .Schools now are use the following: Parents' information evenings. A variety of written reports. newslette rs. Parent-teacher meetings/interview s Leaflets to explain new curriculum or assessment procedures.
  58. 58. Two major factors are currently driving assessment developments: the emphasis upon performance assessment and the and the priority given to standers and accountability. Recent efforts to develop a comprehensive picture of student learning have involved systematically combining multiple-choice formats and performance formats.
  59. 59. There are many other developments which are likely to male assesssment more flexible and tailored to the needs of students and teachers in the future. conceder the following . computer adaptive testing (CAT) customizes the assessment process so that the computer determines which level of questions to pose to the student. If a student answers a question correctly then he or she receives a more difficult item. Although expensive to develop at present, more customized versions are likely to be developed. Large-scale testing can now be done at computurized testing centers students take their test on-line and receive their score instantaneously. In the classroom (or at home ) students can download specific assesment programs and then transmit them to the teacher or computer for scoring. Technology allows a variety of test-and response formats using the computer's video and audio capabilities. Students can answer oraly or by consructing answers on the screen. Computer software can translate items into many languages. Automated essay grading has made major advances and prototypes are now available for use on a standard Windows PC. Much of the paper testing done today will become an anachronism. As students come to do the majority of their learning with technology, they will want the medium of assessment also to be technology.
  60. 60. Assessment of students is a constant part of life in schools and very important element. Although some forms of assessment have stood the test of time and are still used widely (eg. external examinations), there have been enormous pressures over recent decades to widen the range of assessment and procedures. It is likely that norm-referenced assessment will decrease as accountability focuses more on what students actually know and can do, Performance assessment is likely to become far more prominent in both classroom and for high-stakes testing. Electronic assessment will be integrated into educational process along with on-line delivery of instruction.
  61. 61. The End Thank you