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Cyanobacteria as a Biofertilizer (BY- Ayushi).pptx

Cyanobacteria, also known as “blue-green algae”. They are aquatic and  photosynthetic, that is, they live in the water, and can manufacture their own food. Because they are bacteria, they are quite small and usually unicellular, though they often grow in colonies large enough to see.  They are the most abundant group of organisms on the earth. They are autotrophic and found in a diverse environment, especially in the marine and freshwater.

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S U B M I T T E D B Y :
A Y U S H I S I N G H K A R D A M
M . S C I N D U S T R I A L M I C R O B I O L O G Y
D E P A R T M E N T O F E N V I R O N M E N T A L
M I C R O B I O L O G Y
2 N D S E M E S T E R
Cyanobacteria as a
Biofertilizer
About Cyanobacteria
 Cyanobacteria, also known as “blue-green algae”.
 They are aquatic and photosynthetic, that is, they live in
the water, and can manufacture their own food. Because
they are bacteria, they are quite small and usually
unicellular, though they often grow in colonies large
enough to see.
 They are the most abundant group of organisms on the
earth. They are autotrophic and found in a diverse
environment, especially in the marine and freshwater.
 Based on morphology, cyanobacteria can be categorized
as unicellular, colonial, or multicellular filamentous;
their cell size can vary from 1 to 100 µm in diameter.
 Cyanobacteria consist of two important cells:
 (i) Heterocysts (responsible for nitrogen fixation for
ammonia synthesis), and
 (ii) Vegetative cells (exhibit normal photosynthesis and
reproductive growth).
Cyanobacteria (cont.)
 Outer most layers of cyanobacteria are made up of
distinct three types of layers such as a
mucilaginous layer, cell wall, and innermost
plasma membrane.
 Classification of cyanobacteria proposed in 1985,
in which four orders of the bacteria have been
identified as Chroococcales, Nostocales,
Oscillatoriales and Stigonematales, and their phyla
are Chroococcales, Gloeobacterales, and
Pleurocapsales.
 The cytoplasm of cyanobacteria contains
pigmented lamellae. The pigments include
chlorophylls, carotenes, xanthophylls, c-
phycoerythrin and c-phycocyanin, and the last two
pigments are only found in bluegreen algae.
Cyanobacteria as Biofertilizer
 Cyanobacteria play a chief role in the maintenance and build-up of soil
fertility, consequently yield as a natural biofertilizer.
 The major actions of cyanobacteria as biofertilizer include;
 (a) Make porous soil and produce adhesive substances.
 (b) Excretion of phytohormones (auxin, gibberellins, etc.), vitamins,
amino acids.
 (c) Improve the water holding capacity of soil through their jellious
structure.
 (d) Increase in biomass of soil after their death and decomposition.
 (e) Decrease in soil salinity.
 (f) Controls weeds growth.
 (g) Availability of soil phosphate by excretion of organic acids.
 (h) Efficient absorption of heavy metals on the microbial surface
(bioremediation).
 (i) reduce the risk of chemical-based fertilizers on human health, eco-
friendly and less costly.
 (j) improve crop productivity and soil fertility.
 (k) Cyanobacteria can degrade a wide range of pollutants
 (l) They can control the nitrogen deficiency in plants, improve the aeration
of soil, water holding capacity and add vitamin B12.
Cyanobacteria as Biofertilizer (cont.)
 The main activity of cyanobacteria is nitrogen fixation:
 Anabaena and Nostoc are surviving on the surface of soil and
rocks, and fix up to 20–25 kg/ha atm nitrogen.
 Anabaena can fix 60 kg/ha/season of nitrogen and also
enriches soils with organic matter.
 Azolla-Anabaena association is an example of symbiosis for
nitrogen fixation and nutrient enrichment in the rice paddy
field. They exhibit lysis of lignin of cell wall and released
phenolic compounds which induced profuse sporulation of the
organism.
 Nitrogen-fixing ability has not only been shown by
heterocystous cyanobacteria (Nostoc, Anabaena, Aulosira, etc.)
but also by several non-heterocystous unicellular (Gloeocapsa,
Aphanothece, Gloeothece, etc.) and filamentous (Oscillatoria,
Plectonema, etc.) cyanobacteria.
 Halobacterium and Thiothrix are purple and green
photosynthetic bacteria; contain organic inclusion bodies such
as gas vacuoles which provide buoyancy to the cyanobacteria to
float over the surface.
 The most efficient nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are Nostoc
linkia, Anabaena variabilis, Aulosira fertilisima, Calothrix sp.,
Tolypothrix sp., and Scytonema sp. are present in the rice crop
cultivation area.
 Applications of these biofertilizers have been reported in barley,
oats, tomato, radish, cotton, sugarcane, maize, rice, chilli,
sorghum, wheat and lettuce.
Preparation of Biofertilizer(s)
Steps of mass culture of Biofertilizers

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Cyanobacteria as a Biofertilizer (BY- Ayushi).pptx

  • 1. S U B M I T T E D B Y : A Y U S H I S I N G H K A R D A M M . S C I N D U S T R I A L M I C R O B I O L O G Y D E P A R T M E N T O F E N V I R O N M E N T A L M I C R O B I O L O G Y 2 N D S E M E S T E R Cyanobacteria as a Biofertilizer
  • 2. About Cyanobacteria  Cyanobacteria, also known as “blue-green algae”.  They are aquatic and photosynthetic, that is, they live in the water, and can manufacture their own food. Because they are bacteria, they are quite small and usually unicellular, though they often grow in colonies large enough to see.  They are the most abundant group of organisms on the earth. They are autotrophic and found in a diverse environment, especially in the marine and freshwater.  Based on morphology, cyanobacteria can be categorized as unicellular, colonial, or multicellular filamentous; their cell size can vary from 1 to 100 µm in diameter.  Cyanobacteria consist of two important cells:  (i) Heterocysts (responsible for nitrogen fixation for ammonia synthesis), and  (ii) Vegetative cells (exhibit normal photosynthesis and reproductive growth).
  • 3. Cyanobacteria (cont.)  Outer most layers of cyanobacteria are made up of distinct three types of layers such as a mucilaginous layer, cell wall, and innermost plasma membrane.  Classification of cyanobacteria proposed in 1985, in which four orders of the bacteria have been identified as Chroococcales, Nostocales, Oscillatoriales and Stigonematales, and their phyla are Chroococcales, Gloeobacterales, and Pleurocapsales.  The cytoplasm of cyanobacteria contains pigmented lamellae. The pigments include chlorophylls, carotenes, xanthophylls, c- phycoerythrin and c-phycocyanin, and the last two pigments are only found in bluegreen algae.
  • 4. Cyanobacteria as Biofertilizer  Cyanobacteria play a chief role in the maintenance and build-up of soil fertility, consequently yield as a natural biofertilizer.  The major actions of cyanobacteria as biofertilizer include;  (a) Make porous soil and produce adhesive substances.  (b) Excretion of phytohormones (auxin, gibberellins, etc.), vitamins, amino acids.  (c) Improve the water holding capacity of soil through their jellious structure.  (d) Increase in biomass of soil after their death and decomposition.  (e) Decrease in soil salinity.  (f) Controls weeds growth.  (g) Availability of soil phosphate by excretion of organic acids.  (h) Efficient absorption of heavy metals on the microbial surface (bioremediation).  (i) reduce the risk of chemical-based fertilizers on human health, eco- friendly and less costly.  (j) improve crop productivity and soil fertility.  (k) Cyanobacteria can degrade a wide range of pollutants  (l) They can control the nitrogen deficiency in plants, improve the aeration of soil, water holding capacity and add vitamin B12.
  • 5. Cyanobacteria as Biofertilizer (cont.)  The main activity of cyanobacteria is nitrogen fixation:  Anabaena and Nostoc are surviving on the surface of soil and rocks, and fix up to 20–25 kg/ha atm nitrogen.  Anabaena can fix 60 kg/ha/season of nitrogen and also enriches soils with organic matter.  Azolla-Anabaena association is an example of symbiosis for nitrogen fixation and nutrient enrichment in the rice paddy field. They exhibit lysis of lignin of cell wall and released phenolic compounds which induced profuse sporulation of the organism.  Nitrogen-fixing ability has not only been shown by heterocystous cyanobacteria (Nostoc, Anabaena, Aulosira, etc.) but also by several non-heterocystous unicellular (Gloeocapsa, Aphanothece, Gloeothece, etc.) and filamentous (Oscillatoria, Plectonema, etc.) cyanobacteria.  Halobacterium and Thiothrix are purple and green photosynthetic bacteria; contain organic inclusion bodies such as gas vacuoles which provide buoyancy to the cyanobacteria to float over the surface.  The most efficient nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are Nostoc linkia, Anabaena variabilis, Aulosira fertilisima, Calothrix sp., Tolypothrix sp., and Scytonema sp. are present in the rice crop cultivation area.  Applications of these biofertilizers have been reported in barley, oats, tomato, radish, cotton, sugarcane, maize, rice, chilli, sorghum, wheat and lettuce.
  • 6. Preparation of Biofertilizer(s) Steps of mass culture of Biofertilizers
  • 7. Mass production of cyanobacterial biofertilizers  Due to the useful property of cyanobacteria and other microalgae in diverse sectors has necessitated their large-scale cultivation.  Economic sustainability and reduce the use of chemical biofertilizer is the most important factor which determines the success of large scale biomass production of commercially important products.  Five critical abiotic parameters are light, pH, temperature, water, carbon dioxide, and nutrient supplements (C, N, P, S, K, Fe, etc.) determine the success of the growth of cyanobacteria.  Few cyanobacteria and microalgae such as Arthrospira, Chlorella, Haematococcus, and Dunaliella have been cultivated on a large scale as economically and commercially viable crops.  Commercial production of photosynthetic microorganisms can be achieved in different ways: (1) Open system cultivation using sunlight (2) Closed system cultivation using sunlight (3) Closed system cultivation using artificial light
  • 8. Mass Production (cont.) 1. Open system cultivation using sunlight  In open cultivation systems natural sunlight is the source of energy.  There is a use of raceway or circular type shallow open ponds are used for the mass cultivation of cyanobacteria and microalgae.  The advantage is that solar radiation is free of cost.  The disadvantage of this type is contamination by algae, grazers and other microorganisms and are unpreventable which compromises net productivity.  Contamination problems could be avoided for organisms requiring unique growth conditions which generally prevent the growth of other organisms, however, this strategy limits the application of open systems for cultivation of only selected organisms.  Example: Spirulina has been extensively cultivated in Mexico, USA, China, and Thailand using the open system under unique growth requirement.
  • 9. Mass production (cont.) 2. Closed system cultivation using sunlight  In this system solar radiation is a source of energy.  Transparent material such as plastic or glass is used for making vessels which are placed outdoors in the natural light for illumination.  The advantages of this type of mass production is it helps in preventing contamination of grazers and competitors.  It provides a higher surface to volume ratio and cell densities obtained are often higher than in open systems.  The disadvantages is the cost of these systems is increased significantly by the application of transparent materials .  The removal of oxygen produced by photosynthesis and maintenance of optimum temperature are other factors which need to be critically observed in closed systems.  There are many techniques have been developed to maintain these parameters; however, the associated costs usually, offset the cost advantage of using natural sunlight.
  • 10. Mass production (cont.) 3. Closed system cultivation using artificial light  In this system source of radiation is artificial light .  Photobioreactor is used for the cultivation of various organisms. Photobioreactor is closed vessels that are similar to conventional fermenters driven by light. All real-time control and culture parameters are optimized using software .  Photobioreactors serve as an important tool for the production of high- value products such as stableisotope-labeled and for cultivation of genetically modified organisms.  The disadvantage is the utilization of plastic or glass material for making the vessel and power consumption is costly.  The mass cultivation of cyanobacteria has been done by four other techniques such as  Cemented tank method  Shallow metal troughs method  Polythene lined pit method  Field method.  The polythene lined method is most suitable for small and marginal farmers for the preparation of biofertilizer. In this method, small pits are prepared in the field and lined with thick polythene sheets, for example, Anabaena, Aulosira, Cylindrospermum, Gloeotrichia, Nostoc, Plectonema, Tolypothrix, etc. are used for inoculum preparation.
  • 11. References  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7021550/  https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/cyanointro.html  https://beachapedia.org/Cyanobacteria Photos  https://xeero.io/cyanobacteria/  https://beachapedia.org/Cyanobacteria  https://silviapvadi.wordpress.com/2015/04/10/cyanobacteria/  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2018.00007/full  https://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-nostoc-and-vs- anabaena/
  • 12. Commercial Cyanobacterial Biofertilizer Sold By - Vitro Life Science, Hyderabad, Telangana Packaging Type: Packet Usage/Application: Agriculture Types Of Biofertilizers: Cyanobacterial