Final livestock future November 2013


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Final livestock future November 2013

  1. 1. Volume 04 Issue 04 November - 2013 6 Healthy calves and heifers are an integral part of the farm profits. Maintaining their good health and effective raisingareimportant forimproving the reproductiveefficiencyand thereforemanaging the farmprofitably. on Veterinary Education in Indiaon ReproductionFacilitating Growth of Animal Husbandry Sector The Lever to Agriculture Growth NAVS & RAJUVAS Workshop Milking by knuckling thumb causes fibrosis of teats Milking by knuckling thumb causes fibrosis of teats Women and Livestock Global Agri Connect 2013 Managing Livestock Profitably in Winter Season. Today's successful dairy operation recognizes that heifers are an important investment in the future. They place high value on the heifer and regard it as a managed resource, whether raised on the farm or contract grown. Unfortunately, on many farms, the dairy heifer is the most overlooked and under managed asset on the farm. The main goal for managing replacement heifers is to freshen them between 22 and 24 months of age to reduce expenditures and to increase total milk production. This can be accomplished through good nutrition and sound animalmanagementpractices. Feed a lower cost source of liquid feed to young calves. Depending on a variety of aspects available to the farmer, changing from whole milk to other liquid feeds can be cost effective. Milk replacers are often about 50-60 percent of the cost of feeding whole milk, if salablemilk is fed.Where farms are set up for feeding waste milk and colostrum in a National Symposium 2013 2 4 5 Heifer Management & Nutrition Key to Farm Profits Ayurvet, an organization which has innovation encrypted in its genes, floating in the protoplasmic fluid of knowledge, sieved through the tools of science and technology has propounded the concept of “ Integrating Livestock & Agriculture” , using the available resources under Ayurvet 5F Programme. This programme defines sustainable integration of Food, Feed, Fodder, Fertilizer & Fuelforthebenefitofallstakeholders. Considering the same, The Ayurvet Knowledge Symposium on the theme of “Integration of Livestock sectors for improving the farm profits and food security” was organized in collaboration with Ayurvet th Research Foundation on 19 October 2013 at PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry, PHD House, New Delhi. This symposium provided platform to scientists, nutritionists, agriculturist, feed industry professionals and farmers of Livestock and Agriculture sectors to share and deliberatetheseissues towards possiblesolutions. This initiative of Ayurvet to share knowledge and addressing modern research in the area of Integrated Approach of Livestock & Agriculture sustainably was in Releaseofsouvenirbythedignitaries(L-R)Dr.P.N.Bhat,Dr.A.K.Gahlot,Lt.Gen.N. S.Kanwar,Shri.PradipBurman,Dr.A.K.Srivastava,Mr.HarishDamodaran Contd. on page 2 Ayurvet Knowledge Symposium 2013 Effects of Nutrition 3 DearVets, The Indian livestock are majorly reared for milk production. Some of the leading and innovative farmers have shared that milk is secondary to them, while cowdung has became the primary product. In any case, the health of rumen is very important for production of milkandcowdung. It has been estimated by Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute that by 2020 fodder deficiency in India would increase up to 64% for green and 25% dry fodder. Cost effective feeding would continue to be a big challenge in near future too. In such situation optimizing the rumen function would help in enhancing the production of the livestock. A 5-10 unit's increase in digestibility of fibrous forage can lead to 100 %increase in productivity. Supplementation strategies, combine with technology for increasing forage digestibility could potentiallyincreasetheproductivity. Ayurvet has taken certain initiatives in this direction. We shall be glad to hear your views towards optimizing the rumen functions for improving farm profits. Wishing you and your family a very happy Christmas andNewYear2014. the line with our commitments towards addressing the triplebottomlineprofits&inclusivegrowth. The symposium dwelled upon the efforts to find out innovative solutions using modern scientific tools for creating value in agriculture and livestock food production system, so as to address soil and human health. The symposium was graced by Lt. Gen. N. S. Kanwar (DirectorGeneral RVS - Ministry of Defence-Army) as the Chief Guest. Dr.A.K. Srivastava (Director and safe and easy manner, this can be even more cost effective.Waste milk systems are not without problems or increases in management, however many farms can handle the additional problems that arise. Waste milk and colostrum must be fed in a consistent manner to avoid health problems, and if possible, pasteurized to minimize anyhealthproblemsanddiseasetransfer. Other areas of focus include genetic improvements. This can be made through a well planned and thought out breeding program. Maintaining a good health program during the heifer-raising period is important. This includes vaccinations,deworming,andanynecessarytreatments. Timely Growth Increased Productivity Better health Helps in controlling mortality Timely development of Rumen AYURVET NAVEEN CALF STARTER vk;qosZV dk iDdk oknk&LoLFk gks cNM+s] o`f) gks T;knk Contd. on page 5
  2. 2. NOVEMBER ISSUE 2013 ASK THE EXPERT Q.Is hormonal therapy is the best alternative to treat anoestrus? Mohd. Rafi, Meerut A. The hormonal therapy should be adopted as the last alternative to treat anoestrus. It is not only costly for the dairy farmers but also is effective only when the nutritional status and the management of dairy animals is well in place. There are some effective herbal options available in the market which offer a good solution for the problem of anoestrus. One of the most effective herbal combination available is the use of Exapar (Uterine Cleanser and Restorative), Janova (For Inducing Ovulatory Oestrus) and Mintrus ( Trace Mineral Caplets) combination which not only helps to bring animal into true heat but also pronounces the symptoms of heat. This combination acts in multiple ways of cleansing the uterus, correcting hormonal imbalance and supplementing the deficit of trace minerals requiredtobringanimalsintotrueheat. Q.How can the animal waste can be used for generationofpower? RajeevKhare,Bhopal A. Animal waste can be used in generation of power by converting waste into biogas. Through biogas technology, animal waste can be used as feed for biogas plant for biogas generation. As biogas consists of 50-60% of methane gas, which can be used inbiogasgenerationforpowergeneration. Biogas is used as fuel for genset as a inflammable methane gas undergoes combustion process which resultsinpowergeneration. Depending upon the size of biogas plant and efficiency of biogas genset, 1 cubic biogas can generateupto2 unitsofelectricity. Q.What are the main causes of infertility in dairy animals? MeenaPawar,Gaziabad A. Infertilityismainlycausedbyfollowingreasons; a)Nutritionalimbalance b)ReproductivetractInfections c)Congenitalabnormalities d)Hormonalimbalance e)Managementerrors Q.What is Hydroponics technology and what are its benefits? Naresh, Kota A. Hydroponics is the science of soilless growing of plants in nutrient rich solutions with very little water. It is a technique where the physiological requirements of plants can be met without use of soil or natural sunlight. Hydroponics techniques have proven it to be very useful and efficient for producing food for livestock. The food that is available is free from undesirable materials such as weeds, insects, dust, insecticides,germicides,carcinogens. BenefitsofHydroponics technology- 1.Savingofwater 2.Marginallandusage 3.Reductioningrowth time 4.Reducedlabourrequirement 5.Constantfeedsupply 6.Enhancementofnutritionalvalue 7.Completelynatural Q.What is the average age of 1st calving in cattle in Indian conditions? Pradeep,Saharanpur A. The average age of first calving in cows in Indian conditions ranges from 24-36 months. This may extend another 6-12 month in buffaloes. This can however this corrected with good management and nutrition.Needless to mention the genetic makeup of thelivestockplaysanimportantrole. Page 2 Vice Chancellor-NDRI Karnal), Dr. A. K. Gahlot (Vice Chancellor- RAJUVAS, Bikaner) and Mr. Harish Damodaran (Opinion Editor – The Hindu Business Line) was graced the occasion as Eminent Speakers/ Guest of Honour. On this occasion, an in-house production film on journey of Ayurvet major scientific breakthrough and theme film titled ,”Bhagya Vidhata Part-II” was screened, which was appreciatedby all. Lt Gen Kanwar DG RVS, emphasized that there is an urgent need to address the issue of soil fertility for improving the production. He shared his experience how he improved the fertility of the mares by feeding quality green fodder which was grown after treating the soil with vermicompost. He however emphasized that the research done at the universities should be made available to farmersunderLabtolandprogramme. Dr. A.K. Srivastava, Director & Vice Chancellor, NDRI, through his excellent presentation urged that integration is the need of the hour and the models developed by ICAR should be shared and adopted for better farm produce and sustainable development. He also emphasized that the feed and fodder are the concern areas andsomethingshould bedonetoaddressthesituation. Dr. A.K. Gahlot, Vice Chancellor, RAJUVAS, shared RAJUVAS model of integration and appreciated the initiative of Ayurvet in Hydroponics for producing quality green feed. He mentioned that his university is ready for any PPP mode programme towards sustainable development. He said it is because of this integration in Rajasthan, there are suicides in Rajasthan even after the droughts inthestate. Sh. Harish Damodaran, Print Editor Hindu Business Line, questioned that can that dairy farming made into an independent business for farm profits. He argued can we not feed the animals right, and not link it with agriculture. He however urged that the sustainable operations are need of thehour. Speaking on the occasion Sh Pradip Burman, Chairman Ayurvet, emphasized the need of integration and the Ayurvet5F modelinitiativesinthisdirection. A special farmer's interaction session was organized for sharing their experiences. This was chaired by Dr. P. N. Bhat, Managing TrusteeARF. Many farmers and experts shared their successful experience of integration in their own way. Maj. Bhatia of Jindal group shared his experience of feeding hydroponics to horses for improving theirhealthandperformance. Another learned farmer Mr. Pritam Singh from Haryana shared his success story of using hydroponics paddy nursery in his farm. He observed that the benefits he got fromhydroponicsweresavingofwater,timeandlabour. While thanking the guests, Mr. M. J. Saxena, Managing Director, Ayurvet requested all the policy planners especially the Director for looking into the opportunity of working on the special course on 5Fs in NDRI. He also assured Dr. Gahlot that Ayurvet would continue to work with RAJUVAS in the areas of 5F. Mr. Saxena expressed his confidence that the initiatives taken would results and help in taking one step ahead in direction towards sustainableintegration. The symposium registered the impressive presence of more than 150 delegates, which includes the senior representatives from our own ICAR, AYUSH and State Animal Husbandry Departments and media representatives from Doordarshan and Akashwani were distinguished guest during the occasion. The efforts of Ayurvetwereappreciatedbyalltheeminentguests. Ayurvet Annual Dinner was organized as a regular feature followed by musical concert. The evening witnessed the st th release of the 21 Annual Report and 4 Sustainability Report. The programme was attended by Ayurvet employees and their family members along with the guests fromIndustry,GovernmentInstitutesandMedia. Speaking on the occasion, Shri Pradip Burman, Chairman, Ayurvet Limited appreciated the work of Ayurvet team members and thanked all the stakeholders without whose support the company could not have achieved the new landmark. Mr. Anand Mehrotra, Business Head (North & East India) was awarded for his long service of 20 years withAyurvet. This year another award for nurturing and motivating the children of Ayurvet employees to perform better in their studies was introduced, this has also motivated not only to Ayurvet Employee but their children to prove themselves asresponsibleandlearnedpersons. Ayurvet Limited is scaling newer heights with its global presence and many awards and honor to its credits.Ayurvet i s n o w w o r k i n g towards frontier areas of technology i n t e g r a t i o n o f L i v e s t o c k , Agriculture and H u m a n H e a l t h through its unique environment friendly initiatives and it is committed towards building healthier tomorrow. The function was marked by musical concert by leading well known artists, which was enjoyed by theguests. Contd. from page 1Ayurvet Knowledge Symposium... Mr.Pritam Singh a progressive farmer from Safidon, Haryana sharing his experience about Ayurvet Hydroponic Paddy Nursery in his farm Mr. Diwakar Sharma artist performing during the event. st th Release of Ayurvet 21 Annual Report and 4 Sustainability Report by Shri Pradip Burman, Chairman and team Ayurvet th th 46 Annual General Meeting & 55 National Symposium 2013 Contd. on page 4
  3. 3. Page 3 before or after calving. Not only is it costly, but animals with excess body condition (BCS >7) have lower reproductive performance and more calving difficulty than animals in moderate body condition (BCS 5-6). Excessive energy intakes during the late lactation and dry periods can lead to “fat cow” problems. Cows that are over-conditioned when theycalvehaveahigherincidenceofretainedplacenta,more uterine infections and more cystic ovaries. They also have a higher incidence of metabolic disorders and have a greater tendency to go off feed. All of these problems can result in poorreproductiveperformance. Decreased duration ofestrus (Standing heat) Increaseddoubleovulationrate(Increasedtwining) Decreasedconceptionrate IncreasedPregnancyloss Schematic representation of the potential physiological pathway that may produce the changes observed in high- producinglactatingdairycows. Protein The effect of dietary protein on reproduction is complex. Prolonged inadequate protein intake has been reported to reduce reproductive performance. More recently it has been found that reproductive performance may be impaired if protein is fed in amounts that greatly exceed the cow's requirements. Over-feeding of DIP either as protein or urea has been associated with decreased pregnancy rates in female dairy and beef cattle. It appears that exposure to high levels of ammonia or urea may impair maturation of oocyte and subsequent fertilization or maturation of developing embryos. However, supplying adequate energy for excretion of excess ammonia or urea may prevent decreases in fertility in dry cows or heifers. In addition, not all studies have observed negative effects of elevated BUN concentrations on embryo quality or pregnancy rates. Overfeeding protein during the breeding season and early gestation, particularly if the rumen receives an inadequate supply of energy may be associated with decreased fertility. This decrease in fertility may result from decreased uterine pH during the luteal phase of the estrous cycleincattlefedhighlevelsofdegradableprotein. ResearchatOregonStateUniversityandinIsraelindicatedthat cows fed excess protein (more than 10-15% above requirements) required more services per conception and had longer calving intervals. Other research has not indicated a harmfuleffectoffeedinghighlevelsofprotein.Thus,itappears thatexcessiveproteinmightbeharmfulinsomesituations,but not in others. Some of the following effects have been demonstrated to explain the poor reproduction sometimes observedwithexcessivelevelsofproteininthediet: High levels of blood urea may occur, which has a toxic effectonthesperm,theova,andthedevelopingembryo. The balance of hormones may be altered—progesterone Effects of Nutrition on Reproduction-A Review 1 1 2 Yugal Raj Bindari , Sulochana Shrestha , Nabaraj Shrestha1 and Tara Nath Gaire 1 Himalayan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology (HICAST), Gatthaghar-15, 2 Bhaktapur, Nepal Veterinary Officer, DLSO (Parbat), Nepal Introduction: The relationship between nutrition and reproduction is a topic of increasing importance and concern among dairy producers, veterinarians, feed dealers and extension workers. The interaction between nutrition and reproduction has long been known to have important implications for the reproductive performance. Under nutrition results in the loss of body weight and body condition, delays the onset of puberty, increases the post- partum interval to conception, interferes with normal ovarian cyclicity by decreasing gonadotropin secretion andincreasesinfertility. Amore complete understanding of how and when nutrition affects reproduction may provide an alternative approach to managing reproduction in commercial systems that do notdependon theuse ofexogenoushormones. NutritionalFactorsAffectingReproduction: Energy Insufficient intake of energy, protein, vitamins, and micro- and/or macro-minerals has all been associated with suboptimal reproductive performance. Of these nutritional effects on reproduction, energy balance is probably the single most important nutritional factor related to poor reproductivefunctioninanimals. Short andAdams prioritized the metabolic use of available energy in ruminants ranking each physiological state in order of importance, as follows: 1) basal metabolism, 2) activity, 3) growth, 4) energy reserves, 5) pregnancy, 6) lactation, 7) additional energy reserves, 8) estrous cycles and initiation of pregnancy, and 9) excess energy reserves. Based on this list of metabolic priorities for energy, reproductive function is compromised because available energy is directed towards meeting minimum energy reserves and milk production. Restricting energy intake during late gestation increases the length of postpartum anestrous and reduces subsequent pregnancy rate. The impact of insufficient energy intake during late gestation cannot be overcome by increasing energy intake postpartum. The impact of a short-term increase in energy intake (flushing) on the numbers of cows cycling or pregnancy rate may be dependent on the previous nutritional status of the cow. Reduction of energy demands by short-term (48 hour) calf removal combined with flushing can reduce days to estrus and improve conception rates. Excessive energy intake during late lactation and the dry period can cause “fat cow” problems which lower reproductive efficiency in the next lactation. When heifers are fed inadequate amounts of energy, they reach sexual maturity later. If energy deficient rations are fed to heifers thathavebeguntohavenormalestrouscycles,theymaystop cycling.An example is heifers fed diets composed mainly of poor quality hay. They often will not show signs of estrus during late winter. If grain is provided, or they are put on good pasture, normal estrous cycle activity will resume as they begin to consume adequate amounts of energy. Caution should be used with feeding excessive amounts of nutrients levelsarelowwhenthebloodcontainshighlevelsofurea. In the early lactating cow, high levels of protein may exacerbate the negative energy balance and delay the returnofnormalovarianfunction. Because forages, especially pasture, contain mostly DIP, there has been interest in the use of undegradable intake protein (UIP) or rumen by-pass protein to enhance beef production. Missouri researchers reported that addition of 0.2 lbs. of blood meal increased average daily gains in stocker steers. Work with gestating or early lactating cows indicates that addition of rumen by-pass protein usually decreases weight loss, slightly increases weight gain, enhances milk production, and alters blood metabolites. Lactation and body weight effects of UIP in postpartum cows may be dependent on amount of UIP added to the diet,parity,and/orproteincontentoftheforage. However, regardless of a possible effect on reproductive performance, overfeeding protein should be discouraged simply on an economic basis. It is costly and wasteful. Urea is added to some dairy rations as a source of nitrogen which the rumen bacteria can convert into protein. Feeding protein and urea, such that early lactating cows have a diet containing 16% protein and late lactating cows have a diet containing 12% protein, should optimize the fertility of the cows. Extensive research has shown that reproduction is notaffectedwhen ureaisfedatrecommendedlevels. Fats The impact of fats on reproduction in cattle is a focus of considerable research. Because fatty acids and cholesterol are substrates for hormone synthesis, increasing fat in the diet may increase levels of reproductive hormones (progesterone, prostaglandins) or fats may act directly on thereproductiveaxis. Therefore, the effects of fat may be independent of or additive to those of increased energy availability. Cattle diets usually contain less than 2 or 3% fat. Supplementing fat to improve reproduction was initially attempted to increase the energy density in the diet. High fat diets for cattle contain 5% to 8% fat. Exceeding these dietary fat levels impairs rumen function. Lactating cows are the primary animals to be supplemented because of their increased energy requirements, and the difficulty involved with getting these cows rebred. It is important to note that in all the studies discussed in this section, fat –fed animals and control animals were receiving the same amount of energy. Early studies indicated that feeding high fat diets to cycling heifers and postpartum cows increased progesterone production and the lifespan of the corpus luteum (CL). Higher progesterone levels during the luteal phase generally result in improved fertility. Increasing dietary fat also results in increased follicular growth. More small and medium follicles are present in cows and heifers fed high fat diets. In addition, this increased follicular growth is often accompanied by increased estrogen and/or progesterone production.These changes in follicular growth andhormoneproductionmayenhancereproduction. Abstract Nutrition plays a majorrole on enhancing reproductive efficiency in all animals. Energy and protein are the majornutrients required in the greatest amounts and should be in the topmost priority in order to optimize reproduction in dairy cattle. Minerals and vitamins also cannot be neglected and must be balanced in the diet. In the other hand, the nutrient should not be over-fed as this may also impairs the reproduction. This article generally focused on the effect of various nutrients on reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle.Furthermore,articlealso describesthe negativeeffectsofnutrition when theyareoverfed. NOVEMBER ISSUE 2013 Contd. in next issue
  4. 4. Page 5 In India livestock production is largely in the hands of women. In fact, animal husbandry is becoming increasinglyfeminised The economic policies of both the Central and state governments though have helped enhance and sustain agricultural growth but have not been able to address adequately the deeply entrenched economic and social inequalities including the gender inequalities in the Indian rural society. The reformist policies of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation of the recent years have negatively impacted women and added to the problems women already face in a deeply patriarchal, social milieu with structured gender inequality along economic, social andculturaldimensions. Women are the custodian of household food security. They are often the producers of agricultural products and translate these products into food and nutrition security of their households. When women have income sources ,they spend most of it on the education and nutrition of their children. Fuelled by a growing population, rising income and rapid urbanisation, the demand for livestock products is rising. And with increasing globalisation of agri-food markets, livestock producers are now exposed to global competition. This has transformed the national and global market pull into an engine for generating sectoral and In India livestock production is largely in the hands of women. In fact, animal husbandry is becoming increasingly feminised. The economic policies of both the Central and state governments though have helped enhance and sustain agricultural growth but have not been able to address adequately the deeply entrenched economic and social inequalitiesincluding thegenderinequalitiesin the Indian ruralsociety. Women and livestock Dr. V.K. Taneja Hon'ble Vice Chancellor, GADVASU, Ludhiana national competitive advantage, and create conditions which compel and enable sectoral decision-makers to creatively utilise the opportunities offered by the new economic environment to establish competitive advantage not only at the farm-level but also at the industry levels, making India a leading player in global livestock product market through sustained and all round improvements in quality and efficiency. Gainfully participation of women in the process of growth and modernisation of the livestock sector would necessitate promoting gender sensitive institutional, legal and technological change that promotes productivity,excellenceandcompetitiveadvantage. In India livestock production is largely in the hands of women. In fact animal husbandry is becoming feminised. The share of women in the total agricultural workforce increased from 70.5 per cent in 1993-94 to 76.6 percent in 2004-05. This proportion is as high as more than 90 per cent in states like Punjab and Haryana where animal husbandry is more commercialised and engages more than 40 per cent of the total agricultural work force. Most of the animal farming activities such as fodder collection, feeding, watering, and health care, management, milking and household-level processing, value addition and marketingareperformedbywomen. Livestock are important for their livelihood culture and they have limited alternative opportunities for employment. However, women have little resources to improve animal productivity, to manage risk and buy good quality animals which could respond to inputs for productivity enhancement. At the same time, poverty reduction requires paradigm shifts through which the under-privileged should be enabled to earn better and gradually grow out of subsistence system through application of appropriate technology, skills, market linkages, information and service. Despite their considerable involvement and contribution, significant gender inequalities also exist in access to technologies, credit, information, inputs and services probably because of inequities in ownership of productive assets including land and livestock. The rapidly increasing demand for livestock products creates opportunities for empowerment of women. Harnessing these, however, would require addressing constraints that women face along the value chain through appropriate policies and institutional arrangements. Major approach and effort should be to enhance women's access to livestock assets as to enable them to avail benefits of various livestock development programmes and policies. This may include evolving women self-help groups or women livestock producers' association for availing credit for securing livestock and inputs; insurance to manage risk, and inputs and services to improving animal productivity. Procedural requirements to avail policy benefits may be relaxed for women livestock keepers e.g. doing away with collateral requirement in accessing credit; and targets of women participation may be fixed for the implementing agencies. Women may also be provided additional incentives in terms of subsidies on interest rates and insurance premium, entrepreneurship along the livestock value chain including production, processing and marketing as to enable them to face the emergingchallengesinproductionandmarketing. Besides, women being closely associated with animal husbandry have a better understanding and knowledge of animal behaviour in respect of reproduction, feeding, symptomatic changes in animal health and response to external factors. It is suggested to enhance women's skill in NOVEMBER ISSUE 2013 Feed high quality and palatable concentrates to youngeranimals. This means feeding the best quality calf starters and calf starters and calf growers to the young calves.Ahigh quality starter, one with no mold, no dust, with a good texture, high levels of nutrients, and plenty of molasses and or flavoring agents, will make a dramatic impact on early starter and dry matter intake. Optimizing starter intake will allow calves to grow at higher rates of gain and will allow for earlier weaning ages. Typically, calves need 1.5 to 2 pounds of grain per day for at least three days prior to weaning. Once weaned, calves require significantly less labor and if they continue to grow at rapid rates, will be much more economicalperpound ofgainthenwhen fedliquiddiets. Analyze forages and run ration formulations for allgroups. Since forages make up a large part of heifer diets, they must be sampled and analyzed for nutrient content in order to achieve balanced diets for these animals. Slightly or severely misbalance diets will not be utilized nearly as well as those that are balanced. When forages make up a large part of the diet, even a small difference between estimated and actual analysis will be costly. In addition, allocating forages to the various age groups that will best utilize them is an aspect of forage feeding that can be cost effective. For example, high protein forages should be fed to younger aged heifers that have a high protein requirement. Lower protein forages should be fed to older aged heifers with lower protein requirements and increasedgutcapacityforlessnutrientdenseforages. Monitor group size and age/weight spreads within groups. This aspect of heifer feeding management means monitoring the different ages and sizes of heifers within a group, and how well their nutrient needs are being met by the diet for that group. Smaller heifers will tend to under-consume and larger heifers will over-consume rations if grouped together and fed a restricteddiet Use proven feed additives to improve growth and feedefficiency. The use of ionophores has proven effective in improving feed efficiency and/or growth rates of heifers. This improvement is in the range of 5 to 7 percent or more, and is well documented in the scientific literature. These compounds also have other benefits for the dairy heifer including control of coccidiosis. The cost/benefit ratio is extremely favorableinusing thesecompounds. Keepweightgains steady. Often farmers get heifers too fat or too large early in life and cause these animals to require more nutrients to be needed for maintenance later in life when their growth rates are less. Unless rapid early growth is used with earlier calving, this practice is not as efficient as raising heifers at a steady rate of gain as needed for the desired age and weight at calving. Growing heifers too slowly in early life is also expensive as it requires Contd. from page 1Heifer Management Contd. on page 8... Appelite Stimulant & Digetive Tonic more nutrients in later stages of heifer development, increases age at calving, or reduces body weight at calving. All of these are detrimental to overall heifer economics. Research has consistently demon-strated that rate of gain greater than 1.8 pounds per day before nine months of age will cause a decrease in first lactation milk production.After nine months of age, increasing growth rate to 2 pounds per day or more will achieve largersizeheifersatcalving. Heifer raising costs can be great if they are not controlled and evaluated given the farm and the required end product. Periodic monitoring of heifer economicswillpaygreatreturnsfor dairyfarmers.
  5. 5. WaterResourceson25thOctober2013. NSFI in association with IARI took the initiative to organize thethirdeditionontheabovethemewiththeableguidanceof industry experts such as Dr. M. S. Swaminathan, M. P. Rajya Sabha, Dr. S. Ayyappan, D.G. ICAR & Secretary, DARE,Dr.H.S.Gupta,Director,IARI. Speaking on the occasion Mr.M.J.Saxena shared with the delegates the importance of knowledge and skill development. He expressed that in the traditional system the wisdom existed for effectively utilizing the trained manpower and to train young resource towards resource generation. He pointed out, that the system and the policies needs to be tuned towards developing the resource at rural level with focus on livestock and agriculture, failing which there will be migration of rural youth towards cities leading to great imbalance. The efforts of team Ayurvet for their initiatives for displayed at stall were appreciated by the guests andvisitors. Page 6 NOVEMBER ISSUE 2013 Global Agri Connect is a flagship programme of National Skills Foundation of India (NSFI) organized every year. The third edition of Global Agri Connect (2013) was held th th during 25 –27 October 2013 at BP Pal Auditorium and Exhibition Ground, IARI, New Delhi. This platform provided an opportunity to various stakeholders of Agriculture industry to discuss and deliberate, build awareness, develop understanding on various dimensions of the theme “Evolving Skill Dimensions: The Lever to Agriculture Growth". The three principal features of the event included “Conference, Krishi Gosthi and Exhibition” that provided opportunity to farmers and other stakeholders to benefit from the display and demonstrations of the best practices and technologies in agriculturefromstatesacrossthecountry. The conference was inaugurated by Shri. Sompal Shastry, Hon'ble Former Minister of State for Agriculture and Global Agri Connect 2013 Evolving Skill Dimensions Increasing Farm Production will up Food, Nutrition Security Ayurvet Congratulates Dr. Amrita Patel, Chairperson, NDDB News and Views Mr. M.J. Saxena amongst the panelists on the dias Ayurvet team at stall Agriculture and food processing industries Hon'ble Union Agriculture Minister, Shri Sharad Pawar emphasised that the only long term solutions to ensuring food and nutrition security lay in increasing food and nutrition security lay in increasing farm production. Shri. Sharad Pawar said that this in an official statement released on the occasion of World Food Day. In his message, the Minster called for promoting sustainable food systems. Since sustainability of the farm sector depends to a great degree on the performance of small and marginal farmers, the government has taken a number of initiatives keeping in view these farmers and other beneficiaries especially womenandchildren,theMinisterstated. Shri. Sharad Pawar said, “World Food Day is obsereved all over the world every year on 16th October to mark the founding of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The basic idea of observing this Day is to raise public awareness about the plight of the hungry and malnourished people all over the world and to encourage all concernedtotakeconcreteactiontotackleandovercomethe menace of hunger. The theme selected for World Food Day thisyearis“SustainableFoodSystemsforFoodSecurityand Nutrition.” He added, “The only long term solution to ensuring food and nutritional security in the country lies in increasing production and productivity in the agriculture sector with diverse and integrated farming systems to provide nutritious diets to each and every citizen. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation in the country has reduced the availability of natural resources such as land and water for growing food. It is therefore imperative to utilise the limited resources available for sustainable supply of food to the every increasing population of the country through efficientandeffectivepolicies. The Hon'ble Minister pointed out, “ While ensuring the sustainability of our food systems, we have to not only produce nutritious food for our present population but also protect the capacity to feed the future generations. Sustainable food systems require a commitment from food producers as well as food consumers to use resources efficientlyateverystagegettingthemostoutofeverydropof water, inch of land, grin of fertiliser and minute of labour. Sustainabilitycanalsobeimprovedbturningwasteproducts into valuable fertiliser or energy and also by minimisation of food losses and waste. The future of sustainable agricultural growth and food security in India is dependent to a great degreeontheperformanceofsmallandmarginalfarmers. Dr. Amrita Patel, Chairperson, of Anand – Headquartered National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) which markets milk and milk products under the Mother Dairy brand, was conferred with the Agriculture Leadership Award 2013 for Lifetime Achievement. 'Agriculture Leadership Awards, instituted by Agriculture Today, a National Agriculture Magazine recognizes the leadership roles played by individuals and institutions which are positively impacting the lives of farmers and rural masses. While accepting the award, Dr. Amrita Patel said that “The credit for impressive growth in dairying must indeed go the women in our rural areas, whose labours have resulted in our country, emerge as the largest milk producing nation in the world. The cooperative institution is the only institution on the basis of which dairying as an economic activity can ensure that smallproducersarenotmarginalised.” Ayurvet team would like to wish Dr.Amrita Patel on her grandsuccess. DMA (Delhi Management Association) and IBA (Indus th th BusinessAcademy)organized5 MegaHRConclaveon10 October, 2013 at Hotel Fortune Select Global, Gurgaon. The theme of the one day conclave was "High Performance Organizations: HR as a Catalyst”. First of its kind, the HR conclave invited participants not only from HR field but also peopleworkingincross-functionaldepartments. The conclave was divided into four interactive sessions as mentionedbelow: Strategic Recombination: Innovative Positioning & Change Architecture -The speakers stressed on how strategically HR can infuse innovative thinking in organizational set up by correct positioning and architecture tosupportHighPerformanceOrganizations(HPOs). Values, Ethics and CSR; Redefined role and responsibilities - The speakers focussed on the emerging role of core values, business ethics and CSR in the current businessscenarioanditsimpactonorganizations. HPO's indices–CEO's Perspective & Expectations- This session was intended on exploring key indicators of HPOs from the perspective of business leaders and definingtheexpectationsthatbusiness hasfromHR. Cyber Competence: Role of HR in Enhancing Cyber Law-Thissessionwashighlyinsightful,thoughtprovoking and based on a theme which is emerging as major area of concernforHRandtheorganizationasawhole. In the High Performing Organizations session, Dr.Anup Kalra was invited as one of the panelist. The group focused and explored that in the current business perspective the HPOs should look at developing the competence of the team members and delegate the responsibilities to perform and excel.The panelist also emphasized that the young members of the team should be given additional responsibilities and guidethemtoexcelintheirownandbusinessinterest. The conclave was convened by Dr.Ekta Saxena, Head & Faculty In-Charge Corporate Relations, Indus Business Academy and Member Council, DMA. Several high profile delegates and representatives from different industries graced theeventwiththeirpresence. Dr. Anup Kalra amongst the panelist th DMA & IBA 5 Mega HR Conclave A World Bank research report has batted for a diary dung energy policy in India to foster socio-economic development through increased incomes and biogas sterilization. It added a proper policy in this regard could create 1.9 million full-time jobs. Between 2009 and 2012, million full-time jobs. Between 2009 and 2012, the global environmental goods and services (EGS) industry has grown 10.5 percent to $858 billion in revenue, says the report, Greeting global Value Chains: Some Implementation Challenges. The US accounts for 38 percent of the global EGS industry, Japan 17 percent, China three percent and India 2.5 percent. The report says despite the recent economic downturn, employment in EGS related activities has fared well. The EGS industry employs about 1.7 million people and accounts for 2.7 percent of gross domestic product in the US and Europe. Through developed countries have been net exporters of EGS, with growth in exporters such as Brazil, China and India, the trade was becoming more balanced, the report added. It said a dairy dung energy policy would foster greener supply chains and socio- economic development, provide basic energy needs and help tackle key dairy quantity and quality bottlenecks in India through increased income and biogas sterilization. “Cow dung drives a shadow economy of national importance, employing, most informally, hald. The number of workers in the dairy sector. While a buffalo can produce up to 15 litres of milk daily, it also produces 30 kg of dung, equivalent to three litres of crude oil, “the report said. It added through, 40,0000 jobs might be lost in low-productivity dung cake- making, with the right transition policies for those affected (mostly women dung cake makers), they could be retrained and re-employed in the production of organic fertilizer fromtheslurryofthebiogasplants. World Bank Bats for Dairy Dung Energy Policy in India
  6. 6. to lose weight soon enter a downward spiral the more weight (fat) they lose, the less insulation they have, the more susceptible they are to further cold stress, and they los weightevenfaster. Cows, and especially heifers that lose weight, calve in poor condition. The consequences are increased calving difficulties, weak calves and higher calf mortality. These dams produce a reduced amount of colostrums (of lower quality) and have lower milk production, increased neonatal mortality and reduced growth rate in surviving calves. These cows usually have delayed return to estrus, longerdays openandpoorerreproductivesuccess. Keymanagementfactorstolimittheeffectsofcoldstress:  Monitor temperature and increase feeding inWeather: response to cold weather. Cows in the last trimester require additional grain feeding during periods when the effectivetemperaturefallsbelowthelowercriticallevel.  Protect animals from the wind. Wind markedlyWind: reduces the effective temperature, increasing cold stress on animals.  Providing adequate dry bedding makes aBed: significant difference in the ability of cattle to withstand coldstress.  Keep cows clean and dry. Wet coats haveWet coats: greatly reduced insulating properties and make cows more susceptible to cold stress. Mud-caked coats also reducetheinsulatingpropertiesofthehair.  Provide additional feed. Feed more hay and grain.Feed : Ifwetfeedsarefed,makesuretheyarenotfrozen.  Make sure cows have ample water available atWater : all times. Limiting water will limit feed intake and make it more difficult for cows to meet their energy requirements. Frozen troughs and excessively cold waterseriouslylimitwaterintake. We can't control the weather but we can do everything reasonably possible to reduce the effects of cold on cows. This will help reduce costs and improve production efficiency. Page 7 Strategies to Combat Cold Stress Nazam Khan, Ajaz. A. Ganie, Sanjay Sawant, and Madhu Suman Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana), India IMPORTANCE OF TIMELY PREGNANCY some air movement through the windbreak to prevent excessive drifting in front of the shelter, which adds to snow buildupandmoistureinpens. Cows have access to higher quality feed and/or increased intake,andthereforemaintaintheirbodyweight. Cows try to increase feed intake in an effort to meet their energy requirements. Given the opportunity and gut capacity,cowswilleatmorefeedtohelpmeettheirincreased energy demands. Practically, it is usually expedient to feed grain as well.This increases feed costs, increasing the cost of keeping cows, however the expectation is that cows will maintain their body weight. It is generally accepted that for every 1°C drop below the lower critical temperature, there is an approximately 2% increase in energy requirements. The amounts of additional feed required for a cow under cold stress can be calculated, but as a rule of thumb, a cow with a drywintercoatshouldbefedtheadditionalfeedaspresented inTablebelow. Cows may not be able to eat the amount of extra hay required to maintain their body weight and may have to be fed the indicated amount of grain instead of additional hay to meet their energyrequirements. Cows don't have increased feed quality and intake and lose body weight. If cows are not fed additional feed or the quality does not allow them to eat enough to meet their additional energy requirements, body mass will be “burned” to produce metabolic heat. These cows lose weight as both feed energy and stored fat are diverted to maintain body temperature and vital functions. Cows in this situation that start Proper feeding during cold weather is an important management consideration in the dairies. Cold stress is the result of temperature and wind speed. Cold stress in cattle results when environmental conditions drives an animal metabolic rate higher requiring more energy to sustain basic metabolic functions. Severe weather during the winter months can make previously balanced rations unsuitable for the nutritional needs of the cattle. This can lead to weight loss and reduced performance. Animals exposed to cold weather require more energy to maintain the rate of gain, body condition, and to maintain body temperatures. The breed of animal, back fat thickness and the stage of production have a huge influence on the energy requirements of an animal during cold weather. Thicker skinned animals have more insulation, reducing the amount of additional energy that the animal requires. The effects of cold stress increase when wind speed increases and hair coat insulation value is reduced when wet or muddy. Simple windbreaks, shelters, bush or bedding can help cows cope with the extreme temperatures. Do not force cattle into barns or enclosures during storms as the chance of disease and getting wet increase, the longer they remain in close quarters. Thin cows should be fed differently than the fat cows making the best use of existing feed inventories, as competition between cows often leads to timid, smaller and younger cattle not receiving their fair share. Cattle should be fed in the late afternoon or in the early evening, because the incremental heat production is at its maximum 4-6 hours after the feed is consumed. Therefore, feeding late in the afternoon provides higher amounts of heat from fermentation overnight when temperaturesarelowest. Cold mitigationstrategies: One of the quickest method of minimizing cold stress is to provide insulation or shelter for the animals. However, if the bedding constitutes a fibrous feed source, cattle will sometimes consume the bedding instead of their normal high-energy diet, thereby reducing ME intake and performance. Proper feedlot pen layout and design are also crucial for minimizing effects of adverse climates. Proper designs and strategic use of windbreaks is also warranted. Feedlot cattle don't necessarily need wind protection in moderate winters, however, if wind protection is provided, it is best to place it outside the pen to prevent excessive drifting of snow into the pens. Windbreaks will provide protection downwind to a distance of 5-10 times their height. Tree shelterbelts should be minimum of 25m from fence lines, whereas other forms of protection, mainly temporary, can be set closer. If a windbreak is located very near to pens, it should have a 10-20% open space to allow Proper feeding during cold weather is an important management consideration in the dairies.Animals exposed to cold weatherrequiremoreenergytomaintaintherateofgain,bodycondition,andtomaintainbodytemperatures.Wecan't control the weather but we can do everything reasonably possible to reduce the effects of cold on cows. This will help reducecostsandimproveproductionefficiency. An important step in successful dairy management is early and reliable diagnosis of pregnancy status. Early diagnosis of pregnancy in cattle is an important factor for reproductive health management as well as for economic productionincattlefarms. Early detection of non pregnant cows before the second estrous allows the management to make decisions before the second estrous. Pregnancy diagnosis at a later stage leads to loss of additional 18-24 days if the cow is not pregnant. When the time of re insemination is reduced, the reproductive performance of the dairy herd is improved. Therefore timely pregnancy diagnosis remains a key factor toimprovingreproductiveperformanceofthefarm. In herds with poor reproductive performance, the percentage of cows found pregnant at the time of pregnancy diagnosis is less. This result in lower conception rate as well as lower estrus detection rate in cows that return to estrus before the pregnancy diagnosis is scheduled. Early detection of non pregnancy should lead to AYURVET SOLUTIONS FOR OPTIMUM GROWTH & BOOSTING MILK PRODUCTION Contd. on page 8 NOVEMBER ISSUE 2013 earlier intervention and consequently shorter, more economicalcalvingintervals. Along with timely pregnancy diagnosis, it is also important that the cows that are diagnosed open are truly non-pregnant; otherwise pregnant cows may be inseminatedagain. The economic advantages of pregnancy diagnosis depend
  7. 7. Publisher:M.J.Saxena Editor:Dr.AnupKalra EditorialBoard:Dr.PrafulVerma,Dr.AshishSachdeva&Dr.ShivendraDeora Asstt.Editor:SwatiSrivastava ZonalAssociates:AnandMehrotra,C.V.Reddy andC.X.Cruz Layout,Design:AmitBehl EditorialOffice:AyurvetLimited,6thFloor,SagarPlazaBldg.LaxmiNagarDistt.Centre,VikasMarg,Delhi-110092 Tel:011-22455992-94,Fax:011-22455991, PrintedBy:M/s.DewanOffsetPrinters Pvt.Ltd.,WZ-8/5,IndustrialArea,KiritNagar,NewDelhi-110015 Views expressed by individuals and contributors in the magazine are their own and not necessarily represent the view of LIVESTOCK FUTURE and it does not accept any responsibility of any direct, indirect of consequential damage caused to any party due to view expressed by any or morepersoninthetrade.AlldisputesaretobereferredtoDelhiJurisdictiononly. `10/-percopy `60/-foryearlysubscription Page 8 LIVESTOCK FUTURE Bi-monthly magazine related to Livestock news for Veterinary Industry Contd. from page 7 Contd. from page 5 Women and livestock... IMPORTANCE OF TIMELY PREGNANCY.... Letter to Editor: We solicit your articles and would appreciate if you could send in your suggestions, queries and advice through post to Post Bag No. AyurvetLimited-9292,DelhiorE-mailaddressedto:,, NOVEMBER ISSUE 2013 various aspects of animal breeding, health, feed and nutrition, management and marketing. It is also imperative to develop women's entrepreneurship in rearing of quality calves and heifers, progeny testing and make appropriate provisions for marketing of the calves and heifers. Livestock focused institutions and industries such dairy cooperatives and agribusiness and marketing firms should be encouraged to have more of registered women members orsuppliersofdairyproducts. The production systems are highly internalised based mainly on farm and family resources. To boost animal productivity and income of the women there is a need for appropriation of technologies that reduce drudgery to women and improve animal health and nutrition. Improve women's access to services through appropriate training programmes/ extension programmes as to enhance their capacity in clean livestock production and livestock management to improve resilienceoflivestocktoclimatechange. Social entrepreneurship approach needs to be adopted and accredited at the village level ,especially for ecologically fragile areas. Developing common property resources needs more of social engineering than technical expertise. Based on the assessment of needs of empowering women in ecological fragile environment, there is need for improvement of animals that would niche well' with the ecologically fragile regions. Besides, there is also a need to correct gender bias in veterinary education, research and service delivery systems as to enhance the effectiveness of women-orientedlivestockdevelopmentprogrammes. (The writer is the Vice Chancellor of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary&AnimalSciencesUniversity,Ludhiana) J kes onseveralfactorssuchasthetimeafterinseminationwhenthe diagnosis is performed, the accuracy of the diagnosis, the efficiency of estrus detection, and the measures taken when cows are found to be open. Earlier pregnancy diagnosis decreasestimetore-inseminationofopencowswhichreduces the calving interval for those cows. Timely pregnancy diagnosisalsoensuresthathealthycowscalveat12-13months intervaltooptimisetheirlifetimemilkproduction. Pregnancy diagnosis also acts as an important tool for early detection of reproductive problems. Also, pregnant animals needachangeintheirfeedingscheduleaswellasmanagement from early stage. Thus, timely pregnancy diagnosis becomes indispensableforimprovingfarmprofits. Importance ofEarlyPregnancy Diagnosis To identify non-pregnant animals after breeding or insemination To reduce money spent in breeding programs and hormonaltechniques Tocertifyanimalsforinsurancepurpose Toreducethecalvinginterval Todetectvariousreproductivedisorders Helps insynchronisationofestrous Toassist theeconomicmanagementoflivestock There are several ways of pregnancy detection in cattle. Someofthemaregivenbelow: Non return to estrous: The most important indicator of pregnancy in cattle is non return to estrous. During pregnancy, there is regression of corpus luteum which prevents the animal from returning to estrous. If estrous signs are not observed in the around 3 weeks after service orinsemination,thecowis consideredtobepregnant. Vaginal Examination: with the help of vaginal speculum and light, the external os of cervix is observed for the presence of cervical/pregnancy seal which is felt like a gelatinous plug on touch. It develops by day 60 of pregnancy and is different from normal cervical secretionwhichis slimyandmoist. Rectal Palpation: Palpation of the uterine contents rectally is one of the most common methods used for pregnancy diagnosis. Rectal examination is usually done between35 and65dayspost service/AI. Progesterone Assay: The progesterone secreted by functional corpus luteum is required for maintenance of pregnancy in cattle. It can be assayed in milk or plasma around 24 days after service orAI. This method is useful to eliminate the possibility of long estrous periods which mightresultinfalsepositives. Early Pregnancy Factor/ Early Conception Factor: Early Conception Factor (ECF) is a pregnancy associated glycoprotein found in pregnant cows. It can be detected in serum or milk as early as 3 days after service orAI, although more accurate results are obtained if samples are collected after 7 – 8 days. ECF can be detectedthroughRosetteInhibitionTest. Pregnancy Specific Protein: PSP60 and PSPB can be detected in cow serum by Radio ImmunoAssay (RIA) on day28and24respectivelyofpregnancyincattle. Bovine Pregnancy Associated Glycoprotein: It is secreted from foetal cotyledon and can be detected in serumofpregnantcowbyRIAafter42days ofpregnancy Ultrasound Examination: In recent years, ultrasound has been used to detect early pregnancy and to determine embryo/foetal death. Ultrasound is a reliable and relatively simple method of diagnosing pregnancy as early as 26 days. Pregnancy can be detected earlier with ultrasound in comparison to other methods.Thus, the rate ofdetectionofearlyembryonicloss is alsohigher. Milk output is likely to expand by 4.5 percent to reach a record 140.6 million tonnes in 2014 calendar year on a normal monsoon, increased demand for dairy products and risingconsumerincome,says aUSDAreport. Milk production in India, the world's largest producer and consumer, is estimated to have declined marginally to 134.5 million tonnes in the current year, it added”. Strong farm-gate prices and rising demand for value-added products are stimulating increased milk production. Growing private investment in dairy processing facilities is providing further impetus,”' the US Department of Agriculture(USDA) saidinitslatestreport. Milk production is forecast to be at a record 140.6 million tonnes in 2014 calendar year, while production of Non Fat Dry Milk (NFDM) is likely to increase by 19,000 tonnes to 4,89,000 tonnes in the same period, it said. The USDA estimated production of combined butter and ghee (clarified butter) to increase approximately by 3 percent to 4.88 million tonnes in 2014, as against 4.74 million tonnes this year. India's milk consumption is set to match with its production level in 2014, while domestic consumption of NFDM is pegged at 4,25,000 tonnes assuming increased exports and little imports this year, the report said. Quoting industry estimates, the USDA report said the India dairy consumption market has grown at an annual rate of 6.8 percentoverthelastdecade. “The major factors driving growth in milk consumption are increased demand due to population growth, greater affordability due to increased disposable incomes, increasing awareness and availability of dairy through retail and food service segments and increased consumer interestinhighproteindiets,”thereportsaid. Of the milk produced, 40 percent is used or consumed on- farm, and 60 percent is sold. Industry sources report that of milk sold 70 percent goes through the unorganized sector, andonly30percentviatheorganizedsector,itadded. India Likely to Produce 140.6 Million Tonnes Milk in 2014