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English for Specific Purposes (ESP) - Section 3 - Application


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English for Specific Purposes (ESP) - Section 3 - Application

  1. 1. SECTION 3 APPLICATIONS Third group
  3. 3. What do we mean by the syllabus the syllabus is a document which says what will be learnt. This stems from the fact that the statement of what will be learnt through several different stages before it reaches its destination the main of the learner.
  4. 4. The evaluation syllabus This syllabus states what the successful learner will know by the end of the course. In effect, it puts on record the basis on which success or failure will be evaluated.
  5. 5. The organizational syllabus • As well as listing what should be learnt, a syllabus can also state the order in which it is to be learnt. We can make list consider to factors which depend upon a view of how people learnt,
  6. 6. The material syllabus Additional assumptions about the nature of language in terms of : - Contexts of language; - Relative weightings and integration of skills; - Number and type of exercises - Degree of recycling or revision will be decided by the author.
  7. 7. The teacher syllabus • Teacher influence the clarity, intensity, and frequency of any item, and thereby affect the image that the learners receive.
  8. 8. Classroom syllabus • Is a planned lesson done by the teacher • Although it is well planned by the teacher, it can be affected by all sorts of unexpected conditions while conducting the lesson.
  9. 9. Learner syllabus • Also known as the internal syllabus. • The network of knowledge that develops in the learner’s brain , enables learner to comprehend and store the later information.
  10. 10. Why should we have a syllabus • Language is complex entity • In addition to its practical benefits • Particular importance when there are commercial sponsors involved • Returning to our analogy of learning as a journey • A syllabus is an implicit statement of views of nature language and learning • A syllabus provide a set of criteria for material selection and or writing • Is one way in which standardization is archived
  11. 11. On what criteria can a syllabus be organized ? • Topic syllabus like the rig, fishing jobs, natural flow, etc • Structural syllabus • Functional syllabus like a properties location and shapes • Skills syllabus like an organizing our studies, taking notes, improving our reading • Situational syllabus like a sales report, a memo, a journey etc • Task-based syllabus like a making arrangement, attending meeting etc • Discourse syllabus • Skill and strategies
  12. 12. What role should a syllabus play in the course design process? • A language-centered approach
  13. 13. • A skills-centered approach
  14. 14. • A learning-centered approach
  15. 15. • The post hoc approach
  17. 17. Why evaluate materials? • Because evaluation is a matter of judging the fitness of something for a particular purpose. • Evaluation is, then, concerned with relative merit. There is no absolute good or bad – only degrees of fitness for the required purposes. • The evaluation of existing materials can provide a good
  18. 18. How do we evaluate the materials? We can divide the process into four major steps : • Defining criteria • Subjective analysis • Objective analysis • Matching -see figure 26
  20. 20. Defining objectives • Materials provide a stimulus to learning • Materials help to organize the teaching-learning process, by providing a path through the complex mass of the language to be learnt. • Materials embody a view of the
  21. 21. How to writing materials • Use existing materials as a source for ideas • It’s better to work in a team, if only to retain your sanity • Don’t set out to write the perfect materials on the first draft. Materials always can be improved. Use what you learn from experience to revise and expand the materials. • Don’t underestimate the time needed for materials writing. • Pay careful attention to the appearance of your materials. If they look boring and
  23. 23. Model Lessons • In this chapter we shall present three model lessons to illustrate the practical implications of these ideas for the classroom;
  24. 24. First lesson model Worksheet : strip cartoon and bubbles blanked out
  25. 25. • We can make students into several groups and tell them to matching the second worksheet to the blanked bubbles. • In this way students should build up enough facts to be able to predict what the dialogue is about. Ask the students who the people are ; what the man is
  26. 26. Second lesson model Worksheet : 1,2, 3 Audience : Business and Secretarial students
  27. 27. • We can tell the groups to read their worksheets and make notes about the details, in particular writing down any information which answer the questions: 1. Are any people mentioned? Who do you think they are? 2. What is the communication about?
  28. 28. Third lesson modelMaterials : worksheet 1, cut into strips and cassette recording of dialogue in worksheet 1
  29. 29. • We can play just the first line of the dialogue, then ask the students to predict what the conversations is going to be about, what people in the dialogue might talk about. Then play the tape right through and let students listen and check their predictions. • After that we can ask if there are any vocabulary difficulties and play
  30. 30. EVALUATION
  31. 31. Learner Assessment In ESP there are three basic types of assessment: 1. Placement tests 2. Achievement tests 3. Proficiency tests All the three types may be used as diagnostic tests, that is , tests to determine the areas of weakness a particular learner might have
  32. 32. Course Evaluation • There are four main aspects of ESP course evaluation to be considered (Alderson and Waters, 1983) : a) What should be evaluated? b) How can ESP courses be evaluated? c) Who should be involved in the evaluation? d) When (and how often) should