Innovative Sanitation




      Case study: The MobiSan approach in informal
               settlements of Cape Town
     ...
ii
INDIVIDUAL PROJECT ACCESS FORM


Location: WEDC Resources Center, Loughborough University




Author: Aytor Naranjo

Title...
CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORSHIP



I certify that:




   i.    I am responsible for the work submitted in this report, and that...
iv
To my lovely partner Nuria,

      who has always been by my side




                                       v
Aknowledgements


I would like to address my most sincere thanks to David Castellano, whose support and
friendliness durin...
LIST OF ACRONYMS

CSIR Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

CWSS Community Water Supply & Sanitation Unit, Cape ...
TABLES OF CONTENT


TABLES OF CONTENT .......................................................................................
9.8.  Household survey. Part 4 (Awareness about UDDT) .......................................................................
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1. Major barriers for disable and disadvantages people ............................................
LIST OF PHOTOS
Photo 2.1. Slogan DMT Mobile toilets .........................................................................
1.       INTRODUCTION


This research aims to outline sanitation as an important contribution to eradicate poverty in info...
informal settlements might not be aware of the proper use of said technology, South Africa has the
advantage of being a re...
2.       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.      Main issues on sanitation


Sanitation is still the weak partner of the drinking wate...
missed by more than half a billion people if the trend 1990–2004 continues up to 2015 (WHO &
UNICEF, 2006). Therefore, due...
increasing urbanised cities for all stakeholders and the environment. However, the software, such as
hygiene promotion and...
2.1.4.   Demand for sanitation
Further to the lessons learned from the International Water Supply and Sanitation decade, t...
2.1.5. Willingness to pay
To assure a financial sustainability of a project the demand created has to be supported by a
wi...
DMT’s innovative model offers a decentralized, Community -based waste management system that
privatises public toilets and...
hygiene and health but also contribute to retention and limit the attendance and the performance of
students at school (UN...
toilet or water tap, in the sense that the option to be build in an easier access or at a short distance from
a disable ho...
Eco-sanitation is a niche with great potential in the following different situations (Snel, 2006):
    •     High ground w...
UDDT allows performing primary and secondary treatment based on storage time and addition of
products such as lime, ash or...
Both urine and faeces content nutrients, however,
most of the nutrients; nitrogen, phosphorous and
potassium, are found in...
or infiltration is possible, transport is definitely needed, therefore increasing the operating cost of the
system.

Nutri...
Denitrification:

2NO3- + 10e- + 12H+                N2 + 6H2O

On-site systems

With regards to on-site systems, one way ...
epidemiology (Tanner, 2000:1). However, human society has developed different attitudes towards the
reuse of human excreta...
2.3.4. Technical issues
Depending on the country the quality of the construction materials of the toilets built can be a p...
toilets instead can lead to a widely use of open defecation in the surrounding area of the public facilities
(Burra et al ...
community members. This monthly fee is certainly a cheaper option than the “pay and use” model
    which could be efficien...
After more than three years of operation of the nutrient transport scheme
                                              an...
These public toilets do not open at night, use a “pay and use” model and besides toilet facilities
 incorporate other reve...
2.4.1.e . Biocentres in informal settlements in Nairobi

Umande Trust, a Kenyan rights-based organisation has developed th...
3.     CASE STUDY: MOBISAN IN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS IN CAPE TOWN
3.1.    Water and sanitation in South Africa
Here below th...
ii) Unplanned settlements and areas where housing is not in compliance with current planning and
   building regulations (...
are serviced with the free basic sanitation policy (6m3 of water/pp/month and a VIP or similar). Then, in
theory the diffe...
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
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Thesis Aytor Naranjo Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town

  1. 1. Innovative Sanitation Case study: The MobiSan approach in informal settlements of Cape Town by Aytor Naranjo A research project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science of Loughborough University AUGUST 2009 Supervisor: Dr. Andrew Cotton Water, Engineering and Development Centre Department of Civil and Building Engineering
  2. 2. ii
  3. 3. INDIVIDUAL PROJECT ACCESS FORM Location: WEDC Resources Center, Loughborough University Author: Aytor Naranjo Title: Innovative Sanitation. Case study: The MobiSan approach in informal settlements of Cape Town Status of access: OPEN Author’s declaration: I agree with the following conditions: This project report shall be made available within the OPEN WEDC Resource Center to be borrowed by WEDC staff and Students. Pages may be copied, subjected to copyright regulations. For a period of five to ten years, it may only be available outside WEDC strictly subject to written permission from the author. After 10 years, the project shall be subject to open access. Author’s signature: Aytor Naranjo. Date: August 16th 2009 Conditions of access approved by: (Supervisor’s name) Supervisor’s signature: ........................................ iii
  4. 4. CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORSHIP I certify that: i. I am responsible for the work submitted in this report, and that the original work is my own, except as specified below; Aytor Naranjo ii. I have not submitted this work to any other institution for the award of a degree; iii. All laboratory work, field work and computed programming has been carried out by me, with no outside assistance except as noted below; and Aytor Naranjo iv. All information (including diagrams and tables) or other information which is copied from, or based on, the work of others has its source clearly acknowledged in the text at the place where it appears. Signed: ...........Aytor Naranjo.................................. Date: ............... REVISED VERSION JANUARY 2010................................. iii
  5. 5. iv
  6. 6. To my lovely partner Nuria, who has always been by my side v
  7. 7. Aknowledgements I would like to address my most sincere thanks to David Castellano, whose support and friendliness during the whole field work process has made this research so meaningful. I also wish to express my appreciation to the Dutch Consortium members, in particular, Hans Kraaijvanger, Marjo Lexmond, Adriaan Mels and Brendo Meulman for the great opportunity they have given me by joining the MobiSan project in Cape Town from May to August 2009. I have to thank the WEDC team for their support and great advices. This research has been accomplished thanks to the collaboration of the City of Cape Town, especially, the Water and Sanitation unit for informal settlements. In that respect I am very grateful with Lawrence Grootboom and Jaco Muller for sharing their knowledge and understanding about unplanned settlements. The finance analysis would have not been possible without the data provided by Martinus Jooste. I would also like to thank the researchers from the CSIR, particularly Jac Wilsenac whom I wish all the best in his new career. My gratitude to the two caretakers of the MobiSan unit, Shawn Prince and Willy Fontain for their long journeys working in Pook se Bos as well as the whole Pook se Bos community who were so kind sharing their concerns during this study. My recognition to Arne Singels and his family for their South African hospitality and finally, I wish to thank my family for their support during my MSc year spent between the United Kingdom and South Africa. vi
  8. 8. LIST OF ACRONYMS CSIR Council of Scientific and Industrial Research CWSS Community Water Supply & Sanitation Unit, Cape Peninsula University of Technology ECOSAN Ecological Sanitation GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit HCES Household Centered Environmental Sanitation HH Household MDG Millennium Development Goals MOA Method of Analysis NGO Non Governmental Organization CBO Community Based Organization O&M Operation and Maintenance PHAST Participating Hygiene and Sanitation Transportation SCOPE Society for Community Organisation and People’s Education SPARC Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centers UDDT Urine Diverting and Dehydrating Toilets WASH Water, Sanitation and Hygiene WRC Water Research Commission WSSCC Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development WSIS Department of Water and Sanitation for Informal Settlements unit. City of Cape Town WTP Willingness to Pay WWTW Waste Water Treatment Works vii
  9. 9. TABLES OF CONTENT TABLES OF CONTENT ................................................................................................... viii  LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................. x  1.  INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 1  2.  LITERATURE REVIEW........................................................................................... 3  2.1.  Main issues on sanitation ................................................................................................................... 3  2.2.  Sustainable sanitation ...................................................................................................................... 10  2.3.  Urine-diverting toilets......................................................................................................................... 11  2.4.  Communal sanitation........................................................................................................................ 17  3.  CASE STUDY: MOBISAN IN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS IN CAPE TOWN ..... 23  3.1.  Water and sanitation in South Africa ................................................................................................ 23  3.2.  Existing sanitation systems in informal settlements in Cape Town .................................................. 25  3.3.  Decision support tool for the selection of adequate sanitation systems .......................................... 27  3.4.  The Dutch Consortium ..................................................................................................................... 28  3.5.  The MobiSan unit ............................................................................................................................. 30  3.6.  Pook se Bos informal settlement ...................................................................................................... 31  3.7.  Project Management and implementation........................................................................................ 32  3.8.  MobiSan O&M .................................................................................................................................. 32  4.  METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................. 33  4.1.  Household survey............................................................................................................................. 34  4.2.  Observation ...................................................................................................................................... 35  4.3.  Key informant interviews .................................................................................................................. 35  4.4.  Analytical measurement data ........................................................................................................... 36  4.5.  Triangulation of data ......................................................................................................................... 37  4.6.  Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 37  5.  FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS .................................................................................. 39  5.1.  Managerial and O&M requisites for the MobiSan to be considered as a long term solution ........... 39  5.2.  Survey findings in Pook se Bos ........................................................................................................ 42  5.3.  MobiSan acceptability ...................................................................................................................... 44  5.4.  Environmental & Health aspects ...................................................................................................... 48  5.5.  Technical aspects ............................................................................................................................. 53  5.6.  Priorities to consider a toilet acceptable and how the MobiSan fulfils those requirements ............. 60  5.7.  Financial aspects .............................................................................................................................. 61  5.8.  Potential for on-site/off-site reuse .................................................................................................... 66  5.9.  Findings in relation with the research questions .............................................................................. 70  6.  RECOMMENDATIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH ......................................... 73  6.1.  Social ................................................................................................................................................ 73  6.2.  Technical .......................................................................................................................................... 74  6.3.  Financial / Economical ..................................................................................................................... 75  6.4.  Reuse ............................................................................................................................................... 76  6.5.  Gender.............................................................................................................................................. 76  6.6.  Strategic planning ............................................................................................................................. 76  7.  CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................... 77  8.  List of key informants ......................................................................................... 79  e-REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 82  9.  APPENDIX ............................................................................................................ 84  9.1.  Chemical toilets servicing frequency ................................................................................................ 84  9.2.  Container toilet servicing frequency ................................................................................................. 86  9.3.  June 2009 invoice container toilets Pook se Bos ............................................................................. 88  9.4.  Flush toilets maintenance cost ......................................................................................................... 89  9.5.  Household survey. Part 1 (Basic demographic information) ............................................................ 92  9.6.  Household survey. Part 2 (MobiSan acceptability information) ........................................................ 93  9.7.  Household survey (Part 3) Priorities to consider a toilet acceptable................................................ 94  viii
  10. 10. 9.8.  Household survey. Part 4 (Awareness about UDDT) ....................................................................... 95  9.9.  Certificate of analysis faeces sample ............................................................................................... 96  9.10.  Method of Analysis moisture content .......................................................................................... 97  9.11.  Moisture content analysis............................................................................................................ 98  9.12.  Care-taker schedule and checklist .............................................................................................. 99  9.13.  Community acceptance agreement on the removal of all container toilets from Pook se Bos . 101  9.14.  Method of analysis urine (CSIR) ............................................................................................... 102  ix
  11. 11. LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1. Major barriers for disable and disadvantages people ...................................................................................... 10  Figure 2.2. Different models of UDT ................................................................................................................................. 11  Figure 2.3. Nutrient content in different media ................................................................................................................. 13  Figure 2.4. The Vietnamese double vault urine diversion toilet ........................................................................................ 13  Figure 2.5. Wastewater treatment recreation at sewage works ........................................................................................ 14  Figure 2.6 Struvite production process in Siddhipur, Nepal .............................................................................................. 15  Figure 2.7. Ecotact model ................................................................................................................................................ 21  Figure 2.8. BioCentre design ............................................................................................................................................ 22  Figure 2.9. Ground floor BioCentre .................................................................................................................................. 22  Figure 3.1. Cape Flats area .............................................................................................................................................. 24  Figure 3.2. Adapted from the general household survey .................................................................................................. 24  Figure 3.3. Flooding prone areas ...................................................................................................................................... 25  Figure 3.4. Land accessibility ............................................................................................................................................ 25  Figure 3.5. Land ownership ............................................................................................................................................... 25  Figure 3.6.Housing density distribution ............................................................................................................................. 25  Figure 3.7.Assessment of the feasibility of various sanitation options for the ‘average’ informal settlement in Cape Town ................................................................................................................................................................................. 28  Figure 3.8.Cubicles distribution ........................................................................................................................................ 30  Figure 3.9. Airflow recreation ........................................................................................................................................... 31  Figure 3.10. Map of Pook se Bos including toilet location ................................................................................................ 31  Figure 5.1. Distribution of the exiting 21 container toilets in Pook Se Bos ........................................................................ 42  Figure 5.2. Age distribution ............................................................................................................................................... 43  Figure 5.3.Users and non-MobiSan users distribution per groups by July 10th 2009 ........................................................ 44  Figure 5.4. Women’s reasons for not using the MobiSan .................................................................................................. 45  Figure 5.5. Men’s reasons for not using the MobiSan ....................................................................................................... 45  Figure 5.6. Elder’s reasons for not using the MobiSan ...................................................................................................... 45  Figure 5.7. Children’s reasons for not using the MobiSan ................................................................................................. 45  Figure 5.8. Objections among MobiSan users .................................................................................................................. 46  Figure 5.9.Sanitation system used at night in Pook se Bos .............................................................................................. 50  Figure 5.10. Red Plexiglass extension to reduce urine into the faeces tank ................................................................... 54  Figure 5.11. Comparing wind speed to natural air flow within the ventilation pipe ............................................................ 55  Figure 5.12. Comparison of rH% of the airflow in the ventilation pipe and outside temperature ....................................... 56  Figure 5.13. Comparison RH% getting out the pipes and RH% outside the MobiSan ...................................................... 57  Figure 5.14.User’s degree of satisfaction .......................................................................................................................... 60  Figure 5.15.Priorities for the respondent to consider a toilet acceptable ........................................................................... 60  Figure 6.1. Strategic planning ........................................................................................................................................... 77  LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1. Examples of obstacles faced by disabled people ............................................................................................. 9  Table 2.2. Advantages Vs Disadvantages of UDDT ......................................................................................................... 12  Table 3.1. Sanitation technologies in informal settlements of Cape Town ....................................................................... 26  Table 5.1. Caretaker counting ........................................................................................................................................... 48  Table 5.2. Sensor probes installed ................................................................................55  Table 5.3. Operating cost chemical, container and flush toilets ....................................................................................... 63  Table 5.4. MobiSan operating cost.................................................................................................................................... 63  Table 5.5. Advantages vs. Disadvantage of container toilets ............................................................................................ 64  Table 5.6. Advantages vs. Disadvantage of flush toilets ................................................................................................... 64  Table 5.7. Advantages vs. Disadvantages of chemical toilets ........................................................................................... 65  Table 5.9. Advantages vs. Disadvantages of the MobiSan approach ............................................................................... 65  Table 5.10. Capital cost container and flush toilets ........................................................................................................... 66  Table 5.11. Comparison of urine characteristics from different origins .............................................................................. 68  Table 5.12. Fertilizer comparison prices ........................................................................................................................... 69 x
  12. 12. LIST OF PHOTOS Photo 2.1. Slogan DMT Mobile toilets ............................................................................................................................... 7  Photo 2.2. Community designed children's toilets in Byanapalli settlement, Bangalore .................................................... 9  Photo 2.3. Wastewater discharge .................................................................................................................................... 10  Photo 2.4.Barrels for excreta storage before upgrading .................................................................................................. 19  Photo 2.5.Upgraded system to empty urine collection tanks ............................................................................................ 19  Photo 2.6. Upgraded vacuum system for faeces .............................................................................................................. 19  Photo 2.7.Salt deposits from urine .................................................................................................................................... 20  Photo 2.8. Ikotoilet in Nairobi business distric .................................................................................................................. 20  Photo 2.9. BioCentre ........................................................................................................................................................ 22  Photo 3.1.Improvised stormwater drainage ....................................................................................................................... 24  Photo 3.2. Water ponding next to the shacks .................................................................................................................... 24  Photo 3.3. Unplanned and dense settlement ................................................................................................................... 24  Photo 3.4.Chemical toilets (CPT, 2009) ............................................................................................................................ 26  Photo 3.5. Prevalent toilet conditions in Pook se Bos (container toilets) ........................................................................... 26  Photo 3.6. Clogged flush toilet ......................................................................................................................................... 27  Photo 3.7. Porta-potti ........................................................................................................................................................ 27  Photo 3.8.Manual mixing device in care-taker room ......................................................................................................... 30  Photo 3.9. Second faeces chamber (separation panels can be seen in the left hand side) .............................................. 30  Photo 3.10. Line of container toilets before removal in April 2009 ................................................................................... 32  Photo 5.1. Oversused container toilet (Muller, 2009) ........................................................................................................ 39  Photo 5.2. Vacuum truck unblocking vacuum sewer ......................................................................................................... 39  Photo 5.3. Overused & not maintained chemical toilet ..................................................................................................... 39  Photo 5.4. Protection grid blocked with toilet papier .......................................................................................................... 41  Photo 5.5. Urine built up in non properly maintained urinal siphons.................................................................................. 41  Photo 5.6.Toilet paper in the urine channel and foot prints on the toilet pan .................................................................... 41  Photo 5.7. Nurse explaining reasons of urinary infections to a group of women in Pook se Bos ...................................... 46  Photo 5.8. Common container toilets servicing practice .................................................................................................... 49  Photo 5.9. Open defecation behind chemical toilets next to the canal in Khayelitsha ....................................................... 51  Photo 5.10. Open defecation next to container toilets in Pook se Bos .............................................................................. 51  Photo 5.11. Open defecation next to recently implemented vaccum sewer flush toilets in Kosovo informal settlement ... 51  Photo 5.12. Children defecating near the marsh in Pook Se Bos ..................................................................................... 51  Photo 5.13. Hand washing basin and laminated children friendly brochure on how to wash hands thoroughly ............... 51  Photo 5.14.Toilet converted into women urinal ................................................................................................................. 54  Photo 5.15.Moisture and airflow probes within the ventilation pipe  ............................................................................... 55  Photo 5.16. Exterior walls.................................................................................................................................................. 56  Photo 5.17. View of the lid closed ..................................................................................................................................... 57  Photo 5.18. Steps and platform too narrow ....................................................................................................................... 57  Photo 5.19. Toilet adapted for children with pedestal and detachable potty ..................................................................... 58  Photo 5.20. Slab for urinals and hand washing basin not adapted for children ................................................................. 58  Photo 5.22. Urine tank access gate .................................................................................................................................. 59  Photo 5.23. Second chamber access gates ...................................................................................................................... 59  xi
  13. 13. 1. INTRODUCTION This research aims to outline sanitation as an important contribution to eradicate poverty in informal settlements of Cape Town. It is also focussed on the evaluation of the potential of upscaling communal urine-diverting and dehydrating toilets (UDDT) in these locations, where individual sanitation options are difficult to implement due to physical and legal issues or just because other shared systems do not deliver a fare and acceptable service to the community involved. Sanitation englobes wastewater, stormwater, greywater and rainwater from which different resources can be recovered. Nevertheless, this study will focus mainly on urine-diversion and dehydration communal toilets in the peri-urban context. This document includes aspects of technology (hardware) to be combined with hygiene and health promotion, behavioural change and community participation (software) along with an enabling environment considering all stakeholders, in order to achieve a balance between the supply and the demand for sanitation. There are limitations in terms of scaling communal UDD toilets such as non-extensive data on large scale projects of these characteristics not fully working at the time of undertaking this study. Furthermore, the acceptability of reuse-oriented technologies and the demand for their end products is a challenge, especially in densely populated urban areas where the lack of space, financial constraints and social issues make a reuse-oriented approach difficult. The research will present a general overview of sanitation in urban and peri-urban areas as well as UDDT and communal sanitation. In that respect field work experience will be provided from communal urine diverting mobile sanitation unit (MobiSan) evaluated in the Pook Se Bos informal settlement in Cape Town. This research highlights operation and maintenance (O&M) as a key point in the success of communal UDDT and considers it a main difference between individual UDDT and communal UDDT, because the O&M in a communal unit is provided by caretakers who are receiving a salary for carrying out their duties. Nevertheless, when concluding this research the MobiSan unit would only have been monitored for about four months, therefore the available data would be insufficient. Even though communities in the 1
  14. 14. informal settlements might not be aware of the proper use of said technology, South Africa has the advantage of being a relevant and strategical location where sustainable sanitation has been actively promoted and where re-use oriented experiences are well documented. Consequently, this study will try to answer the following questions: 1) What socio-cultural, technical, financial and environmental aspects inhibit and encourage communal urine-diverting toilets from going to scale in the informal settlements of Cape Town? 2) What are the priorities from the user perspective for a toilet to be considered acceptable? To what extent does the MobiSan fulfil those requirements? 3) What is the on/off-site potential reuse of treated urine and faeces? 4) What are the managerial, operation and maintenance requisites for the MobiSan system to be considered as a long term solution? In order to answer these questions, the actual sanitation situation in the urban context will be evaluated, as well as different aspects from the social, political, financial and technical perspective along with constraints and successes with communal toilets from India, Kenya and Nigeria. Finally, the reasons for having chosen this subject are because well managed communal toilets can reach all users, especially the very poor that cannot afford another option. Moreover, upscaling reuse- oriented systems in the peri-urban context remains a contemporary and a very hot topic in the sanitation field. 2
  15. 15. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Main issues on sanitation Sanitation is still the weak partner of the drinking water and sanitation sector (Snel, 2006), although, sanitation and hygiene are fundamental to all the MDGs and deliver broad development outcomes (Swann et al 2007). In 2007, the situation was that 83% of the world's population have access to drinking water while only 58% have access to improved sanitation facilities (De Bruijne et al, 2007). This can be translated into the fact that two million impoverished children die each year of diarrhea due to poor sanitation and hygiene (Coates et al 2004). On the other hand, evidence shows that girls and women are those who suffer most for lack of sanitation as they are responsible for fetching water, to look after the sick and are often at risk when using shared toilets or when looking for a secluded spot to release themselves (Worldwater week, 2008:11) In 1995, a review of the Sanitation Program Evaluations in Developing countries considered that investment in sanitation was inadequate for several reasons (La Fond, 1995): • The demand for sanitation was often low • Promoting demand consumed time and money • Development institutions were not attuned to demand-led programming which could explain an unenthusiastic approach to investing in sanitation. • Key decision-makers were not clear about an overall strategy for sanitation programming • No consensus on the optimal role for governments, NGOs, communities, the private sector, and external donors in program implementation. The review found that projects were heavily promoting technologies, such as latrine construction, without the same emphasis in changing consumer attitudes to general hygiene as well as latrine operation and maintenance. Regarding program success, the review found that projects implemented by NGO's or the private sector with the communities had sometimes a better outcome than programs implemented by the government alone. Five years later, in 2000, sanitation was not included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG's), however, the same year the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) held a meeting where sanitation was extensively discussed and from where the Bellagio statement on environmental sanitation was developed (Reed, 2008). In 2002, during the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), powerful arguments about the relevance of sanitation as an igniter of human development resulted in the adoption of the international sanitation target which is to halve the people without access to sanitation by 2015. However, the global MDG sanitation target will be 3
  16. 16. missed by more than half a billion people if the trend 1990–2004 continues up to 2015 (WHO & UNICEF, 2006). Therefore, due to human growth and urbanisation, there is a need in the Sanitation sector to challenge conventional thinking (Lüthi et all, 2007; Narain, 2003; Konukiewitz, 2003; WSSCC & WHO, 2005; Sanitation 21, 2006). 2.1.1. Urban sanitation The urban areas of the world are expected to absorb all the population growth expected over the next four decades. Furthermore, most of the population growth expected in urban areas will be concentrated in the cities and towns of the less developed regions. Asia, in particular, is projected to see its urban population increase by 1.8 billion, Africa by .9 billion, and Latin America and the Caribbean by 0.2 billion (UN, World Urbanization prospects, 2008:1). The lack of basic amenities and job opportunities in rural areas contributes to the exodus of the rural folk to towns where slums mushroom without protected water, drainage or adequate toilet facilities (Ganapathy, 2003). The living conditions in slums can be very difficult for dwellers that have to live in very space restricted sheds or houses in densely populated settlements, sometimes without any land tenure which can legally allow governments and utilities not to provide services to these communities. Diseases can spread easily due to the unsafe disposal of all human, animal and solid waste that attracts rats and insects that contribute with further health risks. Furthermore, their living conditions and their nutrition are far worst than the rural poverty that most of them abandoned for a better life in the city (Bruijne et al, 2007). Western cultures tried to solve their urban sanitation problems with the concept of “Modern” sanitation which started in Great Britain in the 19th century. In 1851, half of Britain’s population lived in cities and the living conditions were desperately unhealthy, with death from sickness, such as Cholera and Typhus among other diseases, at a level not seen since the Black Death (Daunton, 2004). The solution to this problem was the combination of toilets with a collective sewerage system requesting large amounts of water to remove and transport human excreta from homes to water sources away from the urban areas. After London had its sewerage system, New York followed in 1860 and then Calcutta in 1870 (Sulahb, 2008). However, the widespread application of wastewater treatment plants only took place during the 1960's and 1970's (Sanitation 21, 2006). The urban sewerage coverage that could have London or New York is yet not comparable to the coverage in low and middle-income countries. According to Sulahb (2008), in India out of over 4,800 towns/cities only 232 have the sewerage system and that too partially. He also considers that in the developing world neither the central government, local authorities or beneficiaries can cope with the operational nor maintenance cost of a conventional sewerage system. There is then a global concern regarding sustainable sanitation and how to reach the best results in the 4
  17. 17. increasing urbanised cities for all stakeholders and the environment. However, the software, such as hygiene promotion and behavioural change remains an important contribution to the success of urban and peri-urban water and sanitation projects, especially in areas not well deserved such as informal settlements. 2.1.2. Hygiene promotion Clean water alone only leads to minor health improvements and, as it has been mentioned previously, agencies have done far too little work on sanitation compared with what has been done with water (Vision 21, 2000:7). Nevertheless, proper sanitation alone does not either improve the overall health situation as much as the right combination of hygiene, sanitation or clean water. Within the health sector, hygiene is a behaviour that serves to prevent infections and also helps to maintain people and the environment clean and attractive (Curtis, 2005). Effects to promote hygiene focus on the following three areas which have demonstrated strong health benefits (Curtis, 2005): • Hand-washing with soap; if not available, ash or earth is nearly as effective (Bolt, 2005) • Removal of stools from the household environment • Home treatment drinking water De Bruijne (2007) agrees on the importance to motivate Community hygiene to achieve sustainability, however, many people still do not understand the link between disease and poor sanitation and hygiene as well as why a healthy environment can improve health. The cause can be that nobody has explained that to them or because the habit does not exist (Vision 21, 2000). In fact, one of the challenges remains to make hand washing with soap a habit and a social norm on a worldwide basis (World Bank, 2004). This is not simple because behavioural change is difficult, takes time and requires resources and skills (Curtis 2005). By acknowledging the importance of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) plans it should be understood how relevant the enabling environment is. 2.1.3. The enabling environment Changing the enabling environment could optimize investments in sanitation and hygiene promotion; however, this is a challenging task because legal and regulatory instruments may require to change policies, financial instruments and organizational arrangements (WSCC & WHO 2005). All countries have a national policy and legislation to guide the provision of water and sanitation services, however, not all local governments have developed local policies and by-laws for the local provision of services within the national framework. Policies and by-laws create an enabling environment for the provision of WASH services. By-laws are the ‘rules of the game’ and specify, for example, how new water projects are prioritised, how tariffs are determined and what happens when customers do not pay, then, they provide the framework within which services are regulated (De la Harpe 2007:11). In that respect, the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES) approach for planning and implementing water and sanitation services considers that the preconditions showed in figure 2.1 have to be addressed for the success of such approach. 5
  18. 18. 2.1.4. Demand for sanitation Further to the lessons learned from the International Water Supply and Sanitation decade, the “Water Decade” (1981-1990), a shift has been necessary from promoting technology to involve community participation and management (Reed, 2008). Promoting technologies via a supply driven approach in the 70's and 80's ended up having the following typical problems (Reed, 2008): • A large number of systems were not maintained over time • Levels of technology were selected which could not be sustained • In implementing water systems, sanitation and hygiene were missed Nevertheless, even in the current decade the demand for improved sanitation does not always exist (Scott et all, 2003), therefore, generating and satisfying a demand can confirm that only wanted technologies get used (DFID, 2009). Further to Table 2.1. below we can see that different reasons for demanding sanitation exist and vary from country to country. For that reason, the social marketing of sanitation studies what particular factors the users identified being more relevant and focus on them. The case below is quiet straightforward as it shows that health improvement has been considered as a 5th priority in the demand for sanitation in the Philippines while in rural Benin it is not even mentioned in the table as it only achieved the 13th rank (Swann et al, 2007). Rank Benin Philippines 1 Avoid discomfort in the bush Smell and flies 2 Prestige Cleaner surroundings 3 Insecurity at night Privacy 4 Snakes Less embarrassment when visitors came 5 Reduce flies Reduce gastrointestinal disease Table 2.1. Reasons to demand sanitation (adapted from Swann et al, 2007) Moreover, promoting a behavioural change should be included while selling sanitation “hardware” (Bruijne et all, 2007) as promoting health improvements or hardware alone would not be effective (Swann et al, 2007:4). 6
  19. 19. 2.1.5. Willingness to pay To assure a financial sustainability of a project the demand created has to be supported by a willingness to pay (WTP) for a chosen service by the user (Bruijne et al, 2007; Sansom et al, 2008). WTP can be estimated as follows (Sansom et al, 2008:86): • Observing the prices that people pay for a service • Observing local expenditure of money, time, labour or exchange of goods to obtain a service • By asking people directly what they are willing to pay for services in the future However, in some countries willingness to pay can be difficult to assess if the user is very poor or if it considers that housing, water and sanitation services should be provided for free by the government as a constitutional right. This is the case in South Africa where a free basic sanitation policy exists. Section 26 (1) of the constitution states that everyone has the right to have access to adequate housing and section 27 (1.c) guarantees that everyone has access to sufficient food and water (SAGI, 2008). Examples of sanitation as a business Alternative Pro-poor Sanitation Solutions in Peru When the objective is to create or increase a demand for sanitation the supply side has to follow. Taking the Peruvian example, half of the population lack of basic sanitation, however, an important part of the population is willing to pay for safe and low-price services. In this context, 50 private and public partners are seeking to develop sanitation markets in five communities that represent a potential market of 44,000 families (roughly 200,000 individuals), under the initiative "Alternative Pro-poor Sanitation Solutions in Peru". If the initiative succeeds in building sustainable and inclusive markets in poor areas, consumers will gain access to sanitation products and small business will grow along with the community demands (WSP, 2009) DMT Mobile Toilets – Nigeria As an African example we have the Nigerian company DMT Mobile toilets that provides this hardware to bus stations and in densely populated areas in major cities in Nigeria, until 2002 they used to import their plastic toilets, nowadays, after acquiring the technology and the know-how they manufacture their own plastic mobile container Photo 2.1. Slogan DMT Mobile toilets (WASH toilets (DMT, 2004). news Finance (2009)     7
  20. 20. DMT’s innovative model offers a decentralized, Community -based waste management system that privatises public toilets and economically empowers women and young men who struggle with high rates of unemployment. The women and youth who franchise a toilet from DMT keep 50 percent of the profits from usage charges-paying the rest to DMT for operational services-and after three years own the toilets they manage. Charging US$ 0.25 a visit, DMT faces little competition from the poorly maintained municipal public toilets in capital Lagos. It has become the second largest toilet manufacturer in Africa. WASH news Finance (2009)  2.1.6. Gender Better hygiene and sanitation is gender specific, men decide on major investments and they do not attach the same importance to sanitation and hygiene as women whom along with girls can seldom change practices of men (Casella, 2004). Women have a central role in Water, Sanitation and hygiene programs as they take the main responsibility to socialize children on how to use the latrines while providing them health and hygiene education. In addition women take care of the sanitation needs from the elder and the sick (Hannan et al 2002:3). Different research demonstrates that women are concerned with safety and privacy. Safety for their children not to fall in the pit hole and privacy, for instance, in the sense of having toilets with doors so for not to be seen while using such facilities (Hannan et al 2002:3; Burra et al, 2003:22). Regarding public toilets, women interests and concerns have to be considered when locating, building and designing the facilities as these details can make the difference between the use and non-use (Andenyang, 2008). The results from a sustainable sanitation implementation project in Tanzania showed that full benefits only accrued when women have more influential role in management committees and maintenance of installed facilities, and men are encouraged to become more involved in activities such as hygiene education and sanitation (Chaggu et al, 2002:13). In the case of communal toilets, in most countries separate toilets are needed for men and women, therefore, it is important to consider the distance between men’s and women’s toilets as this can be a sensitive issue (Reed et al 2004:3). Regarding urine male urinals in public facilities it has to be evaluated whether a physical separation is needed for the urinals to be used as maybe men cannot feel comfortable while using non screened urinals. With regards to waterless urinals, Münch (2009:15) considers that conventional urinals or waterless urinals enjoy the same level of user acceptance since there is no change in behaviour requested for men and regarding privacy it makes no difference whether the urinal is water flushed or waterless. 2.1.6.a Children Toilet facilities have to be designed including children requirements so for them to use such facilities. With regards to schools, inadequate water and sanitation facilities not only have a negative effect on 8
  21. 21. hygiene and health but also contribute to retention and limit the attendance and the performance of students at school (UNICEF 2009:33). Girls are particularly affected by inadequate toilets when these do not assure that washing facilities are private and safe (Casella, 2004; Varghese et al, 2005; UNICEF 2009:34). An assessment on urine diversion toilets in the Kathmandu valley shows that in some cases it was hard for children to keep urine out of the faeces hole due to the pan being too large for them (WaterAid, 2008:35). In Mumbay, observation of public toilets in slums during the morning queues showed that children in the queue were pushing out of the way as people were rushing to use the toilets before going to work. At that time of the day women had no time to accompany their children to the public toilets so they let them defecate outside their houses (Burra et al 2003:15). Furthermore, many young children are scared of using conventional latrines because they are dark, often smelly and have big holes in which they are frightened of falling into. In slums in Mumbay, young children under the age of seven are a significant part of the population, often one quarter of the total, for that reason, the SPARC model designed Community chosen children facilities with smaller squat plates, handles to prevent overbalancing and smaller pit openings into a shallow trench that is washed Photo 2.2. Community -designed children's toilets regularly (Burra et al 2003:15). in Byanapalli settlement, Bangalore (Homeless International) 2.1.6.b Elderly, disables and overweighed It is not always possible to do anything about the individual impairment of a disabled person, however, most of the time the problems for disabled people to access water and sanitation facilities are caused by the following external factors (Jones et al, 2005): External factors Examples Natural barriers Muddy or flooded paths Physical infrastructure Narrow platforms, high steps, steep steps, slippery floors, no handles Institutional factors Lack of knowledge about disability issues Social barriers Overprotection from the family, isolation Table 2.1. Examples of obstacles faced by disabled people (Adapted from Jones et al, 2005) Therefore, if a water and sanitation project aims to include everybody, accessibility has to be considered. Disables do not expect more than other groups but they equality in terms of access (Jones et al, 2005). On the other hand flexibility should be considered when choosing the location of a new 9
  22. 22. toilet or water tap, in the sense that the option to be build in an easier access or at a short distance from a disable house should be included. Fg Figure 2.1. Major barriers for disable and disadvantages people (Jones et al, 2005) 2.2. Sustainable sanitation Every day in urban and peri-urban areas of low-income countries thousand of tonees of human excreta from either open defecation or collected from on-site sanitation such as unsewered household and communal toilets, septic tanks and aqua privies are dumped into open drains, open land or landfills and in some cases used in agriculture and aquaculture without any treatment (Strauss et al, 10:2003). In the case of conventional sewerage systems only 5% to 10% of the worldwide wastewater is treated (Werner, 2000). As a result in the case of shallow water table or unprotected water resources highly contaminated matter can end up polluting groundwater and open waters causing a serious health and environmental burden. Conventional centralized systems for treating wastewater are unsuitable for developing countries as a blanket solution due to the high energy consumption, O&M and water consumption involved (Werner, 2000; Morel, 2002, Sulahb, 2008). Do we (the Indians) build huge dams and irrigation systems to bring in water only to flush it down into an expensive sewage system, all ending up polluting our rivers and ponds? (Sulabh 2008) Photo 2.3. Wastewater discharge (USGS, 2009) In this research the term reuse oriented technologies, sustainable sanitation or ecological sanitation is mentioned, however, the author prefers to refer to sustainable sanitation. In that respect this study will understand sustainable sanitation as a system that is accepted, financially sustainable, durable, and easy to operate and maintain at a low cost by the users or a caretaker and that system is not harmful to the environment while it provides the opportunity to safely reuse the generated end-products. 10
  23. 23. Eco-sanitation is a niche with great potential in the following different situations (Snel, 2006): • High ground water table • Water scarce areas • Rocky soil However, Münch et al (2006) consider that within a supportive enabling environment this concept could be adaptable to high density areas, slums and emergency areas having benefits for meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s). On the other hand, Mara (2009) claims that ecological sanitation is too expensive and therefore not viable to meet the MDG’s until it is a financially viable option. 2.3. Urine-diverting toilets A Urine Diverting Dehydration Toilet (UDDT) is an on-site system that operates without water and has a division so for the user, with little effort, to be able to divert urine away from faeces. Therefore, the aim is to maintain faeces as dry as possible so for to encourage the dehydration process. Urine is then collected separately through a urine channel located in the front of the toilet bowl or squatting pan, while faeces drops in a larger drop hole in the back. In that respect urine and faeces are stored on-site this makes this system independent from a sewer connection. It is important that the urine and faeces separation is well defined in order not to clog the urine channel with faeces or letting urine into the faeces hole which would not allow the process to perform adequately (Akvo, 2009). The major difference with other conventional sanitation systems is that there are two outlets and two collection systems (Kvarnström et al 2006:3). In the case of water being used for anal cleansing an extra outlet for wash-water would be needed. Figure 2.3 below shows two models of urine diverting toilets, the squat pan and the toilet bowl. Figure 2.2. Different models of UDT (Sandec/Eawag, 2008) 11
  24. 24. UDDT allows performing primary and secondary treatment based on storage time and addition of products such as lime, ash or sawdust to encourage pathogen destruction. Nevertheless, the final quality of the material would depend on the operation and maintenance of the system. The quality standard for reuse will depend on what the end product will be used for. Advantages Disadvantages Does not require a constant source of water Requires education and acceptance to be used correctly No real problems with odours and vectors (flies) if Urine diversion channel is prone to clogging with used and maintained correctly (i.e. kept dry) faeces and misuse Can be built and repaired with locally available Special child seats have to be provided to keep their materials urine and faeces separate. Low capital and operation costs Large scale nutrient recovery is a realistic possibility. Suitable for all types of users (sitters, squatters, washers, wipers) Table 2.2. Advantages Vs Disadvantages of UDDT (Akvo, 2009) 2.3.1. Maintenance A UDDT is slightly more difficult to keep clean compared to other toilets because of both the lack of water and the need to separate the solid faeces and liquid urine. For cleaning, a damp cloth may be used to wipe down the seat and the inner bowls. Some toilets are easily removable and can be cleaned more thoroughly. No design will work for everyone and therefore, some users may have difficulty separating both streams perfectly which may result in extra cleaning and maintenance. (Akvo, 2009) Again education and demonstration is needed for new users to maintain and operate properly. Then, the fact that men can have access to urinals reduces the chances of liquid getting in the faeces container; this is a disadvantage for women that commonly used the same toilet for urinating and defecating. 2.3.2. Reuse Sustainable sanitation englobes different aspects of sanitation ranging from rainwater harvesting, stormwater, greywater and excreta management. Each of these fields has a potential to provide a resource, it can be in the form of raw material to produce energy trough the conversion of excreta to biogas or reused on land for agriculture, aquaculture, gardening or ornamental purposes among others. The quality of these resources would dictate where there should be reused and what treatment would allow to get the requested quality standard. In terms of reuse the scope of this research will be on end products from UDDT, namely urine and dry faeces. 12
  25. 25. Both urine and faeces content nutrients, however, most of the nutrients; nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, are found in urine while faeces content high organic matter that aids water retention and is a good soil improver (Waste, 2005; WELL, 2006). Figure 2.3. Nutrient content in different media (Snel, 2008) Historically, the reuse of human excreta for agricultural purposes has been widely used for hundreds and even thousands of years since the early Chinese history (Smet et all, 2006). An example of one of the first contemporary UDDT is the Vietnamese double vault urine diversion toilet. In 1956 the Health Authorities of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam started a campaign to construct latrines, after several experiments the peasants of the Quang Ngai Province developed “the double septic tank for on-the spot composting of excreta”, however, the term septic tank is confusing as it was dry double vault latrine with urine diversion. In the period 1961-1965 the Vietnamese Ministry of Health concentrated in the three major installations for rural hygiene, namely, the double pit latrine, the lined well and the bathroom (Winblad, 1985:18). Figure 2.4. The Vietnamese double vault urine diversion toilet (Winblad et al,1985) In 1978, a variation of the Vietnamese latrine was introduced in Guatemala; and lately in the rest of Central America; by the CEMAT in consultation with the local population, because of the volcanic rock, the lack of space and the interest in turning excreta into fertilizer (Winblad et al, 1985). Even though urine-diversion systems allow the reuse of nutrients such a technology can be chosen to extend the life of a simple pit latrine in emergency situations when there is no interest in reuse (personal communication with Andy Bastable, 2009). Another example of UDT with no interest in reuse of urine comes from eThekwini municipality in South Africa where 75.000 double vault urine diversion toilets have been installed in peri-urban and rural areas and the urine is infiltrated into the ground (personal conversation with Rebecca Scott 2009). The aim of these UDDT is to reduce the high cost involved in emptying VIP latrines (Macleod 2005). End products from UDDT in urban and peri-urban does not always have the opportunity to be re-used on-site because of space restriction, the distance to the farmlands or because further treatment that cannot be done on-site is necessary. In any case, when the pit or urine tank is full and no on-site reuse 13
  26. 26. or infiltration is possible, transport is definitely needed, therefore increasing the operating cost of the system. Nutrient removal processes The researchers from the CSIR believe that prevention is better than cure, i.e. remove the nutrients with urine rather than dilute with the rest of the waste stream (email communication with Jac Wilsenac, Wastewater specialist, 2009). In that sense a pilot project is on-going about effects of urine-separation on the wastewater effluent quality. The study is piloting different processes that could be upscalled at the WWTW level by the end of 2010 (CSIR, 2009). Improving the effluent quality entering the WWTW could extend the design capacity and reduce the corrosion in the pipes. Moreover, it could diminish the energy consumption in WWTW and would contribute to a better quality effluent released to the environment which would cut the discharge taxes to be paid. Nevertheless, it has to be considered that for this to be accomplished the demand for UD toilets should be created. Of the total concentration in wastewater urine contains ±70% of the nitrogen and ±50% of the phosphorus while making less than 1% of the total of urban wastewater volume (Mac Millan, 2009). In figure 2.6 below, it can be observed the required processes to treat waste water, however, if nutrients are removed before diluting raw urine into the waste stream, then energy could be saved and an income could be generated out of the recovered nutrients. Figure 2.5. Wastewater treatment recreation at sewage works (New scientist, 2008) Some of the biological processes that are being tested to reduce the amount of nutrients getting to the WWTW are the following (Mac Millan, 2009): Nitrification: NH4+ + 1.5O2 NO2- + H2O +2H+ NO2- + 0.5O2 NO3- 14
  27. 27. Denitrification: 2NO3- + 10e- + 12H+ N2 + 6H2O On-site systems With regards to on-site systems, one way to reduce frequency in transportation from the source to the destination is by increasing the volume of the storage tank but this will increase the investment cost. Concerning transport, urine takes much more volume and requests more frequent emptying than faeces but in terms of nutrients it is more valuable. On the other hand, crops do not need to be fertilized all year round which means that urine should be stocked until the suitable time for fertilization arises. For that reason research is going on ways to extract urine nutrients while reducing its volume. One option which is currently studied is struvite precipitation as it is seen as a method to transform liquid fertilizer from urine into a crystallized form which would allow an easier distribution, stock and acceptability by the user. Potential drawbacks to urine handling systems are the risk of ammonia evaporation and the relatively large volumes to be handled. In that situation struvite technology has been established to trap the phosphates in a solid fertilizer. Using the technology could reduce the huge volume of urine and transporting cost. However, struvite production also generates effluent. Struvite effluent reuse has significant potential benefits on both a local and global scale, such as re- circulating plant nutrients like nitrogen and potassium back to agriculture Figure 2.6 Struvite production process in Siddhipur, Nepal (Etter (Kashekya 2009). 2008) Policies for the reuse of human excreta Although guidelines on the reuse of urine, excreta and greywater in agriculture exist such as the one published by the WHO, laws, policies or by-laws that enforce the use of treated human excreta remain non-existent except in Sweden and Finland. Consequently, reuse of human excreta in sustainable sanitation is often not taken seriously or takes place only in small scale pilot schemes which are not converted into large-scale sustainable projects (Snel, 2008:2). 2.3.3. Acceptance, behaviour and attitudes towards UDDT The UDDT is not intuitive or immediately obvious to some users, therefore, education and demonstration projects are essential for the correct use of the system (Akvo, 2009). Concerning human excreta, it is a taboo topic in most of the cultures about which little is known outside 15
  28. 28. epidemiology (Tanner, 2000:1). However, human society has developed different attitudes towards the reuse of human excreta ranging from abhorrence through disaffection and indifference to predilection (WHO, 2006:109). Within the African context, its societies are faecalphobic due to its history (Chaggu et al, 2002:2). In fact, African societies were used to live in relatively small tribes spread over large areas where open defecation or burying excreta was the common practice. On the other hand, the most common agricultural method was the slash and burn, therefore, when the soil started to became infertile communities just moved to another place (Missar 1997 in Chaggu et al 2002:9; Winblad et al 2004:100). Contrary, in Asian countries such as Japan and China the food demand to cover an increasing population converted human excreta in valuable fertilizer (Winblad et al, 2004). In 1956, an estimated of 90% of all human excreta produced in China was collected and reused in agriculture, representing one third of all fertilizers used in the country (Dorozynsky, 1975, in Winblad et al, 1985:13). The results from a project in Tanzania show that the inhabitants of Majumbasita area, an unplanned settlement at the peri-urban of Dar-es-Salam, don’t have problems handling human excreta, provided that it is dry, as they consider it as cow dung. However, they refuse to get in contact with wet faeces (Chaggu et al, 2002:10).Therefore, to achieve sustainability on the implementation adequate training, follow up and education is needed (Terrefe, 1999) to make clear that the end product is no longer faeces but nutrient rich fertilizer without odours and impurities (Snel, 2006). Then, the relative novelty of the closed-loop approach to sanitation is implying that education should be a mixture of teaching and promotion at all levels (UNESCO/GTZ, 2006:32). A study involving the social perceptions of the users of urine diversion systems in three provinces of South Africa showed that 86% of the users did not like to empty the vaults and that the implementation process by the local authorities was very poor contributing to too little training on how to operate and maintain the systems. In fact, 16% of the UDDT installed in the area of study were not used at all or used for unintended purposes such as storage, bathing and animal pen (Matsebe 2005:4). Regarding social acceptance on UDDT the following barriers are highlighted (adapted from Münch 2009:7) • Odours (only happened if incorrect design and operation) • It is difficult for the poor to see UD as a solution when they know the rich have only flush toilets • Users have to understand how the system works and the importance of keeping liquids (urine and/or anal wash water) out of the faeces vault • Users cooperation is needed • Taboos related to human excreta In addition, user acceptance will depend on what people had before and what they are expecting to get. (Morgan 2004; Münch 2009:7) 16
  29. 29. 2.3.4. Technical issues Depending on the country the quality of the construction materials of the toilets built can be a problem, as an example, in the Ethiopian market often plastic items such as toilet seats or plastic pipes produced locally are of low quality and this is reflected on the quality of the toilets built (Terrefe et al, 1999). However, common technical issues with UDDT are faeces chambers getting too wet because of wrong operation due to lack of investment in software; i.e.: people urinating in the faeces vault; and blockages in the urine pipe caused by the quantity of precipitates as well as narrow diameters and prolonged residence of urine in pipes and siphons (Larsen at al 9:2007). These technical problems can lead to offensive odours which can influence the user acceptance and satisfaction. 2.4. Communal sanitation Scott (2006) considers that improved sanitation at the household level can have a direct impact on health by reducing risks from contaminated faeces as it breaks down the faecal-oral transmission of disease while increasing social standing and dignity. However, individual sanitation is not always possible due to financial, space or land tenure issues. When such constraints do not allow adequate sanitation, communal systems can be evaluated as a viable solution. Public toilets serve the needs of anybody that can afford the fee, if any. These facilities are often found in markets, stations and other public areas, however, there are also needed in schools, hospitals and institutions (Reed at al 2004). Some practitioners consider that lots of public toilets, the majority in slums and peri-urban areas just don’t work right and are really horrible (WASH helpdesk 2007). The MDG indicator does not consider shared sanitation - whether fully public or only available to some - as “improved” facilities. In addition, serious concern has also been expressed about the accessibility throughout the day and about the security of users, especially at night (WHO, 2008). Some of the possible reasons for none in use of community toilets are listed as follows (UN-HABITAT India and Madhya Pradesh Government, 2005:7 and 8): • Poor construction and planning • Lack of water supply • Lack of operation and maintenance • Lacking in special provision to children • Lack in safety and security for women and handicapped • Insufficient funds for running/upgrading • Lack of public health and hygiene the system education among poor sections of society • Lack of sensitisation of gender issues Besides the common problems found in public toilets, the following examples acknowledge that in some cases public toilets do work. UN-HABITAT and Madhya Pradesh Government (2005:5) confirm that public toilets in India are particularly useful in densely populated areas where there is no space for individual household toilets; in addition, this concept has a demonstrative effect as the people using communal toilets become used to toilets and can realize the need for individual household facilities. Therefore, community toilets can have a positive impact on behaviour change among the public living in slum areas and can generate demand for sanitation. The side effect of poor management of public 17
  30. 30. toilets instead can lead to a widely use of open defecation in the surrounding area of the public facilities (Burra et al 2003:15). Devolving responsibility for operation and maintenance is growing in popularity. An organisation built the communal toilet, usually the government, and hand over the O&M to the private contractor which charges the user for a fee for using the service. Conversely, when the government manage the O&M it has been proved that communities might have little sense of pride in government structures and feel free to vandalise them and steal components (Reed et al 2004:12). 2.4.1. Examples of communal toilets 2.4.1.a Contractor- built toilet blocks in Mumbay The legacy of contractor-built public toilet blocks in Mumbay’s slums had ended up in unhygienic facilities with a short lifespan of two to three years and 80% of the these toilets not working properly (Scott et all, 2005). In fact, most of these toilets had broken doors, and many had overflowing septic tanks, latrines clogged with excrement and sites covered with garbage (Burra et al, 2003:16). Moreover, signs of open defecation were found in the surrounding of the toilets due to the poor management (Burra et al, 2003:14). Other reasons for the failure of that legacy were the lack of water supplies, electricity and privacy particularly for women confirming that this model required a serious revision. 2.4.1.b The SPARC model Burra et al (2003) describes the ten year programme of Community design, built and managed toilet blocks in eight cities in India including Mumbay, Pune and Bangalore that in 2003 served more than half a million of low-income urban dwellers. These toilets are managed by urban poor federations, women's cooperatives and the Society for the Promotion of Area Resources Centres (SPARC). The SPARC model shows how urban poor communities that have taken steps to improve their sanitation through community toilet blocks are a good example for other communities and can change the attitudes from the local authorities by providing an alternative to the conventional approach of service delivery. This model makes a distinction between public toilets and community toilets in the sense that a Community toilet belongs and is managed by the community and not the government. The SPARC model started as an alternative to public toilet blocks build by contractors using rarely any type of community consultation regarding the location, design, construction and operation and maintenance. On the other hand it was also an alternative to “toilets for the poor” projects from charitable trust funds or NGO’s that often build “pay and use” toilets where the users pay every time they access to the toilet. This fee will cover the caretaker and cleaner’s salaries as well as the cost of operation and maintenance (Burra et al, 13:2003). However, these public toilets are too expensive for a poor individual that would like to use it every day. Consequently, SPARC integrates a model in which the city pays for the initial capital cost of constructing the toilets while the local community is involved in the design, supervision and construction. Once the toilet is build, the community will take care of the expenses of operation and maintenance (SPARC 21:2005) by integrating a monthly charge to the users which are usually 18
  31. 31. community members. This monthly fee is certainly a cheaper option than the “pay and use” model which could be efficient in large concourses such as bus or railway stations but which are not a solution in slums because of the high prices involved. The SPARC model aims to empower poor communities by managing their toilet blocks and allow the improvement of the sanitation situation in informal settlements. 2.4.1.c . ACTS eco-friendly public toilet centre in Bangalore Rajendra Nagar slum was the location of a pilot UDDT public toilet started in 1999 in Bangalore. The objectives of the project were to improve the sanitation situation, the development of the slum and to stop soil and water pollution by faecal contamination. Income was generated by charging for the use of the toilets which was serving around 500 persons a day and by recovering nutrients from human excreta to fertilize a banana plantation as well as by the selling of compost produced (gtz 2007:1). In 2005, it was decided to upgrade such public toilet as the original logistics concept was often questioned as it constituted a cultural and a hygienic problem. The initial collection of urine and faeces was done in barrels that were stored in compartments below the toilets. Once a day the barrels were transported with a truck or cart to the ACTS Rayasandra Campus where urine, after storage, was applied as a nitrogen rich fertilizer into the mentioned banana plantation and faeces were composted with waste paper and biodegradable waste which involved the workers to be in contact with the wet excreta. In order to achieve a more sustainable and culturally accepted system, the collection, transportation and further treatment was modified by equipping the existing truck with a vacuum suction unit and by changing the drums by holding tanks. Photo 2.4.Barrels for excreta storage Photo 2.5.Upgraded system to empty Photo 2.6. Upgraded vacuum system for before upgrading (Baier, 2005) urine collection tanks (seecon faeces (seecon gmbh,2007) gmbh,2007) The treatment process for faeces was changed from composting to biogas because composting turn to be a complicated process to achieve a proper degradation at a large scale. Therefore, for treating the faecal matter more hygienically a 40m3 biogas digester was built at the Rayasandra campus. Operation and maintenance including collection, transport and final disposal was done by a group of six to eight trained workers. Lessons learnt on that project state that a strong local organizational embedding and a good long term management of the technology are key prerequisites for a successful and sustainable project operation and that strong local project partner and manager remains crucial (gtz 2007:4). 19
  32. 32. After more than three years of operation of the nutrient transport scheme and the composting facility, many recommendations are no longer strictly adhered to. The workers motivation and awareness of their own role as nutrient managers has somewhat faded away. Without their proper sense for horticulture, agriculture, and nutrient management, it was sometimes easier to dump a whole drum of urine at the foot of one single banana tree instead of storing and "managing" the nutrients. A lack of understanding of the basic principles of composting led to "workload minimization" rather than process optimization. Care for personal Photo 2.7.Salt deposits from urine safety precautions is easy to neglect if not under the sharp eyes of the over-fertilization (Baier,2005) supervisor (Baier 2005). The ACTS public toilet was discontinued due to the following reasons (conversation with Michael Kropac, Project Manager India, Seecon, 2009): • Lack of funds to finance the project • Logistic involved with the treatment and disposal • The municipality did not want them to continue as another solution was wanted • No space for on-site treatment increased logistics and made this option economically unsustainable (the implementation of four or five of these toilets would have made the project economically viable) • A sanitation upgrade plan in Bangalore increased the number of individual toilets in Rajendra Nagar slum up to 60% so fewer customers were using the toilets. • People living close to the toilets or on the way to the disposal site did not accept the high emptying frequency (every day or two). Unfortunately, this project could not assure a long term management as a prerequisite for the success of their initiative. Municipal support, funding and logistics were an issue as well the lack of space for on- site treatment and the community acceptance. 2.4.1.d Ecotact’s Ikotoilets in Kenya Ecotact is a social enterprise that sees sanitation as a business opportunity. Eleven public toilets called “Ikotoilets” are already operational in Kenya, 13 are under construction and contracts have been signed with the local authorities for the first 100 units. Photo 2.8. Ikotoilet in Nairobi business district (ecotoilet.org, 2009) 20
  33. 33. These public toilets do not open at night, use a “pay and use” model and besides toilet facilities incorporate other revenue generating products and services such as showers, cold refreshments with snacks, shoe shinning, newspaper vending and the new models can even include an ATM machine. The toilets are located in public areas like markets and parks and by August 2009 the first two units will be implemented in slum areas. These two units would be different from the ones in Nairobi city centre because a monthly daily fee can be evaluated, there is no connection to sewer and the employees would be youth from the community, chosen by the community, to encourage the ownership of the facilities. In that respect, the toilets are connected to a biogas digester and the effluent is sucked out using a vacuum truck when requested (conversation with David Kuria, 2009). Corporates are interested in sponsoring this model in slums; which is expecting to serve 500 users a day, as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility (conversation with Wendy Mukuru, 2009). Ecotact takes advantage of the human circulation rate (700 users per day in the business district of Nairobi), and tries to implement The reuse of human excreta is considered as a source of energy as well as a way to recover nutrients, in that respect biogas is produced from the digestion of human excreta and they are exploring the conversion from urine harvested from their waterless urinals to be used as fertilizer instead of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate, which is beyond the reach of most farmers (sanitation updates 15/05/2009). Local universities are involved in the training of capacity development of the employees working in the toilets. Ecotact uses a Build-Operate-Transfer model of public-private partnership, entering into long-term contracts with municipalities to secure use of public lands. In exchange for the use of public land, the company agrees to bear all facility construction costs but relinquishes ultimate ownership of the facilities to the municipalities. The contracts give Ecotact the right to operate the toilet and shower facilities for a certain number of years and charge user fees. Because it is a Public-Private Partnership one of the constraints is that nobody knows who will be in power in five year time during the transfer period and whether the contracts could be extended. Also, the Municipality or City Council; depending if the toilet is located in urban or rural areas, decides where the facilities should be established having an impact on the profitability of the business itself which is highly dependent on the location (conversation with Wendy Mukuru 2009). Figure 2.7. Ecotact model (ecotact.org)   21
  34. 34. 2.4.1.e . Biocentres in informal settlements in Nairobi Umande Trust, a Kenyan rights-based organisation has developed the BioCentre concept. This is a biogas generating public toilet located in informal settlements and managed by the Community that treats human excreta on-site through a biogas digester, its effluent is further treated through reed beds when space available, however, this is difficult in informal settlements so buffler filtration is being tested. The sludge is dried in the sun and then composted and the liquid is directed into the soakaway. These toilets consist of ten cubicles, 9 pour flush toilets using one to two litres per flush and one toilet using a 15 litres cistern that can help flushing solids found in the pipe. It serves around 600 users per day and the biogas generated can be used as an alternative to GPL, wood or charcoal. The building ground floor is used for the toilets and showers to optimize accessibility and the upper floor, which maximizes restricted urban space, has implemented a hall for community activities and a room for a community health promoter (Audrey, 2009). The project is supported by the provincial administration and the City Council of Nairobi. Twelve BioCentres are up and running in Kenya and four extra are under construction. The aim of the project is to have 20 BioCentres in the next three years serving 12.000 people/day (www.challenge.bfi.org). Further to a BioCenter user survey research on Gatwekera Village in Kibera based on a questionnaire administrated to 500 residents living within the vicinity of the BioCenter, 458 respondents found no objection for using the facility. There are two caretakers from the community chosen by the committee during the opening hours who are collecting the fees, providing toilet paper and cleaning the facilities. The toilets are closed at 9pm, although, spontaneously hawkers have requested the permission from the community to use the gas generated and the kitcken at night to cook their dishes. The constraint of that model is the lack of space available in informal settlements to assure a proper tertiary treatment trough reed beds and therefore the quality of the effluent which can be up to 80% free of pathogens and that at the moment is directed to a soakaway (conversation with Dyfed Aubrey, 2009). Figure 2.9. Ground floor BioCentre Photo 2.9. BioCentre Figure 2.8. BioCentre design (challenge.bfi.org) (seedmagazine.com) (challenge.bfi.org) 22
  35. 35. 3. CASE STUDY: MOBISAN IN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS IN CAPE TOWN 3.1. Water and sanitation in South Africa Here below there is a brief description history of Water & Sanitation in South Africa One sector of the economy of South Africa has developed from a rudimentary settler level through an agricultural phase plagued by droughts and depressions into that of a sophisticated, mining and industrialised economy using modern techniques in keeping with those of the western world. The other sector of the economy is poverty-bound, its poverty aggravated by the systematic destruction of traditional subsistence economies. This sector enjoys little of the services and advantages of the wealthy sector which was developed largely at the cost of the poor. The development of South Africa’s water resources has been linked more with supporting the progress of the country’s wealthy sector than with alleviating the position of the poor, particularly in the rural areas. By the end of the 19th century most of the water used in South Africa was for white commercial agriculture. Water for irrigation was generally diverted directly from rivers, since few dams had been constructed. Legislation enacted in the early years of this century protected the water rights of farmers along rivers and the State concentrated on the construction of works to benefit irrigation. Later, the emphasis on irrigation in the legislation proved to be inadequate for the water requirements of an expanding industrial base. Accordingly, in 1956 a new Water Act (Act 54 of 1956) was passed, which was intended to ensure an equitable distribution of water for industrial and other competing users, as well as to authorise strict control over the abstraction, use, supply, distribution and pollution of water, artificial atmospheric precipitation and the treatment and discharge of effluent. With the introduction of Grand Apartheid and the balkanisation of the country into the homeland territories and the tri-cameral parliamentary “own affairs” administrations, it became very clear that virtually all of the vast investments mentioned above served the white sector of South Africa and the rest were left to fare for themselves. Within white “RSA” the black townships were placed under the authority of the “Black Local Authorities” and also largely left to fend for themselves. The history of the development of sanitation services closely parallels the history of water service development in South Africa. In the wealthy municipalities and towns the development of water supplies generally made provision for the greater quantities of water required for water borne sewage services. Black local authorities in some areas undertook water borne sewage development but in many places the bucket system was used. Extracted from Water supply and sanitation policy, White paper (DWAF, 1994) 3.1.1. Urbanisation and poverty Regarding poverty and rural exodus, South Africa is not an exception within the African context. The country is currently experiencing one of the highest rates of urbanisation in the African continent, with the population of urban dwellers anticipated to reach some 33 million people by 2015 which would be 62.7% of its total population (WRC 2009:1). This high rate of urbanisation increases the number of people in informal settlements making of these settlements part of the landscape of every city in South Africa which makes it more difficult for the municipalities to reduce the backlog in housing and sanitation provision. The definition of informal settlements is context-specific, however, the UN Habitat Program defines it as follows: i) Residential areas where a group of housing units has been constructed on land to which the occupants have no legal claim, or which they occupy illegally; 23
  36. 36. ii) Unplanned settlements and areas where housing is not in compliance with current planning and building regulations (unauthorized housing). In South Africa, when almost any land is occupied for more than 24h, the law protects squatters until a resolution is issued deciding on relocation or non-eviction. Consequently, when an informal settlement is recognized basic services have to be provided by the Municipality, consisting of 6m3 of water per person and month along with basic sanitation such as a VIP or similar. Generally, the occupied land faces physical barriers which limit the sanitation systems to be implemented. Photo 3.1.Improvised stormwater Photo 3.2. Water ponding next to the Photo 3.3. Unplanned and dense drainage shacks settlement Informal settlements are a result of social and economic contradiction (Huchzermeyer et al, 2004). In 2000, the richest 20% of the South African population earns 52.5% of the income, while the poorest 20% earns just 3.1% (ISS 2009). A recent research from the University of South Africa reveals that during the period 2007 to 2008 differential growth rates with respect to the number of adults in the different income categories were evident. It was a 58% increase in the adults earning more than R750.000 pa from 2007 to 2008 while only 0,8% of adults were earning more than R 50.000 pa compared to the previous year (Aardt et al 2008). The situation in Cape Town The Cape Town area has around 240 informal settlements spread mainly in the Cape flats, an expansive, low-lying flat area situated to the southeast of Cape Town. HGHGH Figure 3.2. Adapted from the general household survey Figure 3.1. Cape Flats area (Wikipedia, 2009) (Huchzermeyer et al, 2004) and Muller (2009) According to the 2008 general household survey there are 128.146 dwellings out of which only 80.487 24
  37. 37. are serviced with the free basic sanitation policy (6m3 of water/pp/month and a VIP or similar). Then, in theory the difference between these figures is the sanitation backlog (47.659 households). The sanitation coverage is calculated using a ratio of one toilet per five families. Therefore, in theory the number of toilets installed will provide the household coverage number. However, this coverage is just a figure that does not state whether the sanitation is accepted as well as if one toilet is really serving five families. This is particularly difficult to control due to constant human migration in informal settlement as well as the cohesion issues that may arise between dwellers sharing a toilet. This sometimes turns up in one household changing the lock of the toilet for its own use making the ratio 1:5 not always reliable. On the other hand, the technologies to be implemented in informal settlements are heavily dependent upon physical barriers as it is shown in the figures below representing the typical characteristics found in unplanned settlements in Cape Town. Figure 3.3. Flooding prone areas Figure 3.4. Land accessibility Figure 3.6.Housing density distribution Figure 3.5. Land ownership Source: Castellano (2007) 3.2. Existing sanitation systems in informal settlements in Cape Town The following table provided by the WSIS shows the different technologies implemented in Cape Town, as well as the households served. 25

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