AZERBAIJANI AS ONE OF THE ALTAIC          LANGUAGES                           Aytekin Aliyeva
Some Characteristics of Proto-Altaic Language: Words were monosyllabic. Words could be formed by linking root words and ...
ExamplesOkhuz is formed of a root “Okh” and a suffix – uz. “Ok” (h can be omitted) means an arrow. So Ok(g)uz means : “We ...
Mutual Intelligibility   65-90%                                    72%Azeri            Turkish          Gagauz    Turkmena...
Alphabetical Reform• After Arabian Occupation till the end of  1920s (Arabian)• From 1928 to 1939 (Old Latin)• From 1940 t...
Changes in Language First Period (XIII-XVIII centuries)1. Vocabulary was rich with loan words: Persian and Arabic words ...
Second Period (XVIII- nowadays)1.   Nationalisation of language- (XVIII century)2.   Formation and development of the nati...
National Minorities and the Languages They Use
•   Lezgins 2,2%•   Talyshes 1,0%•   Udis 0,05%•   Tats 0,13%•   Avars 0,6%•   Khinalug People•   Haputs•   Jek
Lezgis- Language Lezgian Belongs to Northeast  Caucasian language  family, Dagestan group,  Lezgin subgroup 784,000 spea...
Locations of Lezgins Azerbaijan
Talyshes-Talysh Language• Belongs to  Northwestern  Iranian  language family• Spoken in  Lankaran,  Astara, Lerik  and Mas...
Haputs- Haput Language• Belongs to Northeast  Caucasian language  family, Dagestan  group, Lezgin  subgroup  (“Shahdagh Gr...
Khinalug- Khinalug Language• Northeast  Caucasian  language family,  Dagestan group,  Lezgin subgroup• Users- more than  1...
Khinalug People Now and Then
Udis- Udi Language• Northeast  Caucasian  language family,  Dagestan group,  Lezgin subgroup• Users - about  5,000 people•...
Jeks- Jek Language
The Village of Jek (Kuba)•   Belongs to Northeast    Caucasian language    family, Dagestan group,    Lezgin subgroup•   U...
Avars- Avar Language• Belongs to the Avar–  Andic group of the  Northeast Caucasian  language family.• Spoken in Balaken, ...
Tats- Tat Language• Belongs to  Southwestern Iranian  language family• Three group- Moslem  Tats, Christian Tats and  Jewi...
References PhD. Haluk Berkmen, Diversification of Languages Robert Lindsay, Mutual Intelligibility Among the Turkic Lang...
Azerbaijani as one of the altaic languages
Azerbaijani as one of the altaic languages
Azerbaijani as one of the altaic languages
Azerbaijani as one of the altaic languages
Azerbaijani as one of the altaic languages
Azerbaijani as one of the altaic languages
Azerbaijani as one of the altaic languages
Azerbaijani as one of the altaic languages
Azerbaijani as one of the altaic languages
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Azerbaijani as one of the altaic languages

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Azerbaijani as one of the altaic languages

  1. 1. AZERBAIJANI AS ONE OF THE ALTAIC LANGUAGES Aytekin Aliyeva
  2. 2. Some Characteristics of Proto-Altaic Language: Words were monosyllabic. Words could be formed by linking root words and suffixes. (agglutinative) Made out of strong velar and dental consonants joined to 8 different vowels. The vowels were grouped into two groups of 4, according to an internal sound harmony. The thick vowels are a , ı, o, u. Thin vowels are e, i, ö, ü. Vowels and consonants can be transferred: k => g, d => t, u => a etc.
  3. 3. ExamplesOkhuz is formed of a root “Okh” and a suffix – uz. “Ok” (h can be omitted) means an arrow. So Ok(g)uz means : “We are the arrow people and move as fast as an arrow”Oghlan, meaning “acquire an arrow” or equivalently “become an adult” and that’s why “Oksuz” (öksüz-in Turkish) means an orphan, a young one who has no adult person for protection.
  4. 4. Mutual Intelligibility 65-90% 72%Azeri Turkish Gagauz Turkmenayaq ayak ayaq ayagyarpaq yaprak yapraq yapragbuynuz boynuz buynuðulduz yıldız buynus yïldïð yïldïs Dialects of Azeri Turkic: 1. Seljuk, Gashgai (both are spoken in Iran) 2. Kumyk (spoken in Dagestan)
  5. 5. Alphabetical Reform• After Arabian Occupation till the end of 1920s (Arabian)• From 1928 to 1939 (Old Latin)• From 1940 to 1991 ( Cyrillic)• From 1991- nowadays (New Latin)
  6. 6. Changes in Language First Period (XIII-XVIII centuries)1. Vocabulary was rich with loan words: Persian and Arabic words Ottoman Turkish words (şu, şöyle, kendi etc.)2. Changings in affixes: from -isər to -acaq, -əcək accusative case -yi, -yı, -yu, -yü to -ni, -nı, -nu, -nü3. Defining word comes not first but last: (daxili-əhli-kamal, fəsli-gül) Example:Gül-i ruxsârına qarşı gözümdən qanlı axar su,Həbîbim fəsli-güldür bu axar sular bulanmazmı? (M.Fuzuli)
  7. 7. Second Period (XVIII- nowadays)1. Nationalisation of language- (XVIII century)2. Formation and development of the national language- (beginning of XIX-XX centuries) There were 3 movements from the beginning of XX till 1930: Creating a simple, understandable language based on dialect. (Followers of the magazine “Molla Nasraddin”: J. Mammadguluzadeh- “The Postbox”, “Gurban Ali bey”, M.A.Sabir “Plougher”etc.) Creating a complicated, literary language (Followers of the magazine “Fuyuzat”: A. Huseynzade- “Concern of Motherland”) Creating a simple but dialect-free language (A.Shaig- “Undelivered Letter”, “Heroes of Our Century”, A.Sahhat- “Poverty is not Shameful”, J.Jabbarly- “Sevil”, “Almas”)3. New period: Azerbaijani was an official language from 1969 till 1977 Official Language of The Republic of Azerbaijan from 1995 till now.
  8. 8. National Minorities and the Languages They Use
  9. 9. • Lezgins 2,2%• Talyshes 1,0%• Udis 0,05%• Tats 0,13%• Avars 0,6%• Khinalug People• Haputs• Jek
  10. 10. Lezgis- Language Lezgian Belongs to Northeast Caucasian language family, Dagestan group, Lezgin subgroup 784,000 speakers Spoken in- Kusar, Kuba, Kabala, Oghuz, Ismailli and Khachmaz
  11. 11. Locations of Lezgins Azerbaijan
  12. 12. Talyshes-Talysh Language• Belongs to Northwestern Iranian language family• Spoken in Lankaran, Astara, Lerik and Masallı
  13. 13. Haputs- Haput Language• Belongs to Northeast Caucasian language family, Dagestan group, Lezgin subgroup (“Shahdagh Group”)• Spoken in the village of Mollaisaglı (Kuba)
  14. 14. Khinalug- Khinalug Language• Northeast Caucasian language family, Dagestan group, Lezgin subgroup• Users- more than 1500• Spoken in the village Khinalug (Kuba)
  15. 15. Khinalug People Now and Then
  16. 16. Udis- Udi Language• Northeast Caucasian language family, Dagestan group, Lezgin subgroup• Users - about 5,000 people• Spoken in the village of Nij (Kabala), Oghuz
  17. 17. Jeks- Jek Language
  18. 18. The Village of Jek (Kuba)• Belongs to Northeast Caucasian language family, Dagestan group, Lezgin subgroup• Users11,000 people• Spoken in The Village of Jek (Kuba)
  19. 19. Avars- Avar Language• Belongs to the Avar– Andic group of the Northeast Caucasian language family.• Spoken in Balaken, Zaqatala
  20. 20. Tats- Tat Language• Belongs to Southwestern Iranian language family• Three group- Moslem Tats, Christian Tats and Jewish Tats (or Mountain Jews)• Users in Azerbaijan- 18,000 people• Spoken in some villages of Absheron, Khızı, Siyezen, Devechi and Kuba
  21. 21. References PhD. Haluk Berkmen, Diversification of Languages Robert Lindsay, Mutual Intelligibility Among the Turkic Languages The Turkic Languages in a Nutshell http://turkiclanguages.scienceontheweb.net A Brief Exploration of the Altaic Hypothesis http://linguistics.byu.edu/classes/ling450ch Presidental Library of the Administrative Department of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan National Encyclopedia. 25 volumes. "Azerbaijan". Baku, 2007, pages 147, 150, 151, 152.

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