AZERBAIJANI AS ONE OF THE ALTAIC LANGUAGES Aytekin Aliyeva
Some Characteristics of Proto-Altaic Language: Words were monosyllabic. Words could be formed by linking root words and suffixes. (agglutinative) Made out of strong velar and dental consonants joined to 8 different vowels. The vowels were grouped into two groups of 4, according to an internal sound harmony. The thick vowels are a , ı, o, u. Thin vowels are e, i, ö, ü. Vowels and consonants can be transferred: k => g, d => t, u => a etc.
ExamplesOkhuz is formed of a root “Okh” and a suffix – uz. “Ok” (h can be omitted) means an arrow. So Ok(g)uz means : “We are the arrow people and move as fast as an arrow”Oghlan, meaning “acquire an arrow” or equivalently “become an adult” and that’s why “Oksuz” (öksüz-in Turkish) means an orphan, a young one who has no adult person for protection.
Mutual Intelligibility 65-90% 72%Azeri Turkish Gagauz Turkmenayaq ayak ayaq ayagyarpaq yaprak yapraq yapragbuynuz boynuz buynuðulduz yıldız buynus yïldïð yïldïs Dialects of Azeri Turkic: 1. Seljuk, Gashgai (both are spoken in Iran) 2. Kumyk (spoken in Dagestan)
Alphabetical Reform• After Arabian Occupation till the end of 1920s (Arabian)• From 1928 to 1939 (Old Latin)• From 1940 to 1991 ( Cyrillic)• From 1991- nowadays (New Latin)
Changes in Language First Period (XIII-XVIII centuries)1. Vocabulary was rich with loan words: Persian and Arabic words Ottoman Turkish words (şu, şöyle, kendi etc.)2. Changings in affixes: from -isər to -acaq, -əcək accusative case -yi, -yı, -yu, -yü to -ni, -nı, -nu, -nü3. Defining word comes not first but last: (daxili-əhli-kamal, fəsli-gül) Example:Gül-i ruxsârına qarşı gözümdən qanlı axar su,Həbîbim fəsli-güldür bu axar sular bulanmazmı? (M.Fuzuli)
Second Period (XVIII- nowadays)1. Nationalisation of language- (XVIII century)2. Formation and development of the national language- (beginning of XIX-XX centuries) There were 3 movements from the beginning of XX till 1930: Creating a simple, understandable language based on dialect. (Followers of the magazine “Molla Nasraddin”: J. Mammadguluzadeh- “The Postbox”, “Gurban Ali bey”, M.A.Sabir “Plougher”etc.) Creating a complicated, literary language (Followers of the magazine “Fuyuzat”: A. Huseynzade- “Concern of Motherland”) Creating a simple but dialect-free language (A.Shaig- “Undelivered Letter”, “Heroes of Our Century”, A.Sahhat- “Poverty is not Shameful”, J.Jabbarly- “Sevil”, “Almas”)3. New period: Azerbaijani was an official language from 1969 till 1977 Official Language of The Republic of Azerbaijan from 1995 till now.
The Village of Jek (Kuba)• Belongs to Northeast Caucasian language family, Dagestan group, Lezgin subgroup• Users11,000 people• Spoken in The Village of Jek (Kuba)
Avars- Avar Language• Belongs to the Avar– Andic group of the Northeast Caucasian language family.• Spoken in Balaken, Zaqatala
Tats- Tat Language• Belongs to Southwestern Iranian language family• Three group- Moslem Tats, Christian Tats and Jewish Tats (or Mountain Jews)• Users in Azerbaijan- 18,000 people• Spoken in some villages of Absheron, Khızı, Siyezen, Devechi and Kuba
References PhD. Haluk Berkmen, Diversification of Languages Robert Lindsay, Mutual Intelligibility Among the Turkic Languages The Turkic Languages in a Nutshell http://turkiclanguages.scienceontheweb.net A Brief Exploration of the Altaic Hypothesis http://linguistics.byu.edu/classes/ling450ch Presidental Library of the Administrative Department of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan National Encyclopedia. 25 volumes. "Azerbaijan". Baku, 2007, pages 147, 150, 151, 152.