(Sometimes students are contacted by publishers who want to publish their master’s theses, so called vanity publishers. We have some advice concerning this on the Library website: http://www.bth.se/fou/forskinfo.nsf/textpages/oa-forlag-i-en-grazon)
” Verkshöjd ” – is an important term, which refers to the originality of the work The work has to have ”verkshöjd”, i.e. the work cannot be too simple, but has to be so original that noone else would come up with the same idea. ” Verkshöjd" means the originality of the work. The work should be the result of an individual intellectual creative process, have a certain intellectual quality, and have a special design. - A work could not have been created by two people independent of each other.
1. Plagiarism. This is a clear case of presenting someone else’s work as your own, i.e. the writing part which is also part of your university education – learning the academic writing 2. Plagiarism. Clear case of presenting someone else’s work as your own. 3. Plagiarism. Probably not intentional because the source is given in the reference list, but you have to give a reference in the text as well.
4. Plagiarism – because when you copy text into your assignment you have to mark it as a quote. 5. Plagiarism. It is similar to the case above “exactly” and “copied section” implies that it is an exact quote which means although the student mentions the authors name, this student should also have used quotation marks Or written a paraphrase. Also correct reference in the text and in the reference list. From Jude Carroll, based on Franklyn-Stokes, and Newstead (1995), ’ Undergraduate Cheating: who does what and why’, Studies in Higher Education 20:2
The disciplinary board decides if and what disciplinary measures should be taken. Suspension means the student is not allowed to attend lectures, examinations or other activities related to the education.
Show academic integrity – the reader should be able to see which parts of the text are your own ideas, and which are from other people’s work . Academic work is characterized by building on existing knowledge and account for which sources you have used. Avoid plagiarism - this is achieved by writing correct references Provide foundation for assessment – when you write references the reader is able to estimate the extent of the work. A complete list of references is also required for the reader to be able to access your sources and check the information.
Quoting rendering word for word what somebody has written or said. A wording which is striking or ground-breaking , or if you risk altering the meaning by rephrasing it. When you present a statement which you question and want to discuss. In most other cases it is better to paraphrase the content. Paraphrasing. I t is often better to summarize or rewrite in your own words instead of making a word for word quotation. This is called paraphrasing. To be able to paraphrase you need to read the original text, understand what the author says, summarize the information, and then express in your own words how you understand the content. Even if you use your own words, you must name the source by adding a text reference in direct connection with the paraphrase, and also a complete reference in the list of references. It must be clear which thoughts are your own and which you have got from somebody else. By using reporting words you show the reader that you are referring to someone else’s text. You also facilitate for the reader to distinguish your own ideas from others.
(N.B.! you may still not plagiarize texts that contain common knowledge) Within academic subject fields there will be a tradition of what is seen as common knowledge, it will also depend on your level of study. To an outsider it would not be common knowledge, But for people in the particular subject field it is. Check with your teacher if you are uncertain. Generally accepted dates for military, political, literary and other historic events: In 1865, following the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson was elected as the 17th President of the United States. Date of birth and death for well-known people: William Shakespeare was born in 1564 and died in 1616. Facts you can find in many different standard works: DNA and proteins are the main constituents of chromosomes. General observations that anyone can make: Little babies may cry for many different reasons. Common traditions and folklore: Little Red Riding Hood and her grandmother were eaten by the wolf and saved by a hunter.
Follow these examples carefully: punctuation – period, comma, italics, quotation marks, spaces etc. Author’s given names – only initial Period, followed by last name. Many authors: write all names.
Leave out most articles and prepositions like ”of the”, ”on”. Abbreviate ”conf. Words” like proceedings, annual, international….
How do I abbreviate? Check IEEE Editorial Style Manual : p. 13-14: ”Common Abbreviations of Words Used in References” (where I found Inst. short for institute). ”Technology” is not mentioned in this list, but on p. 14- you will find the word in ”List of IEEE Transactions, Journals, and Letters” – here, ”technology” is abbreviated ”technol.”. Abbrev. State? This is an American style, so what is meant is the American state. If it is an American dissertation, you can write the state, abbreviated, if you know how to abbreviate it (you can find the correct abbreviatons on the Internet). But I think COUNTRY is more important (even though it is not part of the reference in the template).
Author – if available. Is there an organization or a corporate name – include it. Title: headline of website. [Online] – type of medium Available: the URL Date accessed – important, web sites change. (also print the page)
Copyright• What does copyright mean? – ”Legal right for the originator alone to decide about how his/her work should be used both in financial and non- profit respect. (Nationalencyklopedin)• What law regulates copyright? – Law about copyright for literary and artistic work (SFS 1960:729)
What is protected & for how long?• §1 Literary work; fiction or descriptive […], spoken or written, i.e. scientific literature, handbooks, lectures and computer programs. Artistic work; music, film, photographs, etc.• §9 Copyright does not apply for statutes, resolutions and statements from authorities and translations of these works.• §43 Copyright is valid 70 years after the originator’s death.• ”Verkshöjd” – originality of the work
Plagiarism– what is it and how can I avoid it?• What is plagiarism? – Definition – ”Plagiarism is passing off someone else’s work, whether intentionally or unintentionally, as your own for your own benefit” (Carroll, 2002, p. 9).
Plagiarism or acceptable?1. Paying someone to write up your project after you collected and analysed all the data2. Downloading a text from the Web, making no changes, adding your name, then handing it in3. Paraphrasing [i.e. writing a new version in your own words] from a book. Putting the name of the text in the reference list at the end. No special marking of the ideas in the text itself.
Plagiarism? Acceptable?4. Copying three paragraphs from a textbook into your assignment. No ”…” marks used.5. Finding someone who says exactly what you wanted to say in your essay. Putting it in. Writing a statement about the copied section (’I agree with what Brown says about this…’) Cases from Jude Carroll, based on Franklyn-Stokes, and Newstead (1995), Studies in Higher Education 20:2
What is a plagiarism detection service?• Plagiarism detection services compare students texts with information from the Internet and databases of previously submitted essays to see if whole or parts of the essay is plagiarized.• Several different plagiarism detection services are used at Swedish universities.
What happens if you plagiarize? – §1 Disciplinary measures may be taken against students who “with illicit aids or in another way try to mislead at examinations or when a study performance should be assessed”. – §2 The disciplinary measures are warning and suspension.
Why should you write references?• Show academic integrity• Avoid plagiarism• Provide foundation for assessment• “If I have seen further it is only by standing on the shoulders of giants.” - Isaac Newton
Quoting or paraphrasing?• Quote: word for word• Paraphrase: to summarize in your own words”According to….”, ”X argues that…”Add a reference!
When do you need to write references?• Direct quotes, paraphrasing and summaries of other peoples ideas• Statements which can be argued for and against• Statistics, tables, etc.• Quote: http://www.bi.hik.se/Refero_eng/tutorial/6citathur.php• Paraphrase: http://www.bi.hik.se/Refero_eng/tutorial/7referathur.php
What do you not need to write references for?• Common knowledge – something which is known to a great number of readers or is commonly accepted as a fact• Facts that are widely available in dictionaries, encyclopaedias, text books• Your own ideas, discoveries and words
How do you write references?• There are many different styles for referencing, among the most commonly used are Harvard, APA, MLA & IEEE.• Several different referencing styles are often used at the same university.• Most important is to keep to one system consistently in a text and to follow the style guide carefully.
Template• Preparation of Papers for IEEE Transactions and Journals• Document available at http://www.ieee.org• Find it in It’s Learning• Follow the template• Be consistent• IEEE Editorial Style Manual
Using the template• Decide what type of material your document is – journal article, conference article, report…• Is it print or electronic material?• Find reference examples in the template• Write your reference in the same format
References…In the text: Optimizing the performance of a network implies taking control over how individual flows are allocated to paths in the network. This is the problem of QoS routing .In the list of references: Z. Wang, Internet QoS: Architectures and Mechanisms for Quality of Service. San Francisco, CA, USA: Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 2000
Journal article (print) J. K. Author, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year. R. W. Lucky, “Automatic equalization for digital communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 547–588, Apr. 1965.
Conference article/paper J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” in Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State (if given), year, pp. xxx- xxx. S. P. Bingulac, “On the compatibility of adaptive controllers,” in Proc. 4th Annu. Allerton Conf. Circuit and System Theory, New York, 1994, pp. 8–16.
Online reference - article J. K. Author. (year, month). Title. Journal [Type of medium]. volume(issue), paging if given. Available: [URL]. R. J. Vidmar. (1992, Aug.) On the use of atmospheric plasmas as electromagnetic reflectors. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. [Online]. 21(3), pp. 876– 880. Available: http://www.halcyon.com/pub/journals/21ps03- vidmar
Book/chapter J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of His Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx– xxx. B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986. G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics (Book style with paper title and editor),” in Plastics, 2nd ed. vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15–64.
Dissertation (Ph.D.) J. K. Author, “Title of dissertation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of Univ., Abbrev. State, year. J. Chen, ”An intelligent multi sensor system for a human activities space”, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Blekinge Inst. of Technol., Sweden, 2011.
Online source – web site K. Hirata, ”Elementary knowledge of metalworking” [Online]. Available: http://www.nmri.go.jp/eng/khirata/metalw ork/index_e.html [Accessed: 2011-09-06]
Reference Management – software examples EndNoteWeb (light version, available BTH) Zotero (Firefox, download free) Mendeley (web based) (See Write & Present on library web pages)